K A K B = K W pk A + pk B = 14

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "K A K B = K W pk A + pk B = 14"

Transcription

1 Relationship between the ionization constants of an acid and its conjugate base HCN (aq) H 2 O(l) CN (aq) H O (aq) Conjugate couple The product between of an acid and of its conjugate base is : p p 14 1

2 H (aq) H 2 O (l) - (aq) H O (aq) [H O [ [H - (aq) H 2 O (l) H (aq) OH - (aq) [OH [H [ [H O [ [H 2

3 Interactions between the ionization constants of an acid and its conjugate base with H 2 O at 25 C HCN (aq) H 2 O (l) CN (aq) H O (aq) CN (aq) H 2 O (l) HCN (aq) OH (aq) 4.0x 5 Μ 2.5x Μ 2 H 2 O (l) H O (aq) OH (aq) 1.0x 14 Μ 2 [H O [CN [HCN [HCN[OH [CN [HO [OH p p p Therefore can be calculated: /

4 p of some acids and of their conjugate bases at 25 C: 14 p p Name of acid acido p base p Name of base forza dell acido crescente hydronium H O 0 H 2 O 14 water phosphoric H PO H 2 PO Dihydrogen phosphate fluoridirc HF.14 F.86 fluoride acetic CH COOH 4.74 CH COO 9.25 acetate carbonic H 2 CO 6.8 HCO 7.62 Hydrogen carbonate sulphidric H 2 S 7 HS 7 Hydrogen sulphide Dihydrogen phosphate H 2 PO HPO Hydrogen phosphate ammonium NH NH 4.74 ammonia cianidric HCN 9.4 CN 4.6 cianide forza della base crescente Hydrogen carbonate HCO.2 CO 2.68 carbonate Hydrogen phosphate HPO PO phosphate water H 2 O 14 OH 0 hydroxide 4

5 Types of acid-base reactions e studied so far the reaction between acids and bases (strong and weak) with amphiprotic water has been studied. cids and bases can react in water to form a salt. acid base salt H 2 O type strong acid strong base strong acid weak base weak acid strong base weak acid weak base example HCl NaOH NaCl H 2 O HCl NH NH 4 Cl H 2 O CH COOH NaOH CH COONa H 2 O CH COOH NH CH COONH 4 H 2 O 5

6 Reaction between strong acid and strong base: neutralization Strong acids and bases are 0 % ionized in solution: HCl (aq) H 2 O NaOH (aq) H O (aq) Cl (aq) Na (aq) OH (aq) The net equation between HCl (strong acid) and NaOH (strong base) is : H O (aq) Cl (aq) Na (aq) OH (aq) 2 H 2 O (l) Na (aq) Cl (aq) H O (aq) OH (aq) 2 H 2 O (l) [H O [OH The net ionic equation for the reaction of a strong acid with a strong base is always the union of a hydronium ion with a hydroxide ion to give water. Since 1 /, reagents are fully consumed to 1 /, reagents are fully consumed to yield products. If an equal amount of moles of NaOH and HCl, are mixed, the result is a neutral NaCl solution (ph 7.0 at 25 C) 14 M 2 6

7 hen the concentrations of strong acids and bases are much larger that [H O water self-ionization: if c c [H O 1.0x 7 M and ph 7 If c > c [H O c c and ph log (c c ) < 7 if c < c [OH c c and poh log (c c ) ph 14 poh > 7 7

8 Reaction between strong acid and weak base The weak base is not 0 % ionized in solution: HCl (aq) H 2 O (l) H O (aq) Cl (aq) H O (aq) NH (aq) Cl (aq) H 2 O (l) NH 4 (aq) Cl (aq) The net reaction of HCl (strong acid) e NH (weak base) is : H O (aq) NH (aq) H 2 O (l) NH 4 (aq) [NH [H O [NH M 1 In this reaction H O is an acid stronger than NH 4 and NH is a base stronger than H 2 O. The reaction is strongly shifted toward the products. Mixing equimolar amounts of a strong acid with a weak base produces a salt whose cation is the conjugate acid of the weak base. The solution becomes acid, with a ph depending on the of the cation. The salt ammonium choride is formed: NH 4 Cl. 8

9 Reaction between weak acid and strong base In the reaction between a weak acid HCOOH, with a strong base NaOHnet ionic reaction is: HCOOH (aq) OH (aq) HCOO (aq) Η 2 Ο (l) [HCOO [HCOOH[OH [HCOO [HO [HCOOH[OH [H O 1.8 M 1 [HCOO [HO [HCOOH In this reaction the hydroxide OH - is a base stronger than formiate HCOO - and formic acid HCOOH is an acid stronger than water: the reaction is strongly shifted toward the product. Mixing equimolar amounts of a strong acid with a weak base produces a salt whose cation is the conjugate acid of the weak base. The solution is basic with a ph that depends on the of the anion. The salt HCO 2 Na (sodium formiate) is formed. 9

10 Reaction between weak acid and weak base CH COOH (aq) NH (aq) CH COO (aq) NH 4 (aq) In this reaction product formation is favored since acetic acid is a stronger acid than the ammonium ion and ammonia is a stronger base than acetate: the reaction is strongly shifted to the right. Mixing of equimolar amounts of a weak base with a weak acid produces a salt whose anion is the conjugated base of the weak acid and cation is the conjugate acid of the weak base. The ph depends on the values of of the weak acid and of of the weak base. The saltammonium acetate is formed CH CO 2 NH 4

11 Chemistry of acids and bases Salt hydrolysis uffer solutions cid-base titrations 11

12 Hydrolytic equilibria The aqueous solution of a salt obtained from an acid and a strong base contains the free ionic species that form the salt. ase and acid (strong) Salt solution ph NaOH HCl NaCl H 2 O NaCl (s) Na (aq) Cl (aq) 7 NaOH HNO NaNO H 2 O NaNO (s) Na (aq) NaNO (aq) 7 OH HClO 4 ClO 4 H 2 O ClO 4 (s) (aq) ClO 4 (aq) 7 OH Hr r H 2 O r (s) (aq) r (aq) 7 Ca(OH) 2 2 HCl CaCl 2 H 2 O CaCl 2 (s) Ca 2 (aq) 2 Cl (aq) 7 In these solutions there is no proton exchange because both cation (conjugated acid of the strong base) and anion (conjugated base of the strong acid) do not tend to yield or subtract protons from water. The solution is therefore neutral. 12

13 e call hydrolysis those proton exchange reactions (acid-base) that are established in the aqueous solutions of salts formed by: weak acids and strong bases (which contain moderately strong conjugated bases and very weak conjugated acids): basic hydrolysis, ph > 7 weak bases and strong acids (which contain moderately strong conjugated acids and very weak conjugated bases) : acid hydrolysis, ph > 7 acids and bases both weak (which contain moderately strong conjugated acids and bases): basic, acid or neutral hydrolysis s a result of these exchanges of protons with the aqueous amphiprotic solvent there is a variation in the concentration of [H O and [OH - (ph) NH 4 Cl (s) NH 4 (aq) Cl (aq) NH 4 (aq) H 2 O (l) NH (aq) H O (aq) 1

14 Salt formed by weak acids and strong bases : basic hydrolysis The dissociation of the salt C is followed by the protonation equilibrium of the anion -, which is a moderately strong rønsted base. C (aq) C (aq) (aq) (aq) H 2 O (l) H (aq) OH (aq) CH COONa (aq) Na (aq) CH COO (aq) CH COO (aq) H 2 O (l) CH COOH (aq) OH (aq) CN (aq) (aq) CN (aq) CΝ (aq) H 2 O (l) HCN (aq) OH (aq) NO 2 (aq) (aq) NO 2 (aq) NO 2 (aq) H 2 O (l) HNO 2 (aq) OH (aq) Due to the hydrolytic equilibrium, the solution is enriched with OH - ions. 14

15 The equilibrium constant of this equilibrium is called hydrolysis constant i : (aq) H 2 O (l) H (aq) OH (aq) [H[OH [ i i is directly related to of the weak acid that is formed: [H[OH [H[OH [H O i [ [ [HO i [ OH c i S c S The weaker the acid and the higher the salt concentration, the more basic is the resulting solution. 15

16 lkaline hydrolisis ph determination formula [H[OH [H[OH [H O i [ [ [HO i The OH - arising from water selfprotolysis are negligible: [OH - [H nd if we consider that - is a weak base: [ - c s [ OH c i S c S Rearranging i [OH - 2 i c s 16

17 Salt formed by weak base and strong acid : acid hydrolysis The dissociation of the salt H is followed by the deprotonation equilibrium of the cation H, which is a moderately strong rønsted acid. H (aq) H (aq) (aq) H (aq) H 2 O (l) (aq) H O (aq) NH 4 Cl (s) NH 4 (aq) Cl (aq) NH 4 (aq) H 2 O (l) NH (aq) H O (aq) C 6 H 5 NH Cl (s) C 6 H 5 NH (aq) Cl (aq) C 6 H 5 NH (aq) H 2 O (l) C 6 H 5 NH 2 (aq) H O (aq) Due to the hydrolytic equilibrium, the solution is enriched with H O ions. The complete dissociation of H salt is accompanied by the deprotonation equilibrium of the H cation, which is a moderately strong rønsted acid. 17

18 The hydrolysis constant i : H (aq) H 2 O (l) (aq) H O (aq) i is related to of the weak base that is formed: [[H O [H [[H O [H [OH [OH i i [ H O ics cs The weaker the base and the higher the salt concentration, the more acidic is the resulting solution. 18

19 cid hydrolisis ph determination formula [[H O [H [[H O [H [OH [OH i i The H O arising from water selfprotolysis are negligible: [H O [H nd if we consider that H is a weak acid: [H c s Rearranging i [ H O ics cs [H O 2 i c s 19

20 Salt formed from a weak acid and base: hydrolysis The full dissociation of the salt H is accompanied by the dissociation of H and by protonation of - H (aq) H (aq) (aq) H (aq) H 2 O (l) (aq) H O (aq) (aq) H 2 O (l) H (aq) OH (aq) H O (aq) OH (aq) 2 H 2 O (l) H (aq) (aq) (aq) H (aq) 20

21 s usual we neglect hydrogen and hydroxide ions coming from water dissociation if the salt concentration is not too small. H (aq) (aq) (aq) H (aq) i H [ H O H H ph 7 if: H > ph < 7 H < ph > 7 21

22 Exercise 1. Calculate the ph of a 0.2 M of Na cetate solution ( M a 25 C) CH COONa (aq) Na (aq) CH COO (aq) CH COO (aq) H 2 O (l) CH COOH (aq) OH (aq) e will have an alkaline hydrolisis [OH i # c S c S 1# 1.8# 14 5 # # 5 M poh 4.98 ph

23 Exercise 14. Calculate the ph of 0.1 M ammonium chloride solution ( M a 25 C) NH 4 Cl (s) NH 4 (aq) Cl (aq) NH 4 (aq) H 2 O (l) NH (aq) H O (aq) e have an acid hydrolysis [H O ph 5.12 i c S c S M 2

24 Exercise 15. Calculate the ph of a 0.05 M ammonium fluoride solution (ammonia M; HF M at 25 C) NH F (aq) NH 4 (aq) F (aq) NH 4 (aq) H 2 O (l) NH (aq) H O (aq) F (aq) H 2 O (l) HF (aq) OH (aq) H O (aq) OH (aq) 2 H 2 O (l) NH 4 (aq) F (aq) NH (aq) HF (aq) [H O ph 6.20 HF NH M 24

25 Controlling ph: uffer solutions HCl to both solutions uffered solution ph 5.04 Not buffred solution ph 5.04 fter the addition of HCl, the ph of the buffered solution does not change (or changes slightly), while the nonbuffered solution drops to ph 2.. The buffered solution hampers ph variations. 25

26 How do we make a buffer solution? ph 0.87 ph 8.9 acetic acid 0.1 M Na acetate 0.1 M buffer 26

27 How do we make a buffer solution? buffer solution is an aqueous solution in which the ph does not vary appreciably upon small additions of strong acids or bases. To make a buffer solution we have to satisfy two conditions: we need the simultaneous presence of two species: an acid capable of reacting with OH - ions and a base capable reacting with H O ion. The acid and the base must not react with each other. buffer solution is usually prepared from approximately equal amounts of a conjugated acid-base pair: a weak acid and its conjugate base (e.g. acetic acid and acetate ion) a weak base and its conjugate acid (e.g. ammonia and ammonium ion) 27

28 How does a buffer solution work? In the acetic acid/acetate buffer, acetic acid (weak acid) is required to react and consume the added hydroxide ions : CH COOH (aq) OH (l) CH COO (aq) H 2 O (aq) [CH COO [CH COOH M 14 [OH 1.0 The equilibrium constant for the reaction is very large because the OH - ion is a much stronger basis than acetate (CHCOO -). This means that all OH - ions, coming from an external source, are completely consumed. Similarly, each hydronium ion added to the solution will react with the acetate ion present in the buffer. CH COO (aq) H O (l) CH COOH (aq) H 2 O (aq) [CH COOH [CH COO M 5 [HO lso the equilibrium constant for this reaction is very large, since the H O ion is a much stronger acid than acetic acid (CH COOH). 28

29 eak acid Conjugate base (M) uffering range ph cetic acid CH COOH Common buffers in laboratory practice dhydrogen phosphate H 2 PO 4 hydrogen carbonate HCO hydrogen phosphate HPO 4 2 acetate CH COO hydrogen phosphate HPO 4 2 carbonate CO 2 phosphate PO 4 uffer system in the blood bicarbonate hemoglobin phosphate

30 The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation ph p log [coniugate base [acid The ph of a buffer solution is controlled by two factors: the strength of the acid (indicated by o p ) the relative amounts of the acid and of its conjugate base L.J. Henderson ( ) The ph of a buffer solution is mainly determined by the value of p and the fine ph control is achieved by modifying the relative amounts of conjugate base and acid. [conjugate base if >1 ph > p [acid [conjugate base if 1 ph p [acid [conjugate base if <1 ph < p [acid 0

31 The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation In a buffer solution containing a weak acid H and its conjugate base : H (aq) H 2 O (l) (aq) H O (aq) [H O [H [ [acid [conjugate base Let s use the co-logarithmic expression: log [H O log log [ [acid [conjugate base log log [conjugate base [acid [H O [H ph p log [conjugate base [acid 1

Strong and Weak. Acids and Bases

Strong and Weak. Acids and Bases Strong and Weak Acids and Bases Strength of Acids H2SO4 HSO4 - + H + HNO3 NO3 - + H + Strong Acids HCl Cl - + H + H3PO4 H2PO4 - + H + Phosphoric acid Moderate Acid CH3COOH CH3COO - + H + Acetic acid HF

More information

Acid Base Equilibria

Acid Base Equilibria Acid Base Equilibria Acid Ionization, also known as acid dissociation, is the process in where an acid reacts with water to produce a hydrogen ion and the conjugate base ion. HC 2 H 3 O 2(aq) H + (aq)

More information

Chapter 10 - Acids & Bases

Chapter 10 - Acids & Bases Chapter 10 - Acids & Bases 10.1-Acids & Bases: Definitions Arrhenius Definitions Acids: substances that produce hydrogen ions when dissolved in H 2 O Common Strong Acids: Common Weak acids: Organic carboxylic

More information

ph calculations MUDr. Jan Pláteník, PhD Brønsted-Lowry concept of acids and bases Acid is a proton donor Base is a proton acceptor

ph calculations MUDr. Jan Pláteník, PhD Brønsted-Lowry concept of acids and bases Acid is a proton donor Base is a proton acceptor ph calculations MUDr. Jan Pláteník, PhD Brønsted-Lowry concept of acids and bases Acid is a proton donor Base is a proton acceptor HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Acid Base Conjugate acid Conjugate

More information

Chapter 6 Acids and Bases

Chapter 6 Acids and Bases Chapter 6 Acids and Bases Introduction Brønsted acid-base reactions are proton transfer reactions. Acids donate protons to bases. In the process, the acid is converted into its conjugate base and the base

More information

Acids and Bases Review Worksheet II Date / / Period. Molarity. moles L. Normality [H 3 O +1 ] [OH -1 ] ph poh

Acids and Bases Review Worksheet II Date / / Period. Molarity. moles L. Normality [H 3 O +1 ] [OH -1 ] ph poh Honors Chemistry Name Acids and Bases Review Worksheet II Date / / Period Solute Name of Solute Molar Mass grams mole Molarity moles L Normality [H 3 O +1 ] [OH ] ph poh Acidic or Basic 1. HCl Hydrochloric

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning goals and key skills: Understand the nature of the hydrated proton, represented as either H + (aq) or H 3 O + (aq) Define and identify Arrhenuis acids and bases.

More information

Chem 106 Thursday, March 10, Chapter 17 Acids and Bases

Chem 106 Thursday, March 10, Chapter 17 Acids and Bases Chem 106 Thursday, March 10, 2011 Chapter 17 Acids and Bases K a and acid strength Acid + base reactions: Four types (s +s, s + w, w + s, and w + w) Determining K from concentrations and ph ph of aqueous

More information

CHEM 1412 Zumdahl & Zumdahl Practice Exam II (Ch. 14, 15 & 16) Multiple Choices: Please select one best answer. Answer shown in bold.

CHEM 1412 Zumdahl & Zumdahl Practice Exam II (Ch. 14, 15 & 16) Multiple Choices: Please select one best answer. Answer shown in bold. CHEM 1412 Zumdahl & Zumdahl Practice Exam II (Ch. 14, 15 & 16) Multiple Choices: Please select one best answer. Answer shown in bold. 1. Consider the equilibrium: PO -3 4 (aq) + H 2 O (l) HPO 2-4 (aq)

More information

Acid-Base Equilibria. 1.NH 4 Cl 2.NaCl 3.KC 2 H 3 O 2 4.NaNO 2. Acid-Ionization Equilibria. Acid-Ionization Equilibria

Acid-Base Equilibria. 1.NH 4 Cl 2.NaCl 3.KC 2 H 3 O 2 4.NaNO 2. Acid-Ionization Equilibria. Acid-Ionization Equilibria Acid-Ionization Equilibria Acid-Base Equilibria Acid ionization (or acid dissociation) is the reaction of an acid with water to produce hydronium ion (hydrogen ion) and the conjugate base anion. (See Animation:

More information

CHAPTER 7.0: IONIC EQUILIBRIA

CHAPTER 7.0: IONIC EQUILIBRIA Acids and Bases 1 CHAPTER 7.0: IONIC EQUILIBRIA 7.1: Acids and bases Learning outcomes: At the end of this lesson, students should be able to: Define acid and base according to Arrhenius, Bronsted- Lowry

More information

Chem12 Acids : Exam Questions M.C.-100

Chem12 Acids : Exam Questions M.C.-100 Chem12 Acids : Exam Questions M.C.-100 1) Given : HPO 4 2- (aq) + NH 4 + (aq) H 2 PO 4 - (aq) + NH 3 (aq), the strongest acid in the above equation is : a) NH 4 + b) HPO 4 2- c) NH 3 d) H 2 PO 4-2)

More information

The Common Ion Effect

The Common Ion Effect Chapter 17 ACID BASE EQUILIBRIA (Part I) Dr. Al Saadi 1 17.1 The Common Ion Effect A phenomenon known as the common ion effect states that: When a compound containing an ion in common with an already dissolved

More information

Chem 1102 Semester 1, 2011 ACIDS AND BASES

Chem 1102 Semester 1, 2011 ACIDS AND BASES Chem 1102 Semester 1, 2011 ACIDS AND BASES Acids and Bases Lecture 23: Weak Acids and Bases Calculations involving pk a and pk b Strong Acids and Bases Lecture 24: Polyprotic Acids Salts of Acids and Bases

More information

Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases

Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Slide 1 Chapter 14 Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Slide 2 Acid Base Concepts 01 Arrhenius Acid: A substance which dissociates to form hydrogen ions (H + ) in solution. HA(aq) H + (aq) + A (aq) Arrhenius

More information

AP Chapter 15 & 16: Acid-Base Equilibria Name

AP Chapter 15 & 16: Acid-Base Equilibria Name AP Chapter 15 & 16: Acid-Base Equilibria Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. AP Chapter 15 & 16: Acid-Base Equilibria 2 Warm-Ups (Show

More information

Acids, Bases, and Salts Review for Sections

Acids, Bases, and Salts Review for Sections 1. Consider the following: Review for Sections 4.1 4.9 I H 2 CO 3 + F HCO 3 + HF 2 II HCO 3 + HC 2 O 4 H 2 CO 3 + C 2 O 4 2 III HCO 3 + H 2 C 6 H 6 O 7 H 2 CO 3 + HC 6 H 5 O 7 The HCO 3 is a base in A.

More information

Ch. 17 Applications of Aqueous Equilibria: Buffers and Titrations

Ch. 17 Applications of Aqueous Equilibria: Buffers and Titrations Ch. 17 Applications of Aqueous Equilibria: Buffers and Titrations Sec 1 The Common-Ion Effect: The dissociation of a weak electrolyte decreases when a strong electrolyte that has an ion in common with

More information

Acids and bases, ph and buffers. Dr. Mamoun Ahram Lecture 2

Acids and bases, ph and buffers. Dr. Mamoun Ahram Lecture 2 Acids and bases, ph and buffers Dr. Mamoun Ahram Lecture 2 ACIDS AND BASES Acids versus bases Acid: a substance that produces H+ when dissolved in water (e.g., HCl, H2SO4) Base: a substance that produces

More information

School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban. CHEM191 Tutorial 1: Buffers

School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban. CHEM191 Tutorial 1: Buffers School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban CHEM191 Tutorial 1: Buffers Preparing a Buffer 1. How many moles of NH 4 Cl must be added to 1.0 L of 0.05 M NH 3 to form

More information

UNIT IV PPT #3 Ka and Kb KEY.notebook. November 23, WHAT IS Ka? UNIT IV. CALCULATIONS USING Ka. WHAT IS Ka? Nov 10 9:42 PM.

UNIT IV PPT #3 Ka and Kb KEY.notebook. November 23, WHAT IS Ka? UNIT IV. CALCULATIONS USING Ka. WHAT IS Ka? Nov 10 9:42 PM. WHAT IS Ka? Recall: Find ph of 0.100 M HCl. But What is ph of 0.10 M HF? UNIT IV Ka and Kb CALCULATIONS USING Ka I. [H 3O + ] (or ph) from Ka Ex. Find the [H 3O + ] in 0.10 M HF. WHAT IS Ka? Look at equilibrium

More information

Acid-Base Character of Salt Solutions. Cations. Cations are potentially acidic, but some have no effect on ph.

Acid-Base Character of Salt Solutions. Cations. Cations are potentially acidic, but some have no effect on ph. Acid-Base Character of Salt Solutions The ph of a salt solution will depend on the acidbase nature of both the cation and anion. Cations Cations are potentially acidic, but some have no effect on ph. M(H

More information

Acids and Bases. A strong base is a substance that completely ionizes in aqueous solutions to give a cation and a hydroxide ion.

Acids and Bases. A strong base is a substance that completely ionizes in aqueous solutions to give a cation and a hydroxide ion. Acid-Base Theories Arrhenius Acids and Bases (1884) Acids and Bases An acid is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions. A base is a substance that, when

More information

Lecture 12. Acid/base reactions. Equilibria in aqueous solutions.

Lecture 12. Acid/base reactions. Equilibria in aqueous solutions. Lecture 12 Acid/base reactions. Equilibria in aqueous solutions. Titrations Kotz 7 th ed. Section 18.3, pp.821-832. In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added

More information

Ch 7 Practice Problems

Ch 7 Practice Problems Ch 7 Practice Problems 1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a eak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is [H ] [NO 2 ] = [HNO ] 2 [H ][N][O] [HNO 2] =

More information

CHEM Dr. Babb s Sections Exam #3 Review Sheet

CHEM Dr. Babb s Sections Exam #3 Review Sheet CHEM 116 Dr. Babb s Sections Exam #3 Review Sheet Acid/Base Theories and Conjugate AcidBase Pairs 111. Define the following terms: Arrhenius acid, Arrhenius base, Lewis acid, Lewis base, BronstedLowry

More information

Chapter 16. Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16. Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Arrhenius Definition Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Bases produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Limits to aqueous solutions. Only one kind of

More information

10.1 Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution

10.1 Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution 10.1 Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases An acid is a substance that gives hydrogen ions, H +, when dissolved in water. In fact, H + reacts with water and produces

More information

Acid / Base Properties of Salts

Acid / Base Properties of Salts Acid / Base Properties of Salts n Soluble ionic salts produce may produce neutral, acidic, or basic solutions depending on the acidbase properties of the individual ions. n Consider the salt sodium nitrate,

More information

Acids And Bases. H + (aq) + Cl (aq) ARRHENIUS THEORY

Acids And Bases. H + (aq) + Cl (aq) ARRHENIUS THEORY Acids And Bases A. Characteristics of Acids and Bases 1. Acids and bases are both ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. Since acids and bases both form ionic solutions, their solutions conduct electricity

More information

CH 15 Summary. Equilibrium is a balance between products and reactants

CH 15 Summary. Equilibrium is a balance between products and reactants CH 15 Summary Equilibrium is a balance between products and reactants Use stoichiometry to determine reactant or product ratios, but NOT reactant to product ratios. Capital K is used to represent the equilibrium

More information

Lecture Presentation. Chapter 16. Acid Base Equilibria. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Presentation. Chapter 16. Acid Base Equilibria. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Presentation Chapter 16 Acid Base Equilibria John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Some Definitions Arrhenius An acid is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases

More information

AP Chemistry. CHAPTER 17- Buffers and Ksp 17.1 The Common Ion Effect Buffered Solutions. Composition and Action of Buffered Solutions

AP Chemistry. CHAPTER 17- Buffers and Ksp 17.1 The Common Ion Effect Buffered Solutions. Composition and Action of Buffered Solutions AP Chemistry CHAPTER 17- Buffers and Ksp 17.1 The Common Ion Effect The dissociation of a weak electrolyte is decreased by the addition of a strong electrolyte that has an ion in common with the weak electrolyte.

More information

(Label the Conjugate Pairs) Water in the last example acted as a Bronsted-Lowry base, and here it is acting as an acid. or

(Label the Conjugate Pairs) Water in the last example acted as a Bronsted-Lowry base, and here it is acting as an acid. or Chapter 16 - Acid-Base Equilibria Arrhenius Definition produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Limits to aqueous solutions. Only one kind of base. NH

More information

ACIDS AND BASES. HCl(g) = hydrogen chloride HCl(aq) = hydrochloric acid HCl(g) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) ARRHENIUS THEORY

ACIDS AND BASES. HCl(g) = hydrogen chloride HCl(aq) = hydrochloric acid HCl(g) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) ARRHENIUS THEORY ACIDS AND BASES A. CHARACTERISTICS OF ACIDS AND BASES 1. Acids and bases are both ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. Since acids and bases both form ionic solutions, their solutions conduct electricity

More information

Acids and Bases Written Response

Acids and Bases Written Response Acids and Bases Written Response January 1999 4. Consider the salt sodium oxalate, Na2C2O4. a) Write the dissociation equation for sodium oxalate. (1 mark) b) A 1.0M solution of sodium oxalate turns pink

More information

Acids, Bases and Salts

Acids, Bases and Salts (Hebden Unit 4 page 109 182) 182) We will cover the following topics: 1. Definition of Acids and Bases 2. Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 2 1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases An acid is a substance

More information

The ph of aqueous salt solutions

The ph of aqueous salt solutions The ph of aqueous salt solutions Sometimes (most times), the salt of an acid-base neutralization reaction can influence the acid/base properties of water. NaCl dissolved in water: ph = 7 NaC 2 H 3 O 2

More information

Chapter 16. Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., and Bruce E. Bursten

Chapter 16. Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., and Bruce E. Bursten Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 16 John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Some Definitions Arrhenius

More information

Chemistry 210, March 2012 ANSWERS Extra acid/base/salt equilibrium problems. See solutions beginning on the next page.

Chemistry 210, March 2012 ANSWERS Extra acid/base/salt equilibrium problems. See solutions beginning on the next page. Chemistry 210, March 2012 ANSWERS Extra acid/base/salt equilibrium problems See solutions beginning on the next page. Determine the ph of a M solution of the following substances. CHCl 2 COONa KHS HClO

More information

ph + poh = 14 G = G (products) G (reactants) G = H T S (T in Kelvin) 1. Which of the following combinations would provide buffer solutions?

ph + poh = 14 G = G (products) G (reactants) G = H T S (T in Kelvin) 1. Which of the following combinations would provide buffer solutions? JASPERSE CHEM 210 PRACTICE TEST 3 VERSION 3 Ch. 17: Additional Aqueous Equilibria Ch. 18: Thermodynamics: Directionality of Chemical Reactions Key Equations: For weak acids alone in water: [H + ] = K a

More information

Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Chapter 17

Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Chapter 17 PowerPoint Lecture Presentation by J. David Robertson University of Missouri Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Chapter 17 The common ion effect is the shift in equilibrium caused by the addition

More information

5.111 Lecture Summary #22 Wednesday, October 31, 2014

5.111 Lecture Summary #22 Wednesday, October 31, 2014 5.111 Lecture Summary #22 Wednesday, October 31, 2014 Reading for Today: Sections 11.13, 11.18-11.19, 12.1-12.3 in 5 th ed. (10.13, 10.18-10.19, 11.1-11.3 in 4 th ed.) Reading for Lecture #23: Sections

More information

Week 6 AB Strength, ph, Kw, Acids

Week 6 AB Strength, ph, Kw, Acids Week 6 AB Strength, ph, Kw, Acids Q UEST IO N 1 A 0.1 M solution of an electrolyte has a ph of 4.0. What is the electrolyte? A. a strong acid B. a strong base C. a weak acid D. a weak base E. a salt of

More information

Unit 4: Acid/Base I. abinotes. I) Introduction to Acids and Bases What is an acid?

Unit 4: Acid/Base I. abinotes. I) Introduction to Acids and Bases What is an acid? Unit 4: Acid/Base I I) Introduction to Acids and Bases What is an acid? http://www.kidsknowit.com/flash/animations/acidsbases.swf What are properties of acids? 1) Acids react with. 2) Acids create when

More information

capable of neutralizing both acids and bases

capable of neutralizing both acids and bases Buffers Buffer n any substance or mixture of compounds that, added to a solution, is capable of neutralizing both acids and bases without appreciably changing the original acidity or alkalinity of the

More information

[H ] [OH ] 5.6 " 10

[H ] [OH ] 5.6  10 Howemork set solutions 10: 11.1 Table 11.5 of the tet contains a list of important Brønsted acids and bases. (a) both, base, (c) acid, (d) base, (e) acid, (f) base, (g) base, (h) base, (i) acid, (j) acid.

More information

Chapter 16: Acids and Bases

Chapter 16: Acids and Bases 1. Which is not a characteristic property of acids? A) neutralizes bases B) turns litmus from blue to red C) reacts with active metals to produce H 2 (g) D) reacts with CO 2 (g) to form carbonates E) All

More information

Chemistry 102 Chapter 15 ACID-BASE CONCEPTS

Chemistry 102 Chapter 15 ACID-BASE CONCEPTS General Properties: ACID-BASE CONCEPTS ACIDS BASES Taste sour Bitter Change color of indicators Blue Litmus turns red no change Red Litmus no change turns blue Phenolphtalein Colorless turns pink Neutralization

More information

Unit 4: Acids and Bases Topic A: Definitions of Acids and Bases and the Relative Strength of Acids and Bases

Unit 4: Acids and Bases Topic A: Definitions of Acids and Bases and the Relative Strength of Acids and Bases 1 Unit 4: Acids and Bases Topic A: Definitions of Acids and Bases and the Relative Strength of Acids and Bases In this topic we will examine: Various definitions of acids and bases BrønstedLowry definitions

More information

Chem 105 Tuesday March 8, Chapter 17. Acids and Bases

Chem 105 Tuesday March 8, Chapter 17. Acids and Bases Chem 105 Tuesday March 8, 2011 Chapter 17. Acids and Bases 1) Define Brønsted Acid and Brønsted Base 2) Proton (H + ) transfer reactions: conjugate acid-base pairs 3) Water and other amphiprotic substances

More information

Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases. Acids, Bases and Arrhenius

Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases. Acids, Bases and Arrhenius Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases **a lot of calculations in this chapter will be done on the chalkboard Do not rely on these notes for all the material** Acids, Bases and Arrhenius

More information

Titration a solution of known concentration, called a standard solution

Titration a solution of known concentration, called a standard solution Acid-Base Titrations Titration is a form of analysis in which we measure the volume of material of known concentration sufficient to react with the substance being analyzed. Titration a solution of known

More information

IB Chemistry ABS Introduction An acid was initially considered a substance that would produce H + ions in water.

IB Chemistry ABS Introduction An acid was initially considered a substance that would produce H + ions in water. IB Chemistry ABS Introduction An acid was initially considered a substance that would produce H + ions in water. The Brønsted-Lowry definition of an acid is a species that can donate an H + ion to any

More information

Mr. Storie 40S Chemistry Student Acid and bases Unit. Acids and Bases

Mr. Storie 40S Chemistry Student Acid and bases Unit. Acids and Bases Acids and Bases 1 UNIT 4: ACIDS & BASES OUTCOMES All important vocabulary is in Italics and bold. Outline the historical development of acid base theories. Include: Arrhenius, BronstedLowry, Lewis. Write

More information

COMPARISON OF STRONG AND WEAK ACIDS (of the same concentration, eg mol/l) Characteristic Strong Acid Weak Acid. Equal to Solution Concentration

COMPARISON OF STRONG AND WEAK ACIDS (of the same concentration, eg mol/l) Characteristic Strong Acid Weak Acid. Equal to Solution Concentration 1 COMPARISON OF STRONG AND WEAK ACIDS (of the same concentration, eg. 0.10 mol/l) Characteristic Strong Acid Weak Acid % reaction with water (%dissociation/ionization) 100% Less than 50% for most Hydronium

More information

Grace King High School Chemistry Test Review

Grace King High School Chemistry Test Review CHAPTER 19 Acids, Bases & Salts 1. ACIDS Grace King High School Chemistry Test Review UNITS 7 SOLUTIONS &ACIDS & BASES Arrhenius definition of Acid: Contain Hydrogen and produce Hydrogen ion (aka proton),

More information

CHAPTER 8: ACID/BASE EQUILIBRIUM

CHAPTER 8: ACID/BASE EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 8: ACID/BASE EQUILIBRIUM Already mentioned acid-base reactions in Chapter 6 when discussing reaction types. One way to define acids and bases is using the Brønsted-Lowry definitions. A Brønsted-Lowry

More information

Properties of Acids and Bases

Properties of Acids and Bases Chapter 15 Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases Generally, an acid is a compound that releases hydrogen ions, H +, into water. Blue litmus is used to test for acids. Blue litmus

More information

AP Chemistry CHAPTER 16 STUDY GUIDE Acid-Base Equilibrium

AP Chemistry CHAPTER 16 STUDY GUIDE Acid-Base Equilibrium AP Chemistry CHAPTER 16 STUDY GUIDE AcidBase Equilibrium 16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids taste sour and cause certain dyes to change color. Bases taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius concept

More information

Chapter 8 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 8 Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 8 Acid-Base Equilibria 8-1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 8-2 Water and the ph Scale 8-3 The Strengths of Acids and Bases 8-4 Equilibria Involving Weak Acids and Bases 8-5 Buffer Solutions 8-6

More information

CHEMISTRY 1AA3 Tutorial 2 Answers - WEEK E WEEK OF JANUARY 22, (i) What is the conjugate base of each of the following species?

CHEMISTRY 1AA3 Tutorial 2 Answers - WEEK E WEEK OF JANUARY 22, (i) What is the conjugate base of each of the following species? CHEMISTRY 1AA3 Tutorial 2 Answers - WEEK E WEEK OF JANUARY 22, 2001 M.A. Brook B.E. McCarry A. Perrott 1. (i) What is the conjugate base of each of the following species? (a) H 3 O + (b) NH 4 + (c) HCl

More information

Chemical Equilibrium

Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Many reactions are reversible, i.e. they can occur in either direction. A + B AB or AB A + B The point reached in a reversible reaction where the rate of the forward reaction (product

More information

mccord (pmccord) HW6 Acids, Bases and Salts mccord (51520)

mccord (pmccord) HW6 Acids, Bases and Salts mccord (51520) mccord (pmccord) HW6 Acids, Bases and Salts mccord (51520) 1 This print-out should have 45 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before answering.

More information

A) Arrhenius Acids produce H+ and bases produce OH not always used because it only IDs X OH as basic species

A) Arrhenius Acids produce H+ and bases produce OH not always used because it only IDs X OH as basic species 3 ACID AND BASE THEORIES: A) Arrhenius Acids produce H+ and bases produce OH not always used because it only IDs X OH as basic species B) Bronsted and Lowry Acid = H + donor > CB = formed after H + dissociates

More information

Unit 4a Acids, Bases, and Salts Theory

Unit 4a Acids, Bases, and Salts Theory Unit 4a Acids, Bases, and Salts Theory Chemistry 12 Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases The first theory that was proposed to explain the actions of acids and bases was by Svante Arrhenius. It is still

More information

Unit 4-1 Provincial Practice Questions Page 1

Unit 4-1 Provincial Practice Questions Page 1 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 1.00 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 55. The conjugate base of HAsO 4 2 is A. H 3 O + B. 3 AsO 4 C. H 3 AsO 4 D. H 2 AsO 4 56. Consider the following acidbase equilibrium: HC 6

More information

Chemistry 12 Provincial Exam Workbook Unit 04: Acid Base Equilibria. Multiple Choice Questions

Chemistry 12 Provincial Exam Workbook Unit 04: Acid Base Equilibria. Multiple Choice Questions R. Janssen, MSEC Chemistry 1 Provincial Workbook (Unit 0), P. 1 / 69 Chemistry 1 Provincial Exam Workbook Unit 0: Acid Base Equilibria Multiple Choice Questions 1. Calculate the volume of 0.00 M HNO needed

More information

A buffer is a an aqueous solution formed from a weak conjugate acid-base pair that resists ph change upon the addition of another acid or base.

A buffer is a an aqueous solution formed from a weak conjugate acid-base pair that resists ph change upon the addition of another acid or base. 1 A buffer is a an aqueous solution formed from a weak conjugate acid-base pair that resists ph change upon the addition of another acid or base. after addition of H 3 O + equal concentrations of weak

More information

19.3 Strengths of Acids and Bases > Chapter 19 Acids, Bases, and Salts Strengths of Acids and Bases

19.3 Strengths of Acids and Bases > Chapter 19 Acids, Bases, and Salts Strengths of Acids and Bases Chapter 19 Acids, Bases, and Salts 19.1 Acid-Base Theories 19.2 Hydrogen Ions and Acidity 19.3 Strengths of Acids and Bases 19.4 Neutralization Reactions 19.5 Salts in Solution 1 Copyright Pearson Education,

More information

(for tutoring, homework help, or help with online classes)

(for tutoring, homework help, or help with online classes) www.tutor-homework.com (for tutoring, homework help, or help with online classes) 1. chem10b 16.1-27 The ph of a 0.10 M solution of a weak base is 9.82. What is the K b for this base? A. 8.8 10-8 B. 2.1

More information

ACID-BASE REACTIONS & THE ph SCALE

ACID-BASE REACTIONS & THE ph SCALE Introduction ACID-BASE REACTIONS & THE ph SCALE In acid-base reactions in aqueous solution, the active agents are commonly the hydronium ion H 3 0 + or the hydroxide ion OH. The range of concentrations

More information

ACIDS AND BASES CONTINUED

ACIDS AND BASES CONTINUED ACIDS AND BASES CONTINUED WHAT HAPPENS WHEN AN ACID DISSOLVED IN WATER? Water acts as a Brønsted Lowry base and abstracts a proton (H+) from the acid. As a result, the conjugate base of the acid and a

More information

K w. Acids and bases 8/24/2009. Acids and Bases 9 / 03 / Ionization of water. Proton Jumping Large proton and hydroxide mobility

K w. Acids and bases 8/24/2009. Acids and Bases 9 / 03 / Ionization of water. Proton Jumping Large proton and hydroxide mobility Chapter 2 Water Acids and Bases 9 / 03 / 2009 1. How is the molecular structure of water related to physical and chemical behavior? 2. What is a Hydrogen Bond? 3Wh 3. What are Acids Aid and db Bases? 4.

More information

Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Model. Chapter 13 Acids and Bases. The Nature of H + Outline. Review from Chapter 4. Conjugate Pairs

Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Model. Chapter 13 Acids and Bases. The Nature of H + Outline. Review from Chapter 4. Conjugate Pairs Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Model William L Masterton Cecile N. Hurley Edward J. Neth cengage.com/chemistry/masterton Chapter 13 Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Johannes Brønsted (1879-1947) Thomas Lowry (1874-1936)

More information

Chapter 8 Educational Goals

Chapter 8 Educational Goals Chapter 8 Educational Goals 1. Given a chemical equation, write the law of mass action. 2. Given the equilibrium constant (K eq ) for a reaction, predict whether the reactants or products are predominant.

More information

General Chemistry II CHM 1046 E Exam 2

General Chemistry II CHM 1046 E Exam 2 General Chemistry II CHM 1046 E Exam 2 Dr. Shanbhag Name: 1. The formation of ammonia from elemental nitrogen and hydrogen is an exothermic process. N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) 2 NH 3 (g) H= -92.2 kj Which of

More information

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of AP Chemistry 2014-15 North Nova Education Centre Mr. Gauthier

More information

Chapter 14 Acids and Bases

Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) First to develop a theory for acids and bases in aqueous solution Arrhenius Acids Compounds which dissolve (dissociate)

More information

CHAPTER 14 THE CHEMISTRY OF ACIDS AND BASES

CHAPTER 14 THE CHEMISTRY OF ACIDS AND BASES CHAPTER 14 THE CHEMISTRY OF ACIDS AND BASES "ACID"--Latin word acidus, meaning sour. (lemon) "ALKALI"--Arabic word for the ashes that come from burning certain plants; water solutions feel slippery and

More information

Buffers. How can a solution neutralize both acids and bases? Beaker B: 100 ml of 1.00 M HCl. HCl (aq) + H 2 O H 3 O 1+ (aq) + Cl 1 (aq)

Buffers. How can a solution neutralize both acids and bases? Beaker B: 100 ml of 1.00 M HCl. HCl (aq) + H 2 O H 3 O 1+ (aq) + Cl 1 (aq) Buffers How can a solution neutralize both acids and bases? Why? Buffer solutions are a mixture of substances that have a fairly constant ph regardless of addition of acid or base. They are used in medicine,

More information

Chemical Equilibrium. Many reactions are, i.e. they can occur in either direction. A + B AB or AB A + B

Chemical Equilibrium. Many reactions are, i.e. they can occur in either direction. A + B AB or AB A + B Chemical Equilibrium Many reactions are, i.e. they can occur in either direction. A + B AB or AB A + B The point reached in a reversible reaction where the rate of the forward reaction (product formation,

More information

you-try-it-05.xlsx ver. 6/25/2015

you-try-it-05.xlsx ver. 6/25/2015 notes you-try-it-05.xlsx you-try-it-05.xlsx ver. 6/25/2015 Copyright 2009-2015 Brian M. Tissue, all rights reserved. For use with: Brian M. Tissue, Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria,

More information

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases What is an acid? Some examples of common items containing acids: Vinegar contains acetic acid; lemons and citrus fruits contain citric acid; many

More information

Chapter 15 - Applications of Aqueous Equilibria

Chapter 15 - Applications of Aqueous Equilibria Neutralization: Strong Acid-Strong Base Chapter 15 - Applications of Aqueous Equilibria Molecular: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) SA-SB rxn goes to completion (one-way ) Write ionic and net ionic

More information

Worksheet 4.1 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

Worksheet 4.1 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Worksheet 4.1 Conjugate AcidBase Pairs 1. List five properties of acids that are in your textbook. Acids conduct electricity, taste sour, neutralize bases, change the color of indicators, and react with

More information

15 Acids, Bases, and Salts. Lemons and limes are examples of foods that contain acidic solutions.

15 Acids, Bases, and Salts. Lemons and limes are examples of foods that contain acidic solutions. 15 Acids, Bases, and Salts Lemons and limes are examples of foods that contain acidic solutions. Chapter Outline 15.1 Acids and Bases 15.2 Reactions of Acids and Bases 15.3 Salts 15.4 Electrolytes and

More information

Problem 1 C 6 H 5 [ COOH C 6 H[H 5 COO + ] - + H [ I C - x + x + x E x x x

Problem 1 C 6 H 5 [ COOH C 6 H[H 5 COO + ] - + H [ I C - x + x + x E x x x Problem 1 What is the ph of a 291mL sample of 2.993M benzoic acid (C 6 H 5 COOH) (K a =6.4x10 5 )? Write out acid dissociation reaction: C 6 H 5 COOH C 6 H 5 COO H Make an ICE chart since this is a weak

More information

Chapter 7 Acids and Bases

Chapter 7 Acids and Bases Chapter 7 Acids and Bases 7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 7.2 Acid Strength 7.3 The ph Scale 7.4 Calculating the ph of Strong Acid Solutions 7.5 Calculating the ph of Weak Acid Solutions 7.6 Bases 7.7

More information

Chem 30A. Ch 14. Acids and Bases

Chem 30A. Ch 14. Acids and Bases Chem 30A Ch 14. Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Acids Sour taste Dissolve many metals Turn litmus paper red. Egs. Ace9c acid (vinegar), citric acid (lemons) Bases Bi>er taste, slippery

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I: Acids, Bases & Salts

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I: Acids, Bases & Salts 10 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I: Acids, Bases & Salts CHAPTER GOALS 1. Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases 2. The Arrhenius Theory 3. The Hydronium Ion (Hydrated Hydrogen Ion) 4. The

More information

Chapter 9. Aqueous Solutions and Chemical Equilibria. Classifying Solutions of Electrolytes

Chapter 9. Aqueous Solutions and Chemical Equilibria. Classifying Solutions of Electrolytes Chapter 9 Aqueous Solutions and Chemical Equilibria Classifying Solutions of Electrolytes Electrolytes solutes form ions when dissolved in water (or certain other solvents, e.g. acetonitrile) Strong (weak,

More information

CHEMISTRY. Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

CHEMISTRY. Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria CHEMISTRY The Central Science 8 th Edition Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Kozet YAPSAKLI Why study acids bases? bases are common in the everyday world as well as in the lab. Some common acidic products

More information

Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria

Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Solution Equilibria (17.1) Buffer Solutions (17.2) A Closer Look at Acid-Base

More information

Unless otherwise stated, all images in this file have been reproduced from:

Unless otherwise stated, all images in this file have been reproduced from: Unless otherwise stated, all images in this file have been reproduced from: Blackman, Bottle, Schmid, Mocerino and Wille, Chemistry, 3 rd Edition 2016 (John Wiley & Sons) The University of Sydney Page

More information

ph + poh = 14 G = G (products) G (reactants) G = H T S (T in Kelvin)

ph + poh = 14 G = G (products) G (reactants) G = H T S (T in Kelvin) JASPERSE CHEM 210 PRACTICE TEST 3 VERSION 2 Ch. 17: Additional Aqueous Equilibria Ch. 18: Thermodynamics: Directionality of Chemical Reactions Key Equations: For weak acids alone in water: [H + ] = K a

More information

4. Acid Base Equilibria

4. Acid Base Equilibria 4. Acid Base Equilibria BronstedLowry Definition of acid Base behaviour A BronstedLowry acid is defined as a substance that can donate a proton. A BronstedLowry base is defined as a substance that can

More information

Calorimetry, Heat and ΔH Problems

Calorimetry, Heat and ΔH Problems Calorimetry, Heat and ΔH Problems 1. Calculate the quantity of heat involved when a 70.0g sample of calcium is heated from 22.98 C to 86.72 C. c Ca= 0.653 J/g C q = 2.91 kj 2. Determine the temperature

More information

Ch 16: Acids and Bases

Ch 16: Acids and Bases Ch 16: Acids and Bases A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 1 Homework: Read Chapter 16 Work out sample/practice exercises in the sections, Chapter problems: 39, 41, 49, 63, 67, 83, 91, 95, 99, 107,

More information

Review of Chemistry 11

Review of Chemistry 11 Review of Chemistry 11 HCl C 3 H 8 SO 2 NH 4 Cl KOH H 2 SO 4 H 2 O AgNO 3 PbSO 4 H 3 PO 4 Ca(OH) 2 Al(OH) 3 P 2 O 5 Ba(OH) 2 CH 3 COOH 1. Classify the above as ionic or covalent by making two lists. Describe

More information