# Chapter 4: Chemical and Solution Stoichiometry

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1 Chapter 4: Chemical and Solution Stoichiometry (Sections ) 1 Reaction Stoichiometry The coefficients in a balanced chemical equation specify the relative amounts in moles of each of the substances involved in the reaction 2 C 4 H 10 (g) + 1 O 2 (g) 8 CO 2 (g) + 10 H 2 O (g) 2 molecules of C 4 H 10 react with 1 molecules of O 2 to form 8 molecules of CO 2 and 10 molecules of H 2 O 2 moles of C 4 H 10 react with 1 moles of O 2 to form 8 moles of CO 2 and 10 moles of H 2 O Mole ratio 2 mol C 4 H 10 : 1 mol O 2 : 8 mol CO 2 : 10 mol H 2 O 2 1

2 Predicting Amounts from Stoichiometry The amount of any other substance in a chemical reaction can be determined from the amount of just one substance How much CO 2 can be made from 22.0 moles of C 4 H 10 in the combustion reaction of C 4 H 10? 2 C 4 H 10 (g) + 1 O 2 (g) 8 CO 2 (g) + 10 H 2 O (g) 8 moles CO 22 moles C H x 88 mo = les CO 2 moles C 2 4H10 Practice According to the following equation, how many moles of water are made in the combustion of 0.10 moles of glucose? C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 CO H 2 O Answer: 0.60 mol H 2 O 4 2

3 Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions The most common stoichiometric problem will present you with a certain mass of a reactant and then ask the amount or mass of product that can be formed. This is called mass-to-mass stoichiometry problem 5 Predicting Amounts from Stoichiometry Cont. What if the mass of a substance is given, how do we know how much of another substance is needed (reactant) or is produced (product)? 1. You cannot convert mass (g) of one substance directly to mass (g) of another substance in a given reaction. 2. However, you can convert mass to moles, then use their mole ratio to convert moles to grams of another substance. 6

4 Predicting Amounts from Stoichiometry Cont. Mass-to-Mass Conversions 7 Solving Mass-Mass Stoichiometry Case 1: Known mass of one of the reactants, calculate the mass of product(s) 1. Balance the chemical equation. 2. Convert the known mass of a chemical species to moles using MM as a conversion factor.. Use the ratio of the appropriate equation coefficients (i.e. mole or stoichiometric ratio) to convert moles of one species to moles of another species. 4. Finally, use the MM of the latter species to convert moles to mass. 8 4

5 Solving Mass-Mass Stoichiometry - Cont. Example: Estimate the mass of CO 2 produced in 2007 by the combustion of.5 x g gasoline. Assuming that gasoline is octane, C 8 H 18, the equation for the reaction is 2 C 8 H 18 (l) + 25 O 2 (g) 16 CO 2 (g) + 18 H 2 O (g) Since we cannot convert mass of A directly to mass of B, we follow the process: g C 8 H 18 mol C 8 H 18 mol CO 2 g CO 2 Use MM Use mole ratio in balanced equation Use MM 9 Example: Estimate the mass of CO 2 produced in 2007 by the combustion of.5 x g gasoline Given: Find: Conceptual Plan:.4 x g C 8 H 18 g CO 2 g C 8 H 18 mol C 8 H 18 mol CO 2 g CO 2 Relationships: 2 C 8 H 18 (l) + 25 O 2 (g) 16 CO 2 (g) + 18 H 2 O (g) 1 mol C 8 H 18 = g; 1 mol CO 2 = 44.01g, 2 mol C 8 H 18 :16 mol CO

6 g C 8 H 18 mol C 8 H 18 mol CO 2 g CO 2 Solution: =.064 x 10 1 mol C 8 H x 10 1 mol C 8 H 18 = x mol CO x mol CO 2 = x g CO 2 11 Alternate Solution: One step with multiple conversion factors Given: Find: Conceptual Plan: Relationships: Solution:.4 x g C 8 H 18 g CO 2 g C 8 H 18 mol C 8 H 18 mol CO 2 g CO 2 MM C 8 H 18 = g/mol MM CO 2 = 44.01g/mol 2 mol C 8 H 18 :16 mol CO 2 (fr. the balanced eq n) 12 6

7 Mass-Mass Stoichiometry Cont. Your turn: (1) How many grams of chlorine gas can be liberated from the decomposition of 64.0 g of AuCl by the reaction: Relationships: 2 AuCl (s) 2 Au (s) + Cl 2 (g) Answer: 22.4 g Cl 2 g AuCl mol AuCl mol Cl 2 g Cl 2 1 mol AuCl 0.29 g AuCl mol Cl2 2 mol AuCl g Cl2 1 mol Cl2 1 Limiting reactant, theoretical yield, and percent yield 14 7

8 Limiting Reactant and Theoretical Yield In real life, we don t use the exact mole ratio of reactants as shown in the balanced equation In practice, an excess of one reactant is used for two reasons: (1) To drive the reaction to completion (2) To maximize the yield of products The reactant that is added in excess amount is called the excess reactant, while the one in lower or limiting amount is called the limiting reactant or limiting reagent. 15 Limiting Reactant and Theoretical Yield - Cont. NOTE: The limiting reactant is: (1) completely consumed in a chemical reaction. Thus, it (2) determines (or limits) the amount of product formed. The maximum amount of product that can form when all of the limiting reactant is used up is called the theoretical yield. Calculating theoretical yield: 1. Calculate yield assuming the first reactant is limiting. 2. Calculate yield assuming the 2nd reactant is limiting.. Choose the smaller of the two amounts. The reactant that produces the smaller yield is the limiting reactant 16 8

9 Calculating Theoretical Yield - Cont. Example: 1.84 g of aluminum and 7.15 g of sulfur are combined to form aluminum sulfide according to the equation: Al (s) + S (s) Al 2 S (s) (a) Balance the equation. (b) Determine the limiting reactant. (c) Calculate the theoretical yield of Al 2 S in grams. 17 Theoretical vs. Actual Yield The amount of product actually obtained is called the actual yield. Actual yield < Theoretical yield WHY? (1) Not all the reactants may react (2) Presence of significant side reactions () Physical recovery of 100% of the sample may be impossible - like getting all the peanut butter out of the jar To calculate percent yield: % yield = actual yield x 100 theoretical yield

10 More Mass-Mass Stoichiometry Problems Another example: Limiting reactant calculation: Consider the reaction: 2 Al + I > 2 AlI aluminum iodine aluminum iodide ca.us/ Determine the limiting reagent and the theoretical yield of the product if one starts with: a) 1.20 mol Al and 2.40 mol iodine. b) 1.20 g Al and 2.40 g iodine c) How many grams of Al are left over in part b? Solution: a) We already have moles (instead of grams) so we use those numbers directly. To find the limiting reagent, we use their mole ratio from the balanced equation (theor. mole ratio) and compare it with the actual ratio from the 19 given moles. 2 Al + I > 2 AlI a) Calculate yield of AlI from 1.20 mol Al and 2.40 mol iodine. MM Al = ; MM I 2 = and MM AlI = g/mol Assume Al is limiting: 1 2 mol AlI 2 mol Al.20 mol Al x x Now assume I 2 is limiting: g AlI 1 mol AlI = 489 g AlI 2 mol AlI 2.40 mol I 2 x x mol I g AlI 1 mo l AlI = 652 g Al I Obviously, 489 g is less than 652, so Al is the limiting reagent (lower yield from Al), making I 2 the excess reagent 20 10

11 Solution Cont. (b) Determine the yield of the AlI if one starts with 1.20 g Al and 2.40 g I 2. MM Al = ; MM I 2 = and MM AlI = g/mol WORK: 2 Al + I > 2 AlI (i) Calc. yield of the AlI assuming Al is limiting 1 mol Al 2 mol AlI g AlI 1.20 g Al x x g Al 2 mol Al 1 mol AlI x = 18.1 g AlI (ii) Calc. yield of the AlI assuming I 2 is limiting 1 mol I 2 2 mol AlI g AlI 2.40 g I 2 x x x g I 2 mol I2 1 mol AlI = 2.57 g AlI 21 (iii) Pick the lower of two yields because it came from the limiting reactant. This is the theoretical yield of product. Thus: limiting reactant is I 2 and theoretical yield of AlI is 2.57 g 22 11

12 More Mass-Mass Stoichiometry Problems Another HOMEWORK problem: A 2.00 g sample of ammonia is mixed with 4.00 g of oxygen. NH (g) + O 2 (g) NO (g) + H 2 O (g) Which is the limiting reactant? How much NO is produced? First, balance the equation: NH (g) + O 2 (g) NO (g) + H 2 O (g) Next we can use stoichiometry to calculate how much NO product is produced by each reactant. NOTE: It does not matter which product is chosen, but the same product must be used for both reactants so that the amounts can be compared NH (g) + 5 O 2 (g) 4 NO (g) + 6 H 2 O (g) Given: 2.00 g 4.00 g from NH from O 2 The reactant that produces the lesser amount of product, in this case the oxygen, is the limiting reactant

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