GEM at CERN. Leszek Ropelewski CERN PH-DT2 DT2-ST & TOTEM

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1 GEM at CERN Leszek Ropelewski CERN PH-DT2 DT2-ST & TOTEM

2 MicroStrip Gas Chamber Semiconductor industry technology: Photolithography Etching Coating Doping A. Oed Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A263 (1988) 351. Lift-off technique

3 MicroStrip Gas Chamber MWPC MSGC cathode anode cathode Typical distance between wires limited to 1 mm due to mechanical and electrostatic forces Typical distance between anodes 200 μm thanks to semiconductor etching technology Rate capability limit due to space charge overcome by increased amplifying cell granularity A. Oed Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A263 (1988) 351.

4 Single Wire Proportional Chamber Electrons liberated by ionization drift towards the anode wire. Electrical field close to the wire (typical wire Ø ~few tens of μm) is sufficiently high for electrons (above 10 kv/cm) to gain enough energy to ionize further avalanche exponential increase of number of electron ion pairs. anode e - primary electron CV0 1 E( r) = 2πε0 r CV0 V ( r) = ln 2πε 0 r a C capacitance/unit length Cylindrical geometry is not the only one able to generate strong electric field: parallel plate strip hole groove

5 GEM: Gas Electron Multiplier Thin metal-coated polymer foil pierced by a high density of holes (50-100/mm 2 ) Typical geometry: 5 μm Cu on 50 μm Kapton, 70 μm holes at 140 μm pitch 70 µm 140 µm F. Sauli, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A386(1997)531

6 GEM Principle Ions 5 µm 50 µm 40 % 60 % 55 µm 70 µm Electrons GEM hole cross section Avalanche simulation

7 Single GEM Performances Effective Gain 10 4 SINGLE GEM+PCB Gain Ar-DME Eff. Gain-Vgem Ar-CO2-DME Induction gap I + e Ar-CO e - S1 S2 S3 S4 Counts ΔV 700 GEM (V) GEM H2+PC Ar-DME ΔV GEM = 520 V (Gain ~5000) GEM H2+PC X Pulse Height Ar-CO Energy resolution 5.9 kev Fe55 ~20% fwhm Pulse Height (ADC channels) Electrons are collected on patterned readout board. A fast signal can be detected on the lower GEM electrode for triggering or energy discrimination. All readout electrodes are at ground potential. Positive ions partially collected on the GEM electrodes. R. Bouclier et al NIM A 396 (1997) 50

8 GEM Manufacturing Rui De Oliveira CERN-EST-DEM 50 μm Kapton 5 μm Cu both sides Photoresist coating, masking and exposure to UV light Metal etching Kapton etching Second masking Metal etching and cleaning

9 GEM Manufacturing 33 cm 10 cm 30 cm 30 cm 10 cm Wide rage of shapes and sizes foils manufactured at CERN 1 cm 2 to 1000 cm µm holes, µm pitch

10 Art of Kapton Etching

11 GEM Gas Electron Multiplier Full decoupling of the charge amplification structure from the charge collection and readout structure. Both structures can be optimized independently! Cartesian Compass, LHCb A. Bressan et al, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A425(1999)254 Small angle Charge correlation (Cartesian readout) 33 cm 30 cm 20 cm Hexaboard, pads MICE Compass Totem All detectors use three GEM foils in cascade for amplification to minimize discharge probability by reducing field strength. NA49-future Mixed Totem

12 Multi-GEM Detectors Discharge Probability on Exposure to 5 MeV Alphas Multiple structures provide equal gain at lower voltage. Discharge probability on exposure to α particles is strongly reduced. S. Bachmann et al Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A479(2002)294

13 GEM Gas Electron Multiplier 9.7 ns 5.3 ns 2x10 6 H/mm ns 4.8 ns Rate capability Time resolution σ = 69.6 µm GAIN ~ 10 4 Ar-CO mc~ min.ion. particles Space resolution Ageing properties

14 TOTEM GEM : Concept and Design Detector requirements: Rate Capability - Charge particle rates 10 4 p mm -2 s -1 at L = cm -2 s -1 Ageing - 1 year of continuous operation p mm -2 -> 7 mc mm -2 Discharges - at probability of /part. -> 10 disch. cm -2 year -1 Time Resolution - < 10 ns Space Resolution - < 100 µm Efficiency - > 97 %

15 TOTEM GEM Final Detector Module Cooling VFAT card VFAT card Mother board HV divider Support Gas in/out HV cables

16 Detector Components Readout board GEM foils Frames, spacers and supports HV and electronics

17 Analysis of defects and hole sizes

18 TOTEM GEM - Readout Board TOTEM READOUT BOARD: Radial strips (accurate track s angle) Pad matrix (fast trigger) pads radial strips TOTEM Readout bonding contact Ni Au for pads 15 μm Cu 50 μm Polyimide 15 μm Cu Epoxy glue 25 μm Polyimide 5 μm Cu 10 μm Cu Epoxy glue 125 μm FR4

19 TOTEM GEM Readout Board Test Quality test for continuity and shorts Capacitance measurement between channels for strips and pads

20 GEM Detectors Production at CERN Detector Design Component Production Component Quality Control Detector Assembly Staff Training Detector Test

21 Perspectives Tracking and triggering (LHCb & TOTEM) TPC end cap readout (ion feedback reduction) X-ray radiography UV light detection Parallax error free detector Hadron blind Neutron detection Optical GEM Cryogenic detectors Two-phase detectors High resolution detectors integrated with pixel CMOS chips Non planar large acceptance detectors Light detectors mass reduction New readout structures adopted to experimental needs Large size detectors Industrialization of the mass production Double mask process gdd.web.cern.ch/gdd/ Single mask process

22 Absorption radiography with GEM (8 kev X-rays) X Trigger from the bottom electrode of GEM. S. Bachmann et al, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A471(2001)115

23 Absorption radiography with GEM (8 kev X-rays) X

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