# Chapter 4: Chemical and Solution Stoichiometry

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Chapter 4: Chemical and Solution Stoichiometry (Sections ) 1 Reaction Stoichiometry The coefficients in a balanced chemical equation specify the relative amounts in moles of each of the substances involved in the reaction 2 C 4 H 10 (g) + 1 O 2 (g) 8 CO 2 (g) + 10 H 2 O (g) 2 molecules of C 4 H 10 react with 1 molecules of O 2 to form 8 molecules of CO 2 and 10 molecules of H 2 O 2 moles of C 4 H 10 react with 1 moles of O 2 to form 8 moles of CO 2 and 10 moles of H 2 O Mole ratio 2 mol C 4 H 10 : 1 mol O 2 : 8 mol CO 2 : 10 mol H 2 O 2 1

2 Predicting Amounts from Stoichiometry The amount of any other substance in a chemical reaction can be determined from the amount of just one substance How much CO 2 can be made from 22.0 moles of C 4 H 10 in the combustion reaction of C 4 H 10? 2 C 4 H 10 (g) + 1 O 2 (g) 8 CO 2 (g) + 10 H 2 O (g) 8 moles CO 22 moles C H x 88 mo = les CO 2 moles C 2 4H10 Practice According to the following equation, how many moles of water are made in the combustion of 0.10 moles of glucose? C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 CO H 2 O Answer: 0.60 mol H 2 O 4 2

3 Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions The most common stoichiometric problem will present you with a certain mass of a reactant and then ask the amount or mass of product that can be formed. This is called mass-to-mass stoichiometry problem 5 Predicting Amounts from Stoichiometry Cont. What if the mass of a substance is given, how do we know how much of another substance is needed (reactant) or is produced (product)? 1. You cannot convert mass (g) of one substance directly to mass (g) of another substance in a given reaction. 2. However, you can convert mass to moles, then use their mole ratio to convert moles to grams of another substance. 6

4 Predicting Amounts from Stoichiometry Cont. Mass-to-Mass Conversions 7 Solving Mass-Mass Stoichiometry Case 1: Known mass of one of the reactants, calculate the mass of product(s) 1. Balance the chemical equation. 2. Convert the known mass of a chemical species to moles using MM as a conversion factor.. Use the ratio of the appropriate equation coefficients (i.e. mole or stoichiometric ratio) to convert moles of one species to moles of another species. 4. Finally, use the MM of the latter species to convert moles to mass. 8 4

5 Solving Mass-Mass Stoichiometry - Cont. Example: Estimate the mass of CO 2 produced in 2007 by the combustion of.5 x g gasoline. Assuming that gasoline is octane, C 8 H 18, the equation for the reaction is 2 C 8 H 18 (l) + 25 O 2 (g) 16 CO 2 (g) + 18 H 2 O (g) Since we cannot convert mass of A directly to mass of B, we follow the process: g C 8 H 18 mol C 8 H 18 mol CO 2 g CO 2 Use MM Use mole ratio in balanced equation Use MM 9 Example: Estimate the mass of CO 2 produced in 2007 by the combustion of.5 x g gasoline Given: Find: Conceptual Plan:.4 x g C 8 H 18 g CO 2 g C 8 H 18 mol C 8 H 18 mol CO 2 g CO 2 Relationships: 2 C 8 H 18 (l) + 25 O 2 (g) 16 CO 2 (g) + 18 H 2 O (g) 1 mol C 8 H 18 = g; 1 mol CO 2 = 44.01g, 2 mol C 8 H 18 :16 mol CO

6 g C 8 H 18 mol C 8 H 18 mol CO 2 g CO 2 Solution: =.064 x 10 1 mol C 8 H x 10 1 mol C 8 H 18 = x mol CO x mol CO 2 = x g CO 2 11 Alternate Solution: One step with multiple conversion factors Given: Find: Conceptual Plan: Relationships: Solution:.4 x g C 8 H 18 g CO 2 g C 8 H 18 mol C 8 H 18 mol CO 2 g CO 2 MM C 8 H 18 = g/mol MM CO 2 = 44.01g/mol 2 mol C 8 H 18 :16 mol CO 2 (fr. the balanced eq n) 12 6

7 Mass-Mass Stoichiometry Cont. Your turn: (1) How many grams of chlorine gas can be liberated from the decomposition of 64.0 g of AuCl by the reaction: Relationships: 2 AuCl (s) 2 Au (s) + Cl 2 (g) Answer: 22.4 g Cl 2 g AuCl mol AuCl mol Cl 2 g Cl 2 1 mol AuCl 0.29 g AuCl mol Cl2 2 mol AuCl g Cl2 1 mol Cl2 1 Limiting reactant, theoretical yield, and percent yield 14 7

8 Limiting Reactant and Theoretical Yield In real life, we don t use the exact mole ratio of reactants as shown in the balanced equation In practice, an excess of one reactant is used for two reasons: (1) To drive the reaction to completion (2) To maximize the yield of products The reactant that is added in excess amount is called the excess reactant, while the one in lower or limiting amount is called the limiting reactant or limiting reagent. 15 Limiting Reactant and Theoretical Yield - Cont. NOTE: The limiting reactant is: (1) completely consumed in a chemical reaction. Thus, it (2) determines (or limits) the amount of product formed. The maximum amount of product that can form when all of the limiting reactant is used up is called the theoretical yield. Calculating theoretical yield: 1. Calculate yield assuming the first reactant is limiting. 2. Calculate yield assuming the 2nd reactant is limiting.. Choose the smaller of the two amounts. The reactant that produces the smaller yield is the limiting reactant 16 8

9 Calculating Theoretical Yield - Cont. Example: 1.84 g of aluminum and 7.15 g of sulfur are combined to form aluminum sulfide according to the equation: Al (s) + S (s) Al 2 S (s) (a) Balance the equation. (b) Determine the limiting reactant. (c) Calculate the theoretical yield of Al 2 S in grams. 17 Theoretical vs. Actual Yield The amount of product actually obtained is called the actual yield. Actual yield < Theoretical yield WHY? (1) Not all the reactants may react (2) Presence of significant side reactions () Physical recovery of 100% of the sample may be impossible - like getting all the peanut butter out of the jar To calculate percent yield: % yield = actual yield x 100 theoretical yield

10 More Mass-Mass Stoichiometry Problems Another example: Limiting reactant calculation: Consider the reaction: 2 Al + I > 2 AlI aluminum iodine aluminum iodide ca.us/ Determine the limiting reagent and the theoretical yield of the product if one starts with: a) 1.20 mol Al and 2.40 mol iodine. b) 1.20 g Al and 2.40 g iodine c) How many grams of Al are left over in part b? Solution: a) We already have moles (instead of grams) so we use those numbers directly. To find the limiting reagent, we use their mole ratio from the balanced equation (theor. mole ratio) and compare it with the actual ratio from the 19 given moles. 2 Al + I > 2 AlI a) Calculate yield of AlI from 1.20 mol Al and 2.40 mol iodine. MM Al = ; MM I 2 = and MM AlI = g/mol Assume Al is limiting: 1 2 mol AlI 2 mol Al.20 mol Al x x Now assume I 2 is limiting: g AlI 1 mol AlI = 489 g AlI 2 mol AlI 2.40 mol I 2 x x mol I g AlI 1 mo l AlI = 652 g Al I Obviously, 489 g is less than 652, so Al is the limiting reagent (lower yield from Al), making I 2 the excess reagent 20 10

11 Solution Cont. (b) Determine the yield of the AlI if one starts with 1.20 g Al and 2.40 g I 2. MM Al = ; MM I 2 = and MM AlI = g/mol WORK: 2 Al + I > 2 AlI (i) Calc. yield of the AlI assuming Al is limiting 1 mol Al 2 mol AlI g AlI 1.20 g Al x x g Al 2 mol Al 1 mol AlI x = 18.1 g AlI (ii) Calc. yield of the AlI assuming I 2 is limiting 1 mol I 2 2 mol AlI g AlI 2.40 g I 2 x x x g I 2 mol I2 1 mol AlI = 2.57 g AlI 21 (iii) Pick the lower of two yields because it came from the limiting reactant. This is the theoretical yield of product. Thus: limiting reactant is I 2 and theoretical yield of AlI is 2.57 g 22 11

12 More Mass-Mass Stoichiometry Problems Another HOMEWORK problem: A 2.00 g sample of ammonia is mixed with 4.00 g of oxygen. NH (g) + O 2 (g) NO (g) + H 2 O (g) Which is the limiting reactant? How much NO is produced? First, balance the equation: NH (g) + O 2 (g) NO (g) + H 2 O (g) Next we can use stoichiometry to calculate how much NO product is produced by each reactant. NOTE: It does not matter which product is chosen, but the same product must be used for both reactants so that the amounts can be compared NH (g) + 5 O 2 (g) 4 NO (g) + 6 H 2 O (g) Given: 2.00 g 4.00 g from NH from O 2 The reactant that produces the lesser amount of product, in this case the oxygen, is the limiting reactant

### Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry. Ms. Grobsky

Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry Ms. Grobsky Wrapping Up the Types of Chemical Reactions We just got done investigating the different types of chemical reactions We can now answer the two questions

### LIMITING REAGENT. Taking Stoichiometric conversions one step further

LIMITING REAGENT Taking Stoichiometric conversions one step further Limiting Reagent The reactant that limits the amount of product that can be formed. The reaction will stop when all of the limiting reactant

### Chemical Equations 10/30/13. Types of Chemical Reactions. Types of Chemical Reactions. Types of Chemical Reactions. Types of Chemical Reactions

Chemical Equations A chemical equation just like a mathematical equation is a way to express, in symbolic form, the reactions occurring in a chemical system. n Balancing chemical equations n Reaction stoichiometry

### STOICHIOMETRY. Greek: Stoicheon = element metron = element measuring

STOICHIOMETRY Greek: Stoicheon = element metron = element measuring Stoichiometry is the science of measuring the quantitative proportions or mass ratios in which chemical elements stand to one another

### Name: Class: Date: ID: A. (g), what is the ratio of moles of oxygen used to moles of CO 2 produced? a. 1:1 b. 2:1 c. 1:2 d. 2:2

Name: Class: _ Date: _ Chpt 12 review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is conserved in the reaction shown below? H 2 + Cl 2 2HCl a.

### The Mole. Relative Atomic Mass Ar

STOICHIOMETRY The Mole Relative Atomic Mass Ar Relative Molecular Mass Mr Defined as mass of one atom of the element when compared with 1/12 of an atom of carbon-12 Some Ar values are not whole numbers

### 9/14/ Chemistry Second Edition Julia Burdge. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Molecular and Formula Masses

9/14/1 Chemistry Second Edition Julia Burdge Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Stoichiometry: Ratios

### Name Date Class. Match each term in Column B with the correct description in Column A. Write the letter of the correct term on the line.

12 STOICHIOMETRY Chapter Test B A. Matching Match each term in Column B with the correct description in Column A. Write the letter of the correct term on the line. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Column A the substance

### Chem. I Notes Ch. 11 STOICHIOMETRY NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics.

Chem. I Notes Ch. 11 STOICHIOMETRY NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. 11.1 notes 1 MOLE = 6.02 x 10 23 representative particles representative particles

### Chapter 9: Stoichiometry The Arithmetic ti Of Equations

Chapter 9: Stoichiometry The Arithmetic of Equations Chemical Calculations Limiting Reagent and Percent Yield The Arithmetic ti Of Equations -- The Arithmetic of Equations -- Using Everyday Equations Stoichiometry

### Stoichiometry Dry Lab

Stoichiometry Dry Lab Name: Mole-Mass Conversions The molar mass of a substance is the conversion factor that allows us to convert between the mass of a substance (in grams) and the number of moles of

### AP Chemistry: Chapter 3 Notes Outline

AP Chemistry: Chapter 3 Notes Outline Objectives: Balance chemical equations Use dimensional analysis to solve stoichiometric problems Use dimensional analysis to do limiting reactant problems Use dimensional

### Chapter 9. Stoichiometry. Mr. Mole. NB page 189

Chapter 9 Stoichiometry Mr. Mole NB page 189 review Let s make some Cookies! When baking cookies, a recipe is usually used, telling the exact amount of each ingredient. If you need more, you can double

### Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations

Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations Mass and Moles of a Substance Chemistry requires a method for determining the numbers of molecules in a given mass of a substance. This allows the chemist

### Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Stoichiometry Section 12.1 What is stoichiometry? In your textbook, read about stoichiometry and the balanced equation. For each statement below, write true or false. 1. The study of the quantitative relationships

### Chapter 9. Calculations from Chemical Equations. to patients Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry 10e throughout the

Chapter 9 Calculations from Chemical Equations Accurate measurement and calculation of the correct dosage are important in dispensing the correct medicine to patients Introduction to General, Organic,

### STUDENT REVIEW PACKET ANSWER KEY

STUDENT REVIEW PACKET ANSWER KEY Molar Mass - Find the masses of the following. Show all work: 1) N 2 2(14.0) = 28.0 g/mole 2) H 2 O 2(1.0) + 1(16.0) = 18.0 g/mole 3) NaCl 1(23.0) + 1(35.5) = 58.5 g/mole

### Stoichiometry. Introduction. Rx between Hydrogen and Oxygen can be described as: Balanced equation: Or Avogadros Number: (number of Molecules)

Stoichiometry Introduction Rx between Hydrogen and Oxygen can be described as: Balanced equation: Or Or Avogadros Number: (number of Molecules) Or Moles (amount of a substance containing avogadros number

### Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations

Chapter 3 : Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations AP Chemistry 2014-15 North Nova Education Centre Mr. Gauthier Law of Conservation of Mass We may lay it down as an incontestable axiom that,

### Outcomes: Interpret a balanced chemical equation in terms of moles, mass and volume of gases. Solve stoichiometric problems involving: moles, mass,

Stoichiometry Outcomes: Interpret a balanced chemical equation in terms of moles, mass and volume of gases. Solve stoichiometric problems involving: moles, mass, volume, and heat of reaction. Stoichiometry

### Chapter 1 IB Chemistry Warm Ups Stoichiometry. Mrs. Hilliard

Chapter 1 IB Chemistry Warm Ups Stoichiometry Mrs. Hilliard Vocabulary 1. Atomic theory 2. Kelvin 3. Mole 4. Relative abundance 5. Molar Mass 6. Empirical formula 7. Molecular formula 8. Stoichiometry

### Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations

Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 3 : Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community

### Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations

Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 3 : Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community

### Q: How long would it take to spend a mole of \$1 coins if they were being spent at a rate of 1 billion per second? A:

: The Mole- 6.02 x 10 23 ODE TO A MOLE I find that my heart beat goes out of control Just thinking how useful to man is the mole! So perfectly compact. What could be neater? Only occupying twenty-two and

### Example Exercise 10.1 Interpreting Chemical Equation Calculations

Example Exercise 10.1 Interpreting Chemical Equation Calculations Given the chemical equation for the combustion of methane, CH 4, balance the equation and interpret the coefficients in terms of (a) moles

### Chemical Quantities: Stoichiometry and the Mole

Chemical Quantities: Stoichiometry and the Mole This is trying to summarize what we have learned up to this point: formulas, names, conversions, moles, quantities, reaction types, balancing equations,

### Stoichiometric Calculations

Slide 1 / 109 Slide 2 / 109 Stoichiometric Calculations Slide 3 / 109 Slide 4 / 109 Table of Contents Stoichiometry Calculations with Moles Click on the topic to go to that section Stoichiometry Calculations

### A chemical reaction shows the process in which a substance (or substances) is changed into one or more new substances

A chemical reaction shows the process in which a substance (or substances) is changed into one or more new substances Chang, R. 2002. Chemistry 7 th ed. Singapore: McGraw-Hill. A chemical equation uses

### Stoichiometry study of the relationships in a

Note Taking Guide: Episode 801 Name Stoichiometry study of the relationships in a based on equations 2 Mg + O 2 2 MgO The in a give the for the involved in the. Ex. Problem: When elemental aluminum reacts

### Chapter 9 Stoichiometry

Chapter 9 Stoichiometry Section 9.1 Intro to Stoichiometry 9.1 Objectives Define stoichiometry. Describe the importance of the mole ratio in stoichiometric calculations. Write a mole ratio relating two

### 5.7 Quantity Relationships in Chemical Reactions (Stoichiometry)

5.7 Quantity Relationships in Chemical Reactions (Stoichiometry) We have previously learned that atoms combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds. However, to perform a chemical reaction,

### Week 3/Th: Lecture Units 6 & 7

Week 3/Th: Lecture Units 6 & 7 Unit 5: The Mole -- definition for counting, molar mass -- stoichiometry and nomenclature -- elemental composition Unit 6: Stoichiometry for Cpds. -- mass, moles and composition

### STOICHIOMETRY. Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico 1

STOICHIOMETRY Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico 1 Stoichiometry The study in chemistry dealing with calculations based on balanced chemical equations. The branch of chemistry dealing with mass relationships

### CHAPTER 11 Stoichiometry Defining Stoichiometry

CHAPTER 11 Stoichiometry 11.1 Defining Stoichiometry Stoichiometry is the study of quantitative relationships between amounts of reactants used and products formed by a chemical reaction. Stoichiometry

### Stoichiometry. Before You Read. Chapter 10. Chapter 11. Review Vocabulary. Define the following terms. mole. molar mass.

Stoichiometry Before You Read Review Vocabulary Define the following terms. mole molar mass conversion factor dimensional analysis law of conservation of mass Chapter 10 Balance the following equation.

### STOICHIOMETRY ANALOGY

STOICHIOMETRY ANALOGY Stoichiometry is the quantitative relationship between the reactants and products in a balanced chemical equation. Stoichiometry allows chemists to predict how much of a reactant

### VOCABULARY Define. 1. stoichiometry. 2. composition stoichiometry. 3. reaction stoichiometry. 4. unknown. 5. mole ratio

CHAPTER 9 HOMEWORK 9-1 (pp. 275 279) Define. 1. stoichiometry 2. composition stoichiometry 3. reaction stoichiometry 4. unknown 5. mole ratio SKILL BUILDER On a separate sheet of paper, write five possible

### CHEMICAL FORMULA COEFFICIENTS AND SUBSCRIPTS 3O 2 2O 3. ! Formula that gives the TOTAL number of elements in a molecule or formula unit.

CHEMICAL FORMULA! Formula that gives the TOTAL number of elements in a molecule or formula unit. No Score from Exam 1? Go to 210 Whitmore and speak with Mike Joyce to get it straightened out. Which Skill

### PERCENT POTASSIUM CHLORATE IN A MIXTURE - Worksheet

35 PERCENT POTASSIUM CHLORATE IN A MIXTURE - Worksheet This lab will introduce the concept of reaction stoichiometry. We will use the mole ratios in a balanced chemical equation to calculate the amount

### Stoichiometry. Chapter 3

Stoichiometry Chapter 3 Chemical Stoichiometry Stoichiometry: The study of quantities of materials consumed and produced in chemical reactions. In macroworld, we can count objects by weighing assuming

### Chapter 2 Overview. Chapter 2 Overview

Chapter 2 Overview! all matter, whether liquid, solid, or gas,consists of atoms, which form molecules! the identity of an atom and its chemical behavior is strictly defined by the number of electrons in

### Practice questions for Ch. 3

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Practice questions for Ch. 3 1. A hypothetical element consists of two isotopes of masses 69.95 amu and 71.95 amu with abundances of 25.7% and 74.3%, respectively. What is the

### Right Side NOTES ONLY

Ch. 8 Stoichiometry Title and Highlight TN Ch 8.1 Topic: EQ: Right Side NOTES ONLY Date Write Question out (left side of red line) and answer it (Highlight answer) based on from what you read. Write out

### Stoichiometry is the relationship between the amount of reactants used and the amount of products produced in a chemical reaction.

Unit 7 STOICHIOMETRY 1. Introduction to Stoichiometry 2. Mole Mole Stoichiometry 3. Mass Mole Stoichiometry 4. Mass Mass Stoichiometry 5. Mass Volume & Volume Volume Stoichiometry 6. Excess & Limiting

### Name Date Class THE ARITHMETIC OF EQUATIONS

Name Date Class 12.1 THE ARITHMETIC OF EQUATIONS Section Review Objectives Calculate the amount of reactants required or product formed in a nonchemical process Interpret balanced chemical equations in

### Chapter 2: Mass Relations in Formulas, Chemical Reactions, and Stoichiometry

Previous Chapter Table of Contents Next Chapter Chapter 2: Mass Relations in Formulas, Chemical Reactions, and Stoichiometry Section 2.1: The Atomic Mass The atomic mass is the mass of 1 atom. Atoms are

### Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Key Skills: Balance chemical equations Predict the products of simple combination, decomposition, and combustion reactions. Calculate formula weights Convert grams to moles and

### Balancing Chemical Reactions. CHAPTER 3: Quantitative Relationships in Chemical Reactions. Zn + HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2. reactant atoms product atoms

CHAPTER 3: Quantitative Relationships in Chemical Reactions Stoichiometry: Greek for measure elements Stoichiometry involves calculations based on chemical formulas and chemical equations (reactions) quantitative.

### Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation, 6 th Ed. Introductory Chemistry, 6 th Ed. Basic Chemistry, 6 th Ed.

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation, 6 th Ed. Introductory Chemistry, 6 th Ed. Basic Chemistry, 6 th Ed. by Steven S. Zumdahl & Donald J. DeCoste University of Illinois Chapter 9 Chemical Quantities Information

### Section 1 Introduction to Stoichiometry. Describe the importance of the mole ratio in stoichiometric calculations.

Section 1 Introduction to Stoichiometry Objective Define stoichiometry. Describe the importance of the mole ratio in stoichiometric calculations. Write a mole ratio relating two substances in a chemical

### Chapter 6 Chemical Reactions: Mole and Mass Relationships

Chapter 6 Chemical Reactions: Mole and Mass Relationships 6.1 The Mole and Avogadro s What is a Mole? - A Chemist s way of counting! - Cooks don t count out individual grains of sugar or rice when they

### Copyrighted by Gabriel Tang B.Ed., B.Sc.

Unit 5: Chemical Equations and Reactions & Stoichiometry Chemistry Chapter 9: Stoichiometry 9.1: Calculating Quantities in Reactions Avogadro s Number: - a group of (6.0 10 ) molecules = 1 mole Stoichiometry:

### Stoichiometry. Goal. Calculate quantities of reactants and products needed in chemical rxns using balanced chemical equations.

Chapter 12 Stoichiometry Goal Calculate quantities of reactants and products needed in chemical rxns using balanced chemical equations. Using an Equation as a Recipe Ingredients: Frame, Seat, Wheels, Handlebar,

### CHAPTER 12: STOICHIOMETRY

Name: CHAPTER 12: STOICHIOMETRY Period: MOLE TO MOLE RATIO When nitrogen and hydrogen gas are heated under the correct conditions, ammonia gas (NH 3 ) is formed. a. RXN: 1N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3 b. How many moles

### Steward Fall 08. Moles of atoms/ions in a substance. Number of atoms/ions in a substance. MgCl 2(aq) + 2 AgNO 3(aq) 2 AgCl (s) + Mg(NO 3 ) 2(aq)

Dealing with chemical stoichiometry Steward Fall 08 of Not including volumetric stoichiometry of Chapter 6.0x10 A 6.0x10 Mol/mol ratio from balanced equation B 6.0x10 6.0x10 s, Equations, and Moles: II

### Unit 4: Reactions and Stoichiometry

Unit 4: Reactions and Stoichiometry Reactions Chemical equation Expression representing a chemical reaction Formulas of reactants on the left side Formulas of products on the right side Arrow(s) connect(s)

### Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Chapter 3 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass

### Chapter 9. Table of Contents. Stoichiometry. Section 1 Introduction to Stoichiometry. Section 2 Ideal Stoichiometric Calculations

Stoichiometry Table of Contents Section 1 Introduction to Stoichiometry Section 2 Ideal Stoichiometric Calculations Section 3 Limiting Reactants and Percentage Yield Section 1 Introduction to Stoichiometry

### Ch. 3 The Mole: Relating the Microscopic World of Atoms to Laboratory Measurements. Brady & Senese, 5th Ed.

Ch. 3 The Mole: Relating the Microscopic World of Atoms to Laboratory Measurements Brady & Senese, 5th Ed. Index 3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules 3.2 Chemical formulas

### 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations

3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations 3.1 Chemical Equations Balance chemical equations. 3. Simple Patterns of Reactivity Predict products of a chemical reaction in a combination

### Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations Lecture Outline 3.1 Chemical Equations The quantitative nature of chemical formulas and reactions is called stoichiometry. Lavoisier

### CHAPTER 9: STOICHIOMETRY

9.1 Interpreting a chemical Equation CHAPTER 9: STOICHIOMETRY H 2 (g) + Cl 2 (g) 2 HCl (g) 1 molecule 1 molecule 2 molecules N 2 + 3 H 2 (g) 2 NH 3 (g) molecule(s) molecule(s) molecule(s) It follows that

### Limiting Reactants How do you know if there will be enough of each chemical to make your desired product?

Limiting Reactants How do you know if there will be enough of each chemical to make your desired product? Why? If a factory runs out of tires while manufacturing a car, all production stops. No more cars

### Review Package #2 Measurement and Communication The Mole Chemical Reactions and Equations Stoichiometry

Chemistry 11 Review Package #2 Measurement and Communication The Mole Chemical Reactions and Equations Stoichiometry 1. Measurement and Communication: A. Scientific Notation: - Conversion of numbers from

### Mole Conversions Worksheet

Mole Conversions Worksheet There are three mole equalities. They are: 1 mol = 6.02 x 10 particles 1 mol = g-formula-mass (periodic table) 1 mol = 22.4 L for a gas at STP Each equality can be written as

### Chapter 9 STOICHIOMETRY

Chapter 9 STOICHIOMETRY Section 9.1: Introduction to Stoichiometry Stoichiometry: the calculation of quantities in chemical equations From Greek: Stoikheion = element Metron = to measure It s the bookkeeping

### Chapter 3: STOICHIOMETRY: MASS, FORMULAS, AND REACTIONS

Chapter 3: STOICHIOMETRY: MASS, FORMULAS, AND REACTIONS Problems: 3.1-3.8, 3.11, 3.14-3.90, 3.103-3.120, 3.122-3.125, 3.128-3.131, 3.134, 3.137-36.138, 3.140-3.142 3.2 THE MOLE Stoichiometry (STOY-key-OM-e-tree):

### TOPIC 9. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS III - stoichiometry.

TOPIC 9. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS III - stoichiometry. Stoichiometric calculations. By combining a knowledge of balancing equations with the concept of the mole, it is possible to easily calculate the masses

### STOICHIOMETRY CLASSWORK

STOICHIOMETRY CLASSWORK Given the following equation: 2 C4H10 + 13 02 ---> 8 CO2 + 10 H20 Show what the following molar ratios should be. a, C4H10 / 02 b. 02 / CO2 o, 02 / H20 d, C4Hlo / CO2 e. C4Hlo /

### Unit VI Stoichiometry. Applying Mole Town to Reactions

Unit VI Stoichiometry Applying Mole Town to Reactions Learning Goals I can apply mole town to reactions to determine the amount of product based on the amount of a reactant. I can apply mole town to reaction

### I hope you aren't going to tear open the package and count the nails. We agree that. mass of nails = 1340 g g = g

The Mole Concept Counting by weighing The size of molecule is so small that it is physically difficult if not impossible to directly count out molecules. this problem is solved using a common trick. Atoms

### reaction stoichiometry

2.10.12 If you decomposed 4 moles of hydrogen peroxide, how many moles of oxygen gas would you produce if you used manganese (IV) oxide as a catalyst? HW page 301 1-3, and page 311 1-4 TYGAGT Use mole

### STOICHIOMETRY & LIMITING REACTANTS UNDERSTANDING MASS RELATIONSHIPS IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS

STOICHIOMETRY & LIMITING REACTANTS UNDERSTANDING MASS RELATIONSHIPS IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS If the number of atoms is conserved in a chemical reaction, the mass must also be conserved as expected from the

### Chemical Equations. shows the results of a chemical process

Chemical Equations Chemical Equations shows the results of a chemical process reactants (reagents) products coefficients the numbers in front of formulas in chemical equations gives the relative number

### Stoichiometry is the relationship between the amount of reactants used and the amount of products produced in a chemical reaction.

Unit 7 STOICHIOMETRY 1. Introduction to Stoichiometry 2. Mole Mole Stoichiometry 3. Mass Mole Stoichiometry 4. Mass Mass Stoichiometry 5. Mass Volume & Volume Volume Stoichiometry 6. Excess & Limiting

### Chapter 5. Chemistry for Changing Times, Chemical Accounting. Lecture Outlines. John Singer, Jackson Community College. Thirteenth Edition

Chemistry for Changing Times, Thirteenth Edition Lecture Outlines Chemical Accounting John Singer, Jackson Community College Chemical Sentences: Equations Chemical equations represent the sentences in

### Chapter 12 Stoichiometry

12.2 Chemical Calculations > Chapter 12 Stoichiometry 12.1 The Arithmetic of Equations 12.22 Chemical Calculations 12.3 Limiting Reagent and Percent Yield 1 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates.

### Session 6: LECTURE OUTLINE (SECTION M2 pp F88 - F90)

Session 6: LECTURE OUTLINE (SECTION M2 pp F88 - F90) I. The Limiting Reagent a. Stoichiometric amounts b. Non-Stoichiometric amounts c. Limiting reagent (L.R) II. III. How Do We Determine Which Is The

### Stoichiometry (Chapter 3)

Stoichiometry (Chapter 3) Antoine Lavoisier eperimental observations lead to the development of the Law of Conservation of Mass (a.k.a. Law of Conservation of Matter). The updated version of the law of

### General Stoichiometry Notes STOICHIOMETRY: tells relative amts of reactants & products in a chemical reaction

General Stoichiometry Notes STOICHIOMETRY: tells relative amts of reactants & products in a chemical reaction Given an amount of a substance involved in a chemical reaction, we can figure out the amount

### Chemical Reaction Defn: Chemical Reaction: when starting chemical species form different chemicals.

Chemistry 11 Notes on Chemical Reactions Chemical Reaction Defn: Chemical Reaction: when starting chemical species form different chemicals. Evidence to indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred:

### Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations. Lecture Presentation

Lecture Presentation Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO A. 1 Mg, 2 O, and 2 H B. 2 Mg, 2 O, and

### Chapter 10. Chemical Calculations and Chemical Equations

Chapter 10 Chemical Calculations and Chemical Equations Chapter 10 Equation Stoichiometry Tip-off - The calculation calls for you to convert from amount of one substance to amount of another, both of which

### Limiting Reactants. Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Limiting Reactants Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Limiting Reactants Limiting Reactant used up in a reaction Determines/limits the amount of product Stops the

### 5072 CHEMISTRY (NEW PAPERS WITH SPA) TOPIC 3: FORMULAE, STOICHIOMETRY AND THE MOLE CONCEPT

5072 CHEMISTRY (NEW PAPERS WITH SPA) TOPIC 3: FORMULAE, STOICHIOMETRY AND THE MOLE CONCEPT 5067 CHEMISTRY (NEW PAPERS WITH PRACTICAL EXAM) TOPIC 3: FORMULAE, STOICHIOMETRY AND THE MOLE CONCEPT LEARNING

### Student Version Notes: Unit 5 Moles & Stoichiometry

Name: Regents Chemistry: Mr. Palermo Student Version Notes: Unit 5 Moles & Stoichiometry Name: KEY IDEAS A compound is a substance composed of two or more different elements that are chemically combined

### Chemical Reaction Defn: Chemical Reaction: when starting chemical species form different chemicals.

Chemical Reaction Defn: Chemical Reaction: when starting chemical species form different chemicals. Evidence to indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred: Temperature change Different coloured materials

### CHAPTER 9 CHEMICAL QUANTITIES

Chemistry Name Hour Chemistry Approximate Timeline Students are expected to keep up with class work when absent. CHAPTER 9 CHEMICAL QUANTITIES Day Plans for the day Assignment(s) for the day 1 Begin Chapter

### Name: Class: Date: SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided.

CHAPTER 9 REVIEW Stoichiometry SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. The coefficients in a chemical equation represent the (a) masses in grams of all reactants

### Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Combination Reactions. Decomposition Reactions

John W. Moore Conrad L. Stanitski Peter C. Jurs http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore Chemical Equations Reactants yeast Products C 6 H 1 O 6 (aq) C H 5 OH(l) + CO (g) glucose ethanol carbon dioxide

### Chemistry 101 Chapter 4 STOICHIOMETRY

STOICHIOMETRY Stoichiometry is the quantitative relationship between the reactants and products in a balanced chemical equation. Stoichiometry allows chemists to predict how much of a reactant is necessary

### 3.9 Stoichiometric Calcs: Amounts of Reactants and Products

3.9 Stoichiometric Calcs: Amounts of Reactants and Products Law of Conservation of Mass The Law of Conservation of Mass indicates that in an ordinary chemical reaction, Matter cannot be created nor destroyed.

### Basic Concepts of Chemistry Notes for Students [Chapter 7, page 1] D J Weinkauff - Nerinx Hall High School

Basic Concepts of Chemistry Notes for Students [Chapter 7, page 1] Chapter 7 Quantitative Relationships in Chemical Reactions As you have begun to see, chemistry is a quantitative science involving a great

### Exe r c i s es Answers to odd-numbered Exercises are in Appendix I. Key Te rm s Answers to Key Terms are in Appendix H.

284 CHAPTER 10 CHEMICAL EQUATION CALCULATIONS Moles reactant (b) 'llljll!llim'.lllill!w 11r1 nrr1111 Moles product.,.. Concept Map-Summary Stoichiometry We use a strategy map to show the application unit

### Reactants and products. Indications of state. Mass balance: coefficients vs. subscripts

1 of 9 I. Chemical equations Chemical equations - shorthand representations of chemical reactions The reaction of aqueous silver (I) nitrate and aqueous ammonium chloride results in the formation of solid

### Vijaykumar N. Nazare

Std-XI science Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Vijaykumar N. Nazare Grade I Teacher in Chemistry (Senior Scale) vnn001@ chowgules.ac.in 1.1 IMPORTANCE OF CHEMISTRY Chemistry is the branch of science

### Ch 9 Stoichiometry Practice Test

Ch 9 Stoichiometry Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A balanced chemical equation allows one to determine the a. mole ratio