Chemical Names and Formulas

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1 Cool Chemistry Show Activity 3 Chemical Names and Formulas GOALS In this activity you will: Predict the charges of ions of some elements. Determine the formulas of ionic compounds. Write the conventional names of ionic compounds. Make observations to determine whether there is evidence that chemical changes occur when combining two ionic compounds. What Do You Think? Your ability to understand chemistry is determined by how well you can understand and write the language of chemistry. Just as there are only 26 letters in the English alphabet and thousands of words, there are only 92 elements found in nature and hundreds of thousands of materials. These elements and their symbols make up the language of chemistry. To make it easier to communicate, the elements are assigned symbols and the symbols are organized into the periodic table of elements. How is water represented in the language of chemistry? How are symbols useful when communicating? Record your ideas about these questions in your log. Be prepared to discuss your responses with your small group and the class. Investigate 1. The periodic table lists the elements in order of their atomic number. The atomic number is the number of protons (positively charged particles) in the nucleus of one atom of that element. For a neutral atom, the number of protons also equals the number of electrons (negatively charged particles). 448

2 Activity 3 Chemical Names and Formulas Electrons are found outside the nucleus. A helium atom, with an atomic number of 2, has 2 protons in its nucleus and 2 electrons surrounding the nucleus. For each of the following elements, write the symbol for the element and indicate the number of protons and electrons an atom of that element would have. (Refer to the periodic table.) a) copper b) sulfur c) zinc d) gold e) oxygen f) carbon g) silver h) chlorine i) nitrogen j) hydrogen k) magnesium l) iodine m) iron n) calcium o) aluminum p) sodium q) potassium r) lead 2. Elements can combine to form compounds. A compound results when two or more different elements bond. Some compounds are comprised of positive and negative ions that are bound by their mutual attraction. An ion is an atom that has lost or gained electrons, and therefore is charged because its protons and electrons no longer balance and cancel each other. For example, when a chlorine atom gains 1 electron, it becomes a chloride ion with a charge of 1 (remember electrons have negative charge). When a sodium atom loses 1 electron, it becomes a sodium ion with a charge of 1 (because now there is one more proton than the number of electrons). The resulting compound is sodium chloride (NaCl), which you know as table salt and it is an ionic compound. a) The chemical formula for the compound of potassium and bromine is KBr. Look at where potassium is located on the periodic table (Group 1) and also where bromine is located (Group 17). Each of these has an ionic charge of 1. Potassium is 1, and bromine is 1. List four other compounds that are created from elements in Group 1 combining with elements in Group 17. b) Magnesium forms an ion with a charge of 2 and oxygen forms an oxide ion with a 2 charge. The chemical formula for magnesium oxide is MgO. List four other compounds that are created from elements in Group 2 combining with elements in Group The charges for the positive ions in a compound must equal the charges of the negative ions in that compound. If the values of the charge on a positive ion and a negative ion are the same, the formula of the resulting compound is simply the chemical symbols of each element (NaCl, MgO). If the values of the charge on a positive ion and a negative ion are not the same, subscripts can be used to balance them. For example, aluminum loses 3 electrons to become an ion with a charge of 3. An iodine atom gains only 1 electron to form an ion with a charge of 1. It takes 3 iodine atoms to accept the 3 electrons given up by aluminum. This is reflected in the formula AlI 3. (Note where the 3 is placed for the 3 iodine atoms.) Another example is CaCl 2, where 2 chloride ions (each gaining 1 electron) and 1 calcium ion (having lost 2 electrons) combine. 449

3 Cool Chemistry Show Safety goggles and a lab apron must be worn at all times in a chemistry lab. Hold the splint with tongs or wear a heatproof glove. Be sure the mouth of the test tube is pointed away from everyone. Write the chemical formula and name for the compound formed when the following pairs of elements are combined: a) calcium and oxygen b) aluminum and fluorine c) boron and oxygen d) strontium and nitrogen e) barium and selenium 4. Some compounds, like baking soda and sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO 3 ), incorporate polyatomic ions. Polyatomic ions are made up of several elements joined together. In the case of baking soda, the sodium (Na ) ion has a charge of 1 and the hydrogen carbonate ion (the polyatomic ion HCO 3 ) has a charge of 1. (Note: hydrogen carbonate ion is also called bicarbonate ion.) Write the chemical formula for each compound below. a) potassium nitrate (nitrate: NO 3 ) b) barium sulfate (sulfate: SO 4 2 ) c) potassium sulfate d) sodium acetate (acetate: C 2 H 3 O 2 ) Write the name for each compound below. e) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (ammonium: NH 4 + ) f) Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 g) LiHCO 3 5. You have learned about ionic compounds that are made from positive and negative ions. In another class of compounds, called molecules, the atoms are bound by electrons being mutually attracted to the protons in adjacent atoms. These bonds are called covalent bonds, because atoms are sharing electrons. It is often useful to imagine, however, that the atoms inside of molecules are charged. These imagined charges are called oxidation numbers. a) The formula for carbon dioxide is CO 2. If you pretend this is an ionic compound, what is the charge (oxidation number) of carbon? b) Carbon monoxide is CO. What is the oxidation number of carbon now? c) Explain how you arrived at your answers 6. Find out if chemical changes occur every time reactants are mixed. Let s find out. Read the directions for this step so you can prepare a data table to record and describe all that you observe. Put equal amounts of baking soda, crushed effervescent antacid tablet, and baking powder into three separate test tubes respectively. Be sure to label the test tubes! Add equal amounts of water to each. a) Record your observations. (You should now know the chemical formula for baking soda is NaHCO 3.) b) Light a wooden splint and blow it out to greate a glowing splint. Place the glowing splint into the top of each test tube. Make note of what happens. A glowing splint bursts into flames in the presence of oxygen. A glowing splint is extinguished in the presence of carbon dioxide. Which gases were most likely given off for each reaction? 450

4 Activity 3 Chemical Names and Formulas 7. When the reactions have stopped completely, your teacher will put three of the test tubes in a beaker of boiling water. Observe what happens. a) Make a note of the results in your log. 8. Repeat Step 6 using clean test tubes, fresh reagents, and instead of water add: vinegar ammonia 9. As an inquiry activity, your teacher will give you a small amount of a white powdered substance that is either baking soda, crushed effervescent antacid tablet, or baking powder. a) Write down the number of your unknown powder and determine which of the three substances it is. Provide evidence to support your conclusion. 10. Clean all equipment and the laboratory bench when you are finished. Dispose of all chemicals as directed by your teacher. Wash your hands and arms thoroughly after the activity. FORMING COMPOUNDS Ionic Compounds There are certainly more than 100 physically different materials in this world. With approximately 100 elements, how is it possible to have such a variety of materials? How is it possible to invent new materials for clothing, building, and food? Elements can combine to form compounds. A compound results when two or more different elements bond. marcasite (above) hematite (right) Chem Words compound: a material composed of two or more kinds of atoms combined in a definite proportion. 451

5 Cool Chemistry Show Chem Words ion: an electrically charged atom or a group of atoms that has acquired a net charge, either negative or positive. anion: a negatively charged ion. cation: a positively charged ion. ionic compound: a compound consisting of positive and negative ions. polyatomic ion: an ion that consists of two or more atoms that are covalently bonded and has either a positive or negative charge. molecular compound: two or more atoms bonded together by sharing electrons (covalent bond). covalent bond: a bond formed when two atoms combine by sharing their paired electrons with each other. oxidation number: a number assigned to an element in a compound designating the number of electrons the element has lost, gained, or shared in forming that compound. Some compounds are comprised of positive and negative ions that are bound by their mutual attraction. An ion is an atom that has lost or gained electrons, and therefore is charged because its protons and electrons no longer balance and cancel each other. For example, when an iodine atom gains one electron, it becomes an iodide ion with a charge of 1 (remember electrons have negative charge). A negatively charged ion is called an anion. When a potassium atom loses one electron, it becomes a potassium ion with a charge of 1 (because now there is one more proton than the number of electrons). A positively charged ion is called a cation. The resulting ionic compound is potassium iodide (KI). Potassium iodide is added to most of the table salt you use as a dietary supplement. Table salt (NaCl) is another example of an ionic compound. If you refer to the periodic table you will notice that elements that form positive ions are on the left side of the table and elements that form negative ions are on the right side. Metals combine with nonmetals to form ionic compounds. Also, when two elements combine, the name given to the negative ion will end with -ide, and the compound is named with the metal or positive ion first. This is true for binary compounds, for example: sodium chloride, potassium bromide, and magnesium oxide. When they are dissolved in water, you would find that ionic compounds conduct electricity. In this activity you also investigated some compounds formed with polyatomic ions. Polyatomic ions are made up of several elements joined together. For example, some antacids incorporate the hydroxide ion (OH ) with the magnesium ion (Mg 2+ ) to form magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH) 2. The following table lists some polyatomic ions and their charges. Polyatomic Ions nitrate NO 3 negative one, 1 sulfate SO 2 4 negative two, 2 hydroxide OH negative one, 1 carbonate CO 2 3 negative two, 2 hydrogen carbonate HCO 3 negative one, 1 acetate C 2 H 3 O 2 negative one, 1 ammonium NH 4 positive one, 1 452

6 Activity 3 Chemical Names and Formulas Molecular Compounds You also learned about molecular compounds in this activity. When molecular compounds form, two elemental atoms come together, neither atom gains nor loses an electron. Instead, the bonding electrons are shared between the two atoms. The mutual attraction of two nuclei for a shared pair of bonding electrons is called a covalent bond. Molecular compounds are usually formed by nonmetal-nonmetal combinations. You would find that when dissolved in water, molecular compounds do not conduct electricity. The property of non-conduction is typical of molecular compounds and separates them from ionic compounds. With covalent bonds you also found that it is often useful to imagine that the atoms inside of molecules are charged. These imagined charges are used as a type of bookkeeping and are called oxidation numbers. In both ionic compounds and molecular compounds the atoms achieve a stable state, similar to the noble gases. Checking Up 1. If there are only about 100 elements in this world, why are there so many different materials? 2. What is an ion? 3. How are ionic compounds formed? 4. What is a polyatomic ion? Provide an example of a compound formed with a polyatomic ion. 5. How are molecular compounds formed? 6. Distinguish between an ionic and a covalent bond. What Do You Think Now? At the beginning of the activity you were asked: How is water represented in the language of chemistry? How are symbols useful when communicating? Your answers may not have changed much since the beginning of this activity. However, think about how you felt when you first looked at chemical formulas. Are you more at ease about chemical formulas now that you have learned some of the rules that apply to chemical formulas? Do you think that the language of chemistry will get more familiar as you use it more? 453

7 Cool Chemistry Show What does it mean? Chemistry explains a macroscopic phenomenon (what you observe) with a description of what happens at the nanoscopic level (atoms and molecules) using symbolic structures as a way to communicate. Complete the chart below in your log. MACRO NANO SYMBOLIC How is learning chemistry similar to learning a new language? Describe a chemical reaction that you observed in this activity. How do you know? What experimental evidence from Step 6 in this activity can you give that baking powder contains carbon and oxygen? Why do you believe? How do the particles called atoms differ from the particles called ions? How do atoms differ from molecules? Most people can tell you what H 2 O is, but they may not know that water is made from two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. List two substances for which you know either the chemical formula or at least what elements they contain. Why should you care? You will see subscripts used frequently in the symbolic representation of substances (as in H 2 O). What do these subscripts indicate about a compound? As you further develop your knowledge of chemistry, you ll gain more confidence in being able to speak and write the language of chemistry. In your Cool Chemistry Show, you ll want to dazzle people with your ability to communicate what you are demonstrating. What would happen if you included too much of the language of chemistry in your demonstration? Reflecting on the Activity and the Challenge In this activity you have learned how to write the formulas for many compounds and how to name some compounds. You have also investigated both ionic and molecular compounds. As you prepare your presentation for your Cool Chemistry Show, you will want to include your knowledge of formulas, the names of compounds, and the different kinds of compounds. Remember that you will be providing the teacher with an explanation of why you included certain demonstrations, and you will also want to include explanations that are grade appropriate. Think about how much information you will need to provide for each demonstration. 454

8 Activity 3 Chemical Names and Formulas 1. Write the chemical formula and name for the compound formed when the following pairs of elements are combined: a) sodium and bromine b) potassium and sulfur c) magnesium and chlorine d) cesium and iodine 2. Write the chemical formula for each of the following: a) nitric acid (hydrogen nitrate) b) ammonium hydroxide c) calcium carbonate d) acetic acid (hydrogen acetate) 3. a) Write the chemical formula for copper (II) sulfate. The (II) indicates that this copper ion has a 2 charge. b) Oxygen ions usually have 2 charge. How would formulas for iron (II) oxide differ from iron (III) oxide? 4. You may have noticed that all the elements in the first column of the periodic table, the alkali metals, have a 1 charge when they combine with negative ions. Another group of positive ions are the alkaline earth metals located in the second column of the periodic table. What charge is typical for ions of the alkaline earth metals? 5. The formula for sodium phosphate is Na 3 PO 4. What is the charge on the polyatomic phosphate ion? What information did you use to arrive at your answer? 6. When you write the formula for sodium hydroxide, you do not have to put parentheses around the hydroxide polyatomic ion. However, when writing the formula for aluminum hydroxide, you must put parentheses around the hydroxide polyatomic ion. a) Write each formula. b) Explain why the parentheses are necessary for aluminum hydroxide. 7. a) If the chemical formula for iron (III) chloride is FeCl 3, what is the chemical formula for iron (III) nitrate? b) If the chemical formula for lead (II) oxide is PbO, what is the chemical formula for lead (II) sulfate? c) If the chemical formula for silver chloride is AgCl, what is the chemical formula for silver nitrate? 8. In Activity 2, you tested various compounds for chemical changes. (Barium nitrate, sodium hydroxide, sodium hydrogen carbonate, copper (II) sulfate, potassium iodide, silver nitrate, iron (III) nitrate, and hydrochloric acid.) Write the chemical formulas for each of the reactants. 9. Preparing for the Chapter Challenge Review any chemical reactions you will be including in your Cool Chemistry Show. Write the formulas of any compounds that you plan to use. 455

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