Acid Base Titrations

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1 ChemActivity CA47b Acid Base Titrations Model 1 Titration of a strong acid with a strong base ml of HNO 3 is titrated with 0.10 M NaOH. The acid-base reaction is The net ionic reaction is HNO 3 (aq) + NaOH(aq) H 2 O(l) + NaNO 3 (aq) O + (aq) + OH (aq) 2 H 2 O(l) The figure below shows the titration at different volumes of sodium hydroxide added. Critical Thinking Questions 1. Why aren t any HNO3 molecules shown in the pictures? 2. Why are the species in the net ionic reaction in the model different than the acid-base reaction? 3. What chemical species are shown in the model when: a) 0.00 ml of base has been added? b) ml of base have been added? c) ml of base have been added?

2 4. Which of the pictures in the model is appropriate when all of the hydronium ion present has been consumed? 5. If ml of 0.10 M NaOH (aq) was used to titrate the ml of HNO 3, what was the concentration of the acid? Confirm that the acid s initial ph was Other than nitrate ions, what ionic species are present in part C of Model 1? Why aren t these species shown? Model 2 Titration of a weak acid with a strong base ml of acetic acid (HOAc) is titrated with 0.10 M NaOH. The acid-base reaction is The net ionic reaction is HOAc(aq) + NaOH(aq) H 2 O(l) + NaOAc(aq) HOAc(aq) + OH (aq) H 2 O(l) + OAc (aq) The figure below shows the titration at different volumes of sodium hydroxide added.

3 Critical Thinking Questions 7. Why are there HOAc molecules shown in picture A of Model 2? 8. Why isn t the net ionic reaction in this acid-base titration the same as the one shown in Model 1? 9. What chemical species are shown in the model when: a) 0.00 ml of base has been added? b) ml of base have been added? c) ml of base have been added? 10. Approximately how much of the original HOAc has been consumed after ml of sodium hydroxide was added? 11. The acid dissociation constant for HOAc is 1.8 x 10-5 at 25 C. Verify that the ph of the solution in part B of Model 2 is Over what approximate range of ph values will this solution behave as a buffer?

4 13. Which picture in Model 2 represents the equivalence point? Use the titration data for the equivalence point to determine the concentration of the acetic acid in the original sample. 14. Use the ph data from picture A to confirm your answer to CTQ What is the major species present at the equivalence point? Is the solution acidic or basic? If this species can react with water, write the reaction that would occur. 16. Determine the value of K b for OAc and verify that the ph of the solution at the equivalence point is If you titrated a weak base with a strong acid, would you expect the ph at the equivalence point to be acidic, basic or neutral? Explain.

5 Model 3 Titration curves for the titration of HNO3 (a strong acid and HOAc (a weak acid) with 0.10 M NaOH. Critical Thinking Questions 18. Which titration curve ( or ) is for HOAc? Which is for HNO 3? Explain your choice. 19. Indicate the equivalence point on each curve. 20. On the HOAc curve indicate the following: a) The major chemical species present at the beginning of the titration. b) The buffer region and the major species present in this region. c) The point at which the ph = pk a. d) The major chemical species present at the equivalence point. e) The major chemical species present after the equivalence point.

6 Exercises 1. What is the ph in a solution containing a weak acid HX and its conjugate base X - when [X - ] = [HX]? 2. What is the significance of the ph halfway to the equivalence point in a titration of weak acid with a strong base? 3. What is the ph when 50.0 ml of 1.50 M HC 2 is titrated with 25.0 ml of 1.50 M NaOH? The K a of HC 2 is What is the ph when 50.0 ml of 1.50 M NaC 2 is titrated with 25.0 ml of 1.50 M HCl? The K a of HC 2 is What is the significance of the ph halfway to the equivalence point in a titration of weak base with a strong acid? 6. The Ka of carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3 is What is the K b of its conjugate base? Sketch a titration curve (assuming all C stays in solution) of 0.10 M NaHCO 3 (aq) with 0.10 M HCl. Label the equivalence point and the point at which [OH ] = K b for HCO 3 Problems 1. What is the ph when 50.0 ml of 1.50 M HC 2 is titrated with 25.0 ml, 50.0 ml, and 60.0 ml of 1.50 M NaOH? The K a of HC 2 is What is ph when 50.0 ml of 1.50 M Na C 2 (aq) is titrated with 25.0 ml, 50.0 ml, and 60.0 ml of 1.50 M HCl? The K a of HC 2 is A g sample of an unknown weak diprotic (i.e., 2 acidic H + ) acid is titrated with ml of M NaOH. What is the molecular weight of the unknown acid?

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