SEMATECH Knowledge Series 2010

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1 SEMATECH Knowledge Series 2010 Summary of the SEMATECH Workshop on Directed Self Assembly Lloyd Litt SEMATECH/GF Bill Hinsberg - IBM 20 October 2010 Kobe, Japan Copyright 2010 Advanced Materials Research Center, AMRC, International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative, and ISMI are servicemarks of SEMATECH, Inc. SEMATECH, and the SEMATECH logo are registered servicemarks of SEMATECH, Inc. All other servicemarks and trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

2 WELCOME! Workshop Chairs Dr. William Hinsberg Patterning Materials Research IBM Almaden Research Center Lloyd C. Litt Alternative Lithography Program SEMATECH Albany

3 Workshop Goals/Purpose Identify applications in practical semiconductor fabrication that are potential first or early adopters of directed self-assembly (DSA) technology; Assess the benefits and drawbacks of DSA technology compared to other alternatives; Enumerate key DSA attributes that remain to be characterized in order to reliably assess its practical utility; Identify extensions of current DSA technology which, if available, would broaden its applicability and utility for second generation applications.

4 Block copolymer self-assembly Poly-A Poly-B Block copolymers in wide commercial use (e.g. adhesives, coatings) repulsion between dissimilar polymer chains drives microphase separation Pros : sublithographic patterns, high feature density, dimensions controlled by chemical synthesis Cons: limited pattern types, random orientation, poor long-range order where χ = interaction parameter even slightly unfavorable interaction causes phase separation

5 Two approaches to orientation control On topographic patterns : graphoepitaxy On surface patterns: chemical epitaxy neutral substrate surface neutral substrate surface selective surface modification neutral substrate surface Segalman et al, Adv. Mater., 13, 1152 (2001) Cheng et al, Appl. Phys. Lett., 81, 3657 (2002) Sundrani et al., Nano Lett., 4, 273 (2004) Rockford et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 82, 2602 (1999) Kim et al., Nature, 424, 411 (2003)

6 BCP DSA on Topographical Patterns DSA Cross-bar Structures Guiding Lines PS-b-PEO/MSSQ Organosilicate DSA Subdividing the trench DSA on 193 nm resist W resist = 375nm, P SA =25nm 15X Subdivision DSA Via Shrink and rectification DSA

7 BCP DSA on Chemical Patterns: Spatial frequency multiplication 80 nm 193 nm litho to form guide pattern Apply BCP anneal and develop 193 nm resist: 100 nm pitch Neutralize Liftoff Form trim mask by 193 nm litho, And dry etch to substrate DSA Etch DSA: 25 nm pitch Strip 20 10

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10 Meeting Highlights 65 participants 10 technical presentations Overview of DSA capabilities and limitations In-depth panel discussion on key issues with audience participation

11 Discussion Topic Graphoepitaxy versus Chemical epitaxy Graphoepitaxy: 193nm resist as guide structures demonstrated higher multiplication factors demonstrated uses device real estate guide structure LER telegraphed into DSA pattern Chemical epitaxy: better supports LER reduction/self-healing DSA pattern lies over guide pattern : no real estate cost Preferred approach likely to be application-specific

12 Some candidates for first practical application of DSA Lamellar patterns Cylindrical patterns DSA Multifingered devices (Nanowire arrays, FinFET) Via shrink/rectification Regularized patterns/gratings Bit-patterned media

13 Discussion Topic DSA Practical Applications Bit-patterned media is the current leading early app To fabricate a perfect imprint lithography master for disk patterning at whatever cost Significant differences from semiconductor applications but a technical learning opportunity Strong industry pull Potential high volume of disks but not DSA materials: development not economically supportable Pattern rectification/repair, multifingered devices DFM potential to customize device for DSA Still seeking greater input from device community on this

14 DSA Technical Study Topic Solvent vapor annealing (vs thermal annealing process) Improves long range order Non-equilibrium and currently slow Not well understood Surface layers, cylindrical forms etch issue? Different sensitivities to topography? Self-assembled lines Pattern transfer Solvent-vapor annealed PS-PDMS (cylindrical domains) Tungsten lines vs 1 μm, 57 lines Pitch ~ 17.5 nm Linewidth ~ 8 nm 8 nm thermally annealed PS-PMMA (lamellar domains) Jung et al, Nano Letters. 10, p.1000 (2010)

15 DSA Technical Study Topic Synergy of Modeling/Simulation and Experiment Materials set evaluated to date is small Engineering of materials structure has enormous leverage New materials are being prepared; synthesis and characterization is time-consuming Systematic material assessment by computational chemistry to guide experiment and reduce parameter space Experimental validation of predictions Study solvent anneal mechanisms with coarser-grained models Effect of polydispersity

16 DSA Technical Study Topic Detailed metrology of microdomains profiles can vary depending on state of surfaces, guide pattern Not readily detected by plan-view SEM or AFM analysis Can influence dimensions, LER, utility as etch mask Metrology of cross-sectioned polymeric (soft) features with ~10 nm CD and 2-3 nm fine structure is challenging Another opportunity for modeling/experiment synergy PS profile in PS-PMMA lamellar structure derived from fitting of SAXS data (Wu et al) Calculated cross-sectional profile in PS-PMMA cylindrical structure with varying surface interaction (Liu et al)

17 DSA Development Directions Defectivity demonstration in clean fab needed Defect metrology capability for DSA structures Current systems not capable: sensitivity, speed DSA-specific defects are missed by automated analysis, must be evaluated manually

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