CHEM J-2 June 2014

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CHEM J-2 June 2014"

Transcription

1 CHEM J-2 June 2014 Compounds of d-block elements are frequently paramagnetic. Using the box notation to represent atomic orbitals, account for this property in compounds of Co Co 2+ has a 3d 7 configuration: Co 2+ is a d 7 system, so must have at least 1 unpaired electron. Consequently it must be paramagnetic.

2 CHEM J-5 June 2014 ame the complex [CoCl 2 (en) 2 ]. en = ethylenediamine = H 2 CH 2 CH 2 H 2 4 dichloridobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(ii) Draw all possible isomers of this complex. THE REMAIDER OF THIS PAGE IS FOR ROUGH WORKIG OLY.

3 CHEM ovember 2014 The structure below represents the active site in carbonic anhydrase, which features a Zn 2+ ion bonded to 3 histidine residues and a water molecule. 7 The pk a of uncoordinated water is 15.7, but the pk a of the water ligand in carbonic anhydrase is around 7. Suggest an explanation for this large change. The high charge on the Zn 2+ ion draws electron density out of the O H bonds in the water molecule. This weakens the O H so the H + is more likely to leave. The water in carbonic anhydrase is therefore more acidic, as shown by the large decrease in pk a. When studying zinc-containing metalloenzymes, chemists often replace Zn 2+ with Co 2+. Using the box notation to represent atomic orbitals, work out how many unpaired electrons are present in the Zn 2+ and Co 2+ ions. Zn 2+, 3d 10 Co 2+, 3d 7 Zn 2+ has 0 unpaired d electrons, Co 2+ has 3 unpaired d electrons. Co 2+ is therefore paramagnetic and will be attracted by a magnetic field. Suggest why it is useful to replace Zn 2+ with Co 2+ when studying the nature of the active site in carbonic anhydrase. The ions have similar radii so the properties of natural carbonic anhydrase and the version with cobalt replacing zinc should have similar biological properties. The unpaired electrons on Co 2+ however mean that it is paramagnetic and the magnetism can be used to study the active site. Suggest two differences in the chemistry of Zn 2+ and Co 2+ ions that may affect the reactivity of the cobalt-containing enzyme. Zinc only forms +2 ions but cobalt forms +2 and +3. The cobalt-containing enzyme may be susceptible to oxidation. Zn 2+ tends to form 4-coordinate tetrahedral complexes but Co 2+ is slightly larger and often forms 6-coordinate octahedral complexes. The may change its coordination by bonding extra ligands.

4 CHEM J-2 June 2013 Use the information already provided to complete the following table. (ox = oxalate = C 2 O 4 2 ) 8 Formula [CrCl 2 (H 3 ) 4 ] n [Fe(ox) 3 ] n [ZnCl 2 (H 3 ) 2 ] n Oxidation state of +III +III +II umber of d-electrons in the umber of unpaired d-electrons in the Charge of complex (i.e. n) Is the metal atom paramagnetic? Yes Yes o The complex [PtCl 2 (H 3 ) 2 ] has two isomers, while its zinc analogue (in the table) exists in only one form. Using diagrams where appropriate, explain why this is so. The Pt compound has square planar geometry and hence 2 isomers, where the Cl groups are either opposite each other (trans) or next to each other (cis). The Zn compound has tetrahedral geometry and hence only one structure exists

5 CHEM ovember 2013 Complete the following table. Formula Geometry of complex Ligand donor atom(s) 6 [Zn(OH) 4 ] 2 tetrahedral O [CoCl(H 3 ) 5 ]SO 4 octahedral Cl and K 4 [Fe(C) 6 ] octahedral C [Ag(C) 2 ] linear C Select any complex ion from the above table and state whether it is paramagnetic, diamagnetic or neither. Explain your reasoning. Zn 2+ is d 10 system. o unpaired electrons, therefore diamagnetic. Co 3+ is d 6 system. 2 paired electrons and 4 unpaired, therefore paramagnetic. Fe 2+ is d 6 system. 2 paired electrons and 4 unpaired, therefore paramagnetic. Ag + is d 10 system. o unpaired electrons, therefore diamagnetic.

6 CHEM ovember 2013 Which of the following complexes is/are chiral? Explain your reasoning. Use diagrams where necessary. acetylacetonate ion = CH 3 COCHCOCH 3 3 ethylenediamine = H 2 CH 2 CH 2 H 2 tris(acetylacetonato)chromium(iii) is chiral mirror images are nonsuperimposable trans-bis(ethylenediamine)difluoridochromium(iii) ion is not chiral it is identical to its mirror image. acetylacetonatobis(ethylenediamine)chromium(iii) ion is chiral mirror images are non-superimposable

7 CHEM ovember 2013 What is the solubility of Cu(OH) 2 in mol L 1? K sp (Cu(OH) 2 ) is at 25 C. 7 The dissolution reaction and associated solubility product are: Cu(OH) 2 (s) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2OH - (aq) K sp = [Cu 2+ (aq)][oh - (aq)] 2 If x mol dissolve in one litre, [Cu 2+ (aq)] = x M and [OH - (aq)] = 2x. Hence: K sp = (x)(2x) 2 = 4x 3 = x = M Answer: M The overall formation constant for [Cu(H 3 ) 4 ] 2+ is Write the equation for the reaction of Cu 2+ ions with excess ammonia solution. Cu 2+ (aq) + 4H 3 (aq) [Cu(H 3 ) 4 ] 2+ (aq) Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant for the following reaction. Cu(OH) 2 (s) + 4H 3 (aq) [Cu(H 3 ) 4 ] 2+ (aq) + 2OH (aq) This reaction can be considered to occur via (i) Cu(OH) 2 dissolving followed by (ii) the Cu 2+ (aq) ions that form being complexed by ammonia. For the formation of [Cu(H 3 ) 4 ] 2+, the equilibrium constant is: K stab = [Cu(H 2! 3) 4 ] [Cu 2! ][H 3 ] 4 = For the reaction of Cu(OH) 2 (s) with H 3 (aq), the equilibrium constant is: K = [Cu(H 3) 4 2! ][OH! aq ] 2 [H 3 ] 4 To obtain K, K sp is multiplied by K stab : K = K sp K stab = [Cu 2+ (aq)][oh - (aq)] 2 [Cu(H 2! 3) 4 ] [Cu 2! ][H 3 ] 4 = [Cu(H 2! 3) 4 ][OH! aq ] 2 [H 3 ] 4 = ( ) ( ) = Answer:

8 CHEM ovember 2013 Would you expect Cu(OH) 2 (s) to dissolve in 1 M H 3 solution? Briefly explain your answer. o. Equilibrium constant K is very small so the reaction lies heavily in favour of reactants.

9 CHEM J-2 June 2012 Compounds of d-block elements are frequently paramagnetic. Using the box notation to represent atomic orbitals, account for this property in compounds of Cu Cu 2+ is d 9 is paramagnetic Provide a systematic name for the complex [ibrcl(en)] and draw both of its possible structures. (en = H 2 CH 2 CH 2 H 2 = ethylenediamine = ethane-1,2-diamine) 4 Both of the following names are acceptable: bromidochlorido(ethylenediamine)nickel(ii) bromidochlorido(ethane-1,2-diamine)nickel(ii) Is either complex chiral? Explain your reasoning. o. Both structures are superimposable on (i.e. identical to) their mirror images.

10 CHEM J-3 June 2012 Complete the following table. (ox = oxalate = C 2 O 4 2 ) 6 Formula a[fecl 4 ] [CrC(H 3 ) 5 ]Br 2 K 3 [VO 2 (ox) 2 ] 3H 2 O Oxidation state of Coordination number of umber of d-electrons in the +III +III +V Species formed upon dissolving in water a + (aq), [FeCl 4 ] (aq) [CrC(H 3 ) 5 ] 2+ (aq), Br (aq) K + (aq), [VO 2 (ox) 2 ] 3 (aq) THE REMAIDER OF THIS PAGE IS FOR ROUGH WORKIG OLY.

11 CHEM ovember 2012 The following three complex ions can all exhibit isomerism. ame the type of isomerism involved in each case and draw the structures of the isomeric pairs. ox = oxalate = C 2 O [CrCl 2 (H 3 ) 4 ] + Geometrical isomerism [Fe(ox) 3 ] 3 Optical isomerism [Co(H 3 ) 3 (OH 2 ) 3 ] 3+ Geometrical isomerism Give the systematic name of each of the following compounds. en = ethylenediamine = 1,2-diaminoethane = H 2 CH 2 CH 2 H 2 3 Cs 2 [PtF 6 ] caesium hexafluoridoplatinate(iv) [Co(en) 2 (H 3 ) 2 ]Br 3 diamminebis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(iii) bromide

12 CHEM J-4 June 2010 Complete the following table. CS = isothiocyanate ion 5 bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine = (C 5 H 4 ) 2 = Formula K 2 [Zn(C) 4 ] [Co(bipy)(H 3 ) 4 ]Cl 3 [Co(bipy) 2 (CS) 2 ] Oxidation state of Coordination number of umber of d-electrons in the Coordination geometry of the complex ion List all the ligand donor atoms +2 or II +3 or III +2 or II tetrahedral octahedral octahedral 4 C 2 (from bipy) 4 (from H 3 ) 4 (from bipy) 2 (from CS - )

13 CHEM ovember 2010 Titanium has three common oxidation states, +II, +III and +IV. Using the box notation to represent atomic orbitals, predict whether compounds of Ti 2+, Ti 3+ and Ti 4+ would be paramagnetic or diamagnetic. 2 Ti is in group 4: it has 4 valence electrons. Ti 2+ therefore has (4 2) = 2 remaining: it has a d 2 configuration. Ti 3+ therefore has (4 3) = 1 remaining: it has a d 1 configuration. Ti 4+ therefore has (4 4) = 0 remaining: it has a d 0 configuration. These electrons are arranged in the five d orbitals to minimise the repulsion between them. This is achieved by keeping the maximum number possible unpaired. Ti 2+ Ti 3+ Ti 4+ Ti 2+ and Ti 3+ have unpaired electrons and are paramagnetic. Ti 4+ has no unpaired electrons and is diamagnetic. Provide a systematic name for the complex trans-[ibr 2 (en) 2 ] and draw its structure. Is this complex chiral? Explain your reasoning. en = ethylenediamine = ethane-1,2-diamine 4 trans-dibromidobis(ethylenediamine)nickel(ii) or trans-dibromidobis(ethane-1,2-diamine)nickel(ii) It is not chiral as it is superimposable on (i.e. identical to) its mirror image.

14 CHEM ovember 2010 Complete the following table. (EDTA = ethylenediaminetetraacetate) Formula [i(h 3 ) 6 ](O 3 ) 2 trans-[ptcl 2 (H 3 ) 2 ] a[fe(edta)] 5 Oxidation state of Coordination number of umber of d-electrons in the Coordination geometry of the complex ion List all the ligand donor atoms +II +II +III octahedral square planar octahedral Cl,, O

15 CHEM J-2 June 2009 Explain in terms of their electronic configurations and ionisation energies why the halogens (Group 17) are powerful oxidising agents. 2 Oxidising agents are themselves reduced (i.e. they gain electrons). The electronic configuration of the halogens (Group 17) is np 5. They are small atoms (atomic size decreases across a period as the nuclear charge increases). In each period, the halogen is the element with the highest number of protons in the nucleus that also has an incomplete shell. As a result, they will readily gain a single electron to form the X ion. Similarly, the high nuclear charge and small size means that they have high ionisation energies. Hence halogens are poor reducing agents.

16 CHEM J-4 June 2009 Complete the following table. (en = ethylenediamine = H 2 CH 2 CH 2 H 2 ) Formula K 2 [CoCl 4 ] a 3 [FeBr(C) 5 ] [Zn(en) 2 (O 3 ) 2 ] 9 Oxidation state of Coordination number of umber of d-electrons in the +2 (II) +3 (III) +2 (II) (Co is in Group 9 so Co 2+ has 9 2= 7) 5 (Fe is in Group 8 so Fe 3+ has 8 3 = 5) 6 (4 from en and 2 O from O 3 - ) 10 (Zn is in Group 12 Zn 2+ has 12 2= 10) Charge of the complex ion [CoCl 4 ] 2- [FeBr(C) 5 ] 3- [Zn(en) 2 (O 3 ) 2 ] Geometry of the complex ion List all the ligand donor atoms tetrahedral octahedral octahedral 4 Cl 1 Br and 5 C 4 and 2 O

17 CHEM ovember 2009 Explain why compounds of d-block elements are frequently paramagnetic. Use examples in your answer. 2 Paramagnetism is the property of a compound to be attracted by an external magnetic field. It is a characteristic of any compound with unpaired electrons. d-block elements have from 1 to 10 electrons in the d-orbitals. When forming compounds, some of these may be lost to give paramagnetic species. Species with odd numbers of electrons must be paramagnetic, species with even numbers of d-electrons, may or may not be paramagnetic. eg Cu 2+, d 9 Zn 2+, d 10 must be paramagnetic must be diamagnetic Fe 2+, d 6 is paramagnetic Provide a systematic name for cis-[co(en) 2 Cl 2 ]Cl. Is this complex chiral? Explain your reasoning by drawing the structure of the complex. en = H 2 CH 2 CH 2 H 2 = ethane-1,2-diamine = ethylenediamine 3 cis-dichloridobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(iii) chloride or cis-dichloridobis(ethane-1,2-diamine)cobalt(iii) chloride The complex is chiral as it is not superimposable on its mirror image. Co Cl Cl + Cl Cl Co +

18 CHEM ovember 2009 Derive expressions for the equilibrium constants for the complexation of Pb 2+ (K 1 ) and of Ca 2+ (K 2 ) by EDTA 4. 3 Pb 2+ + EDTA 4 [Pb(EDTA)] 2 K 1 = Ca 2+ + EDTA 4 [Ca(EDTA)] 2 K 2 = Briefly explain why the chelating agent, EDTA, is administered as [Ca(EDTA)] 2 to treat lead poisoning and determine which of K 1 or K 2 must be greater for the therapy to be effective. K 1 must be greater than K 2 for the therapy to be effective. [Ca 2+ ] is much greater than [Pb 2+ ] in the body, so need K 1 > K 2 to form the Pb complex. If EDTA is not administered as the Ca complex, it will strip Ca 2+ from the body.

19 CHEM J-2 June 2008 Compounds of d-block elements are frequently paramagnetic. Using the box notation to represent atomic orbitals, explain why most Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ compounds are paramagnetic. 2 Iron is in Group 8 and thus has 8 valence electrons. Fe 2+ thus has (8 2) = 6 electrons and Fe 3+ has (8 3) = 5 electrons. These electrons occupy the 3d orbitals and do so to minimize the number of electron pairs, and thus minimize electron / electron repulsion. There are five 3d orbitals and thus the configurations are: Fe 2+ 3d 6 Fe 3+ 3d 5 c c With 4 and 5 unpaired electrons respectively, both Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ are paramagnetic. THE REMAIDER OF THIS PAGE IS FOR ROUGH WORKIG OLY.

20 CHEM J-4 June 2008 Complete the following table. (en = ethylenediamine = H 2 CH 2 CH 2 H 2 ) Formula (H 4 ) 2 [CoCl 4 ] [Cr(H 3 ) 5 (H 2 O)]Cl 3 cis-[ptcl 2 (en) 2 ] 9 Oxidation state of Coordination number of umber of d-electrons in the +2 (II) +3 (III) +2 (II) (Co is in Group 9 so Co 2+ has 9 2= 7) 3 (Cr is in Group 6 so Co 2+ has 6 3= 3) 6 (2 Cl and 4 from 2en) 8 (Pt is in Group 10 so Pt 2+ has 10 2= 8) Charge of the complex ion [CoCl 4 ] 2- [Cr(H 3 ) 5 (OH 2 )] 3+ [PtCl 2 (en)] Geometry of the complex ion List all the ligand donor atoms tetrahedral octahedral octahedral 4 Cl - 5 and 1 O 2 Cl - and 4

21 CHEM ovember 2008 Calculate the equilibrium constant for the following reaction. 3 AgI(s) + 2C (aq) [Ag(C) 2 ] (aq) + I (aq) Data: K stab of [Ag(C) 2 ] = ; K sp of AgI = The equations for the dissolution of AgI and the stability constant of the complex [Ag(C) 2 ] - are, respectively: AgI(s) Ag + (aq) + I - (aq) K sp = [Ag + (aq)][i - (aq)] Ag + (aq) + 2C - (aq) [Ag(C) 2 ] - (aq) K stab = 2 + [[Ag(C) ] (aq)] [Ag (aq)][c (aq)] Addition of these reactions gives the required reaction and so the equilibrium constant for the reaction is the product of the individual equilibrium constants: Hence, AgI(s) + 2C - (aq) [Ag(C) 2 ] - (aq) + I - (aq) K = K sp K stab = [Ag + (aq)][i - [[Ag(C) 2 ] (aq)] (aq)] + 2 [Ag (aq)][c (aq)] = 2 [[Ag(C) ] (aq)][i (aq)] [C (aq)] K = K sp K stab = ( ) ( ) = Answer:

22 CHEM ovember 2008 Which of the cations, [Fe(OH 2 ) 6 ] 3+ and [Fe(OH 2 ) 6 ] 2+, has the larger pk a? Briefly explain why. 2 Solutions containing both cations are acidic due to the equilibria: [Fe(OH 2 ) 6 ] 2+ (aq) [Fe(OH 2 ) 6 ] 3+ (aq) [Fe(OH 2 ) 5 (OH)] + (aq) + H + (aq) [Fe(OH 2 ) 5 (OH)] 2+ (aq) + H + (aq) The Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ cations polarize the Fe-OH 2 bond, pulling electron density from the oxygen. The oxygen, in turn, pulls electron density away towards itself in the O-H bond, causing H + to be produced. Fe 3+ has a higher charge and is smaller than Fe 2+ : it is more polarizing and so [Fe(OH 2 ) 6 ] 3+ is more acidic. The equilibrium is further to the right for [Fe(OH 2 ) 6 ] 3+ than it is for [Fe(OH 2 ) 6 ] 2+ so K a ([Fe(OH 2 ) 6 ] 3+ ) > K a ([Fe(OH 2 ) 6 ] 2+ ). As pk a = -log 10 K a, a higher K a means a lower pk a. Thus, [Fe(OH 2 ) 6 ] 3+ is the more acidic of the two cations and has the lower pk a value. Consider the compound [CrCl(OH 2 ) 4 (CS)]Cl 2H 2 O. The complex ion is [CrCl(OH 2 ) 4 (CS)] +. This contains Cr 3+ bonded to Cl -, 4H 2 O and one CS -. For each ligand, the donor atom is listed first. 3 What is the oxidation state of the? +3 or (III) What is the coordination number of the? 6 How many d-electrons in the? List all the ligand donor atoms. Cl -, 4 O and Cr is in group 6 so Cr(III) is d 3 Consider the complexes cis-[ptcl 2 (H 3 ) 2 ] and trans-[ptcl 2 (H 3 ) 2 ]. Draw the structures of the two isomers, clearly illustrating the stereochemistry. 3 The platinum is bonded to four ligands (2 Cl - and 2 H 3 ). With four ligands, two geometries are possible tetrahedral and square planar. Of these, only square planar gives rise to cis and trans-isomers and so the complexes must be square planar: Cl H 3 Cl Pt H 3 Cl Pt Cl H 3 H 3 cis-diamminedichloridoplatinum(ii) trans-diamminedichloridoplatinum(ii)

23 CHEM ovember 2008 Briefly suggest why cis-[ptcl 2 (H 3 ) 2 ] is an effective anti-cancer drug, but trans-[ptcl 2 (H 3 ) 2 ] is not. cis-[ptcl 2 (H 3 ) 2 ] is believed to act by binding the cis-pt(h 3 ) 2 group to two nearby nitrogen atoms on the bases of a strand of DA. This can only be achieved by the cis isomer the trans form has 180 between the vacant sites of the Pt(H 3 ) 2 group and is not able to bind in this way. The coordination of the platinum to the DA causes a kink in the α-helix of the DA and this prevents its replication.

24 CHEM J-2 June 2007 Compounds of d-block elements are frequently paramagnetic. Using the box notation to represent atomic orbitals, account for this property in compounds of V Paramagnetism is associated with the presence of unpaired electron spins. As vanadium is in group 5, V 3+ has two electrons in its 3d orbitals. These electrons occupy separate orbitals with the same spin to reduce the repulsion between them: 3d V 3+ thus has two unpaired electrons and is paramagnetic.

25 CHEM J-3 June 2007 Complete the following table. (en = ethylenediamine = H 2 CH 2 CH 2 H 2 ) Formula K 3 [Fe(C) 6 ] [Cu(H 3 ) 4 (H 2 O) 2 ](O 3 ) 2 cis-[crcl 2 (en) 2 ]Cl 3 Oxidation state of Coordination number of umber of d-electrons in the Species formed upon dissolving in water III or +3 II or +2 III or +3 6 (6 C - ) 6 (4 H H 2 O) 6 (2 Cl H 2 CH 2 CH 2 H 2 ) K + [Cu(H 3 ) 4 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2+ [Fe(C) 6 ] O 3 cis-[crcl 2 (en) 2 ] + Cl -

26 CHEM ovember 2007 What is a chelate ligand? 4 A chelate is a ligand with more than one donor atom that can bond to the same. Draw all possible isomers of [CoCl 2 (en) 2 ]. en = ethylenediamine = H 2 CH 2 CH 2 H 2 cis and trans geometric isomers are possible. The cis-isomer can exist as nonsuperimposable mirror images (enantiomers). Cl Co Cl Cl Co Cl Cl Cl Co trans- cis- cis- Explain briefly why the [Fe(H 2 O) 6 ] 3+ cation has a K a of M, whilst the [Fe(H 2 O) 6 ] 2+ cation has a K a of M. 2 The Fe 3+ ion has a higher charge and is smaller than the Fe 2+ ion it has a higher charge density. The higher charge density withdraws electron density from the oxygen and leading to a more polarised O H bonds that are more easily broken.

27 CHEM ovember 2007 Hemochromatosis or iron overload is a potentially fatal disorder in which excess iron is deposited in the bodily organs as insoluble hydrated iron(iii) oxide. It can be treated by administration of desferioxamine B (Desferal), a natural substance isolated from fungi. O H O H 3 Desferal H 3 O OH HO Desferal is taken over 8-12 hour periods up to six times per week. A value of log K = 30.6 is associated with the following equilibrium: O HO O Fe 3+ + LH 3 + FeL + + 3H + where LH 3 + = Desferal Briefly describe the chemical basis for the use of Desferal in iron overload therapy. The solubility of Fe 2 O 3 is very small - the equibrium for the reaction below lies far to the left: Fe 2 O 3 (s) + excess H 2 O 2Fe 3+ (aq) + 6OH (aq) Complexation of Fe 3+ ions with Desferal is very favourable the equilibrium for the reaction below lies far to the right (as K for this reaction is ): Fe 3+ + LH 3 + FeL + + 3H + where LH 3 + = Desferal The Desferal complexes all free Fe 3+ (aq) ions, so more Fe 2 O 3 must dissolve to reestablish the first equilibrium (le Chatelier's principle). Eventually all the Fe 2 O 3 will dissolve.

28 CHEM J-5 June 2006 Consider the compound with formula [CoCl 2 (H 3 ) 4 ]Br 2H 2 O. 3 Write the formula of the complex ion. [CoCl 2 (H 3 ) 4 ] + Write the symbols of the ligand donor atoms. Cl, What is the d electron configuration of the in this complex? Co 3+ : 3d 6

29 CHEM ovember 2006 Compounds of d-block elements are frequently paramagnetic. Using the box notation to represent atomic orbitals, account for this property in compounds of Cu As Cu is in group 11, it has 11 valence electrons. Cu 2+ therefore has (11 2) = 9. These occupy the five 3d orbitals: 4s 3d There is an unpaired electron and so Cu 2+ is paramagnetic. Complete the following table. 6 Formula Oxidation state of metal Coordination number of metal umber of d- electrons in the metal Species formed upon dissolving in water a 2 [CoCl 4 ] a +, [CoCl 4 ] 2- [i(h 3 ) 5 (H 2 O)]SO [i(h 3 ) 5 (H 2 O)] 2+, SO 4 2- [Cr(en) 3 ]Br [Cr(en) 3 ] 3+, Br - en = ethylenediamine = H 2 CH 2 CH 2 H 2

Q.1 Predict what will happen when SiCl 4 is added to water.

Q.1 Predict what will happen when SiCl 4 is added to water. Transition etals F325 1 The aqueous chemistry of cations Hydrolysis when salts dissolve in water the ions are stabilised by polar water molecules hydrolysis can occur and the resulting solution can become

More information

Coordination compounds

Coordination compounds Coordination compounds Multiple choice questions 1. In the complex formation, the central metal atom / ion acts as a) Lewis base b) Bronsted base c) Lewis acid d) Bronsted acid 2. The groups satisfying

More information

Q.1 Predict what will happen when SiCl 4 is added to water.

Q.1 Predict what will happen when SiCl 4 is added to water. Transition etals 1 The aqueous chemistry of cations Hydrolysis when salts dissolve in water the ions are stabilised by polar water molecules hydrolysis can occur and the resulting solution can become acidic

More information

Topic 5 Transition Elements Revision Notes

Topic 5 Transition Elements Revision Notes Topic 5 Transition Elements Revision Notes 1) Introduction The d-block is the ten short columns in the middle of the Periodic Table. All of the elements in the d-block have their highest energy (outermost)

More information

Transition Metal Chemistry and Coordination Compounds

Transition Metal Chemistry and Coordination Compounds Transition Metal Chemistry and Coordination Compounds Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Properties of the Transition Metals All transition metals

More information

CHEM J-4 June 2013

CHEM J-4 June 2013 CHEM110 013-J-4 June 013 Describe the periodic trends exhibited by atomic radii. Justify these trends in terms of principal quantum number, n, and effective nuclear charge, Z eff. Atomic radius decreases

More information

Chapter 23 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

Chapter 23 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry Chapter 23 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry Many compounds of transition metals are colored (used in paints and to stain glass; produce color in gemstones). 23.1 The Transition Metals Most

More information

Metallic best heat conductor of heat and e the second. Ionic compounds often contain more than one oxidation state

Metallic best heat conductor of heat and e the second. Ionic compounds often contain more than one oxidation state 21 Transition metals and coordination chemistry Transition metals in general Importance Cr stainless steel Mn steelmaking Pt, Pd catalysts Fe transport of oygen nitrogen fiation (Mo also) Zn catalyst in

More information

Transition Metal Complexes

Transition Metal Complexes 2P32 Principles of Inorganic Chemistry Dr. M. Pilkington Lecture 4 - Transition Metal Complexes Transition Metal Complexes: Definitions and Terminology. Isomerism in Transition Metal Complexes: Structural

More information

Ch. 23: Transition metals and Coordination Chemistry

Ch. 23: Transition metals and Coordination Chemistry Ch. 23: Transition metals and Coordination Chemistry Learning goals and key skills: Determine the oxidation number and number of d electrons for metal ions in complexes Name coordination compounds given

More information

(a) (i) Explain what is meant by the terms transition element, complex ion and ligand,

(a) (i) Explain what is meant by the terms transition element, complex ion and ligand, 1. This question looks at the chemistry of transition elements. (a) Explain what is meant by the terms transition element, complex ion and ligand, Discuss, with examples, equations and observations, the

More information

Bonding in Coordination Compounds. Crystal Field Theory. Bonding in Transition Metal Complexes

Bonding in Coordination Compounds. Crystal Field Theory. Bonding in Transition Metal Complexes Bonding in Transition Metal Complexes 1) Crystal Field Theory (ligand field theory) Crystal Field Theory Treat igands as negative charges (they repel the e- in the d orbitals deals only with d orbitals

More information

Complexes. Commonly, transition metals can have molecules or ions that bond to them. These give rise to complex ions or coordination compounds.

Complexes. Commonly, transition metals can have molecules or ions that bond to them. These give rise to complex ions or coordination compounds. Complexes Commonly, transition metals can have molecules or ions that bond to them. These give rise to complex ions or coordination compounds. Coordination Compounds Coordinate covalent bond both electrons

More information

Chapter 19: Phenomena

Chapter 19: Phenomena Chapter 19: Phenomena Phenomena: Transition metal complexes are often used in paints for coloration due to their wide range of colors. Using the data below identify any patterns in the colors of compounds.

More information

Question 9.1: Explain the bonding in coordination compounds in terms of Werner s postulates. Werner s postulates explain the bonding in coordination compounds as follows: (i) A metal exhibits two types

More information

Chapter 19: Phenomena

Chapter 19: Phenomena Chapter 19: Phenomena Phenomena: Transition metal complexes are often used in paints for coloration due to their wide range of colors. Using the data below identify any patterns in the colors of compounds.

More information

Solubility. Note on Units. Solubility Equilibria - how much dissolves? Silberberg 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 19.3, 19.4 Problem book

Solubility. Note on Units. Solubility Equilibria - how much dissolves? Silberberg 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 19.3, 19.4 Problem book Solubility Silberberg 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 19.3, 19.4 Problem book 8.63-8.82 ote on Units ncentrations of dissolved substances (1) mass % = (grams solute/grams solution) x 100 e.g., 5.0 g sugar (teaspoon)

More information

CO-ORDINATION COMPOUNDS AND CHEMICAL BONDING QUESTIONS

CO-ORDINATION COMPOUNDS AND CHEMICAL BONDING QUESTIONS C-RDITI CMPUDS D CEMICL BDIG QUESTIS 1. IUPC name of [Pt ( Br ( CI CI is a. triamine chloro bromo nitro platinum (IV Chloride b. triamine chloro bromo nitro platinum (IV Chloride c. triamine bromo chloro

More information

A-level CHEMISTRY (7405/1)

A-level CHEMISTRY (7405/1) A-level CHEMISTRY (7405/) Paper : Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Mark scheme Specimen paper MARK SCHEME A-LEVEL CHEMISTRY 7405/ - SPECIMEN Mark schemes are prepared by the Lead Assessment Writer and

More information

Practice Problems: Transition Elements and Coordination Chemistry. # Ligands Coordination # Oxidation #

Practice Problems: Transition Elements and Coordination Chemistry. # Ligands Coordination # Oxidation # Practice Problems: Transition Elements and Coordination Chemistry 1. Complete the valence level orbital notation for the following monatomic ions. KEY CHEM 1B a) Ag + b) Co 3+ 4d 5s 3d 4s c) Fe 3+ d) Cr

More information

Transition Elements. pranjoto utomo

Transition Elements. pranjoto utomo Transition Elements pranjoto utomo Definition What is transition metal? One of which forms one or more stable ions which have incompletely filled d orbitals. 30Zn? Definition Zink is not transition elements

More information

The Transition Elements and Coordination Compounds

The Transition Elements and Coordination Compounds Chapter 22 The Transition Elements and Coordination Compounds Concept Check 22.1 Another complex studied by Werner had a composition corresponding to the formula PtCl 4 2KCl. From electrical-conductance

More information

Coordination Chemistry: Bonding Theories. Crystal Field Theory. Chapter 20

Coordination Chemistry: Bonding Theories. Crystal Field Theory. Chapter 20 Coordination Chemistry: Bonding Theories Crystal Field Theory Chapter 0 Review of the Previous Lecture 1. We discussed different types of isomerism in coordination chemistry Structural or constitutional

More information

Chemistry 1B. Fall Lectures Coordination Chemistry

Chemistry 1B. Fall Lectures Coordination Chemistry Chemistry 1B Fall 2013 Lectures 13-14 Coordination Chemistry 1 LISTEN UP!!! WE WILL ONLY COVER LIMITED PARTS OF CHAPTER 19 (940-944;952-954;963-970) 2 good reasons for studying coordination chemistry a

More information

CHM-115-A Sample Exam a

CHM-115-A Sample Exam a 1. Which of the following is not a mode of nuclear decay? a. neutron capture b. positron emission c. electron capture d. alpha emission e. electron emission 2. Which one of the following processes results

More information

CHAPTER - 9 ORDINATION COMPOUNDS

CHAPTER - 9 ORDINATION COMPOUNDS CHAPTER - 9 CO-O ORDINATION COMPOUNDS Formulas for coordinationn compounds: Tetraamineaquachloridocobalt (III) chloride ---- [Co(NH 3 ) 4 (H 2 O) Cl]Cl 2 Potassium tetrahydroxozincate (II) ------- K 2

More information

NAME: SECOND EXAMINATION

NAME: SECOND EXAMINATION 1 Chemistry 64 Winter 1994 NAME: SECOND EXAMINATION THIS EXAMINATION IS WORTH 100 POINTS AND CONTAINS 4 (FOUR) QUESTIONS THEY ARE NOT EQUALLY WEIGHTED! YOU SHOULD ATTEMPT ALL QUESTIONS AND ALLOCATE YOUR

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 992_3rd_Exam_1000518 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) For the reaction: Mg(s) + 2 AgNO3(aq) 2 Ag(s) + Mg(NO3)2(aq) Write a voltaic

More information

5.3.1 Transition Elements

5.3.1 Transition Elements 5.3.1 Transition Elements General properties of transition metals transition metal characteristics of elements Ti u arise from an incomplete d sub-level in ions these characteristics include formation

More information

The presence of these ions can be confirmed by reacting separate samples of solution X with aqueous ammonia and with aqueous sodium carbonate. ...

The presence of these ions can be confirmed by reacting separate samples of solution X with aqueous ammonia and with aqueous sodium carbonate. ... Q1.A green solution, X, is thought to contain [Fe(H 2 O) 6 ] 2+ ions. The presence of these ions can be confirmed by reacting separate samples of solution X with aqueous ammonia and with aqueous sodium

More information

11/9/15. Intermolecular hydrogen bond: Hydrogen bond: Intramolecular hydrogen bond: Induced dipole moment, polarisability

11/9/15. Intermolecular hydrogen bond: Hydrogen bond: Intramolecular hydrogen bond: Induced dipole moment, polarisability Induced dipole moment, polarisability in electric field: Van der Waals forces Intermolecular forces other than covalent bonds or other than electrostatic interactions of ions induced d. moment µ * = α

More information

CHEMISTRY 112 FINAL EXAM June 24, 2013 FORM A 1. The following data was obtained for a reaction. The slope of the line is!2.8 " 10 3 K and the intercept is!0.44. What is the activation energy of the reaction?

More information

Topic 5.5 REACTIONS OF INORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SOLUTION. Lewis Acids and Bases Hydrated Metal Cations Reactions of Complex Ions

Topic 5.5 REACTIONS OF INORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SOLUTION. Lewis Acids and Bases Hydrated Metal Cations Reactions of Complex Ions Topic 5.5 REACTINS F INRGANIC CMPUNDS IN SLUTIN Lewis Acids and Bases ydrated Metal Cations Reactions of Complex Ions LEWIS ACIDS AND BASES A Lewis acid is a species which can bond by accepting a lone

More information

Topics in the November 2014 Exam Paper for CHEM1101

Topics in the November 2014 Exam Paper for CHEM1101 November 2014 Topics in the November 2014 Exam Paper for CHEM1101 Click on the links for resources on each topic. 2014-N-2: 2014-N-3: 2014-N-4: 2014-N-5: 2014-N-7: 2014-N-8: 2014-N-9: 2014-N-10: 2014-N-11:

More information

RDCH 702 Lecture 4: Orbitals and energetics

RDCH 702 Lecture 4: Orbitals and energetics RDCH 702 Lecture 4: Orbitals and energetics Molecular symmetry Bonding and structure Molecular orbital theory Crystal field theory Ligand field theory Provide fundamental understanding of chemistry dictating

More information

Valence Bond Theory - Description

Valence Bond Theory - Description Bonding and Molecular Structure - PART 2 - Valence Bond Theory and Hybridization 1. Understand and be able to describe the Valence Bond Theory description of covalent bond formation. 2. Understand and

More information

BASICS OUTLINE 8/23/17. Start reading White (CH 1) QoD Schedule

BASICS OUTLINE 8/23/17. Start reading White (CH 1) QoD Schedule BASICS Start reading White (CH 1) QoD Schedule OUTLINE Periodic table & electronic configurations. Periodic properties: ionic radius, electron negativity, 1st ionization potential Covalent & ionic bonding

More information

CHEM J-6 June 2014

CHEM J-6 June 2014 CHEM1102 2014-J-6 June 2014 A solution is prepared that contains sodium chloride and sodium chromate (both 0.10 M). When a concentrated solution of silver nitrate is added slowly, white AgCl(s) begins

More information

Explain how the electron pair repulsion theory can be used to deduce the shape of, and the bond angle in, PF

Explain how the electron pair repulsion theory can be used to deduce the shape of, and the bond angle in, PF (a) Explain how the electron pair repulsion theory can be used to deduce the shape of, and the bond angle in, PF 3 (6) (b) State the full electron configuration of a cobalt(ii) ion. () (c) Suggest one

More information

NAME: 3rd (final) EXAM

NAME: 3rd (final) EXAM 1 Chem 64 Winter 2003 AME: 3rd (final) EXAM THIS EXAM IS WORTH 100 POITS AD COTAIS 9 QUESTIOS THEY ARE OT EQUALLY WEIGHTED! YOU SHOULD ATTEMPT ALL QUESTIOS AD ALLOCATE YOUR TIME ACCORDIGLY IF YOU DO'T

More information

Some chemistry of the Periodic Table. Electronic configuration and oxidation states of the transition metals

Some chemistry of the Periodic Table. Electronic configuration and oxidation states of the transition metals Some chemistry of the Periodic Table Electronic configuration and oxidation states of the transition metals Electronic configuration The d-block transition metals are defined as metals with an incomplete

More information

Coordination Number Six

Coordination Number Six Coordination Number Six 241 Octahedral is a very important geometry. It is the starting point for the shapes of most transition metal complexes. 1. Regular octahedron all distances are EQUIVALENT 2. Distorted

More information

E5 Lewis Acids and Bases: Complexation

E5 Lewis Acids and Bases: Complexation chem.125/126 review E5 W09 Hourly II page 1 /5 E5 Lewis Acids and Bases: Complexation 1. ACIDITY OF CATIONS (Part 1) Cations are Lewis acids and exist as aquo complex ions in aqueous solution. Example:

More information

Unit Six --- Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Unit Six --- Ionic and Covalent Bonds Unit Six --- Ionic and Covalent Bonds Electron Configuration in Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonds Bonding in Metals Valence Electrons Electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an element s atoms Examples

More information

Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria

Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria Contents and Concepts Solubility Equilibria 1. The Solubility Product Constant 2. Solubility and the Common-Ion Effect 3. Precipitation Calculations 4. Effect of ph

More information

CHEM5 (JUN13CHEM501) General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June Unit 5 Energetics, Redox and Inorganic Chemistry

CHEM5 (JUN13CHEM501) General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June Unit 5 Energetics, Redox and Inorganic Chemistry Centre Number Surname Candidate Number For Examiner s Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examiner s Initials General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June 2013 Question 1 2 Mark Chemistry

More information

Assessment Schedule 2014 Scholarship Chemistry (93102) Evidence Statement

Assessment Schedule 2014 Scholarship Chemistry (93102) Evidence Statement Assessment Schedule 2014 Scholarship Chemistry (93102) Evidence Statement Scholarship Chemistry (93102) 2014 page 1 of 10 Question ONE (a)(i) Evidence Na(s) to Na(g) will require less energy than vaporisation

More information

Transition Metal Elements and Their Coordination Compounds

Transition Metal Elements and Their Coordination Compounds Fernando O. Raineri Office Hours: MWF 9:30-10:30 AM Room 519 Tue. 3:00-5:00 CLC (lobby). Transition Metal Elements and Their Coordination Compounds 2 Compounds. Naming and Geometry. 1 3 p.1046a 4 Fig.

More information

D [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 1 (Total 1 mark) D NH and NH 3 (Total 1 mark) A co-ordinate bond is formed when a transition metal ion reacts with a ligand. ...

D [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 1 (Total 1 mark) D NH and NH 3 (Total 1 mark) A co-ordinate bond is formed when a transition metal ion reacts with a ligand. ... Q1.Which one of the following electronic configurations is that of a transition element? A [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 B [Ar] 4s 2 3d 9 C [A] 4s 2 3d 0 D [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 1 (Total 1 mark) Q2.Which of the species

More information

Coordination Compounds. Compounds containing Transition Metals

Coordination Compounds. Compounds containing Transition Metals Coordination Compounds Compounds containing Transition Metals Coordination Compounds Transition Metals Sc 6 Cu 1st row Y 6 Ag 2nd row La 6 Au 3rd row Properties of metals Not as reactive as group 1 or

More information

CHEM1902/ N-2 November 2014

CHEM1902/ N-2 November 2014 CHEM1902/4 2014-N-2 November 2014 The cubic form of boron nitride (borazon) is the second-hardest material after diamond and it crystallizes with the structure shown below. The large spheres represent

More information

Crystal Field Theory

Crystal Field Theory Crystal Field Theory It is not a bonding theory Method of explaining some physical properties that occur in transition metal complexes. Involves a simple electrostatic argument which can yield reasonable

More information

Question Answer Marks Guidance 1 (a) (+)5 1 ALLOW 5+ OR V OR Cr 5+ 1 (b) For equations, IGNORE any state symbols; ALLOW multiples

Question Answer Marks Guidance 1 (a) (+)5 1 ALLOW 5+ OR V OR Cr 5+ 1 (b) For equations, IGNORE any state symbols; ALLOW multiples Question Answer Marks Guidance 1 (a) (+)5 1 ALLW 5+ R V R Cr 5+ 1 (b) For equations, IGNRE any state symbols; ALLW multiples EXAMPLES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More information

Chapter 7. Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts

Chapter 7. Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts Chapter 7. Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts Chemical bond: is an attractive force that holds 2 atoms together and forms as a result of interactions between electrons found in combining atoms We rarely

More information

Final. Mark Scheme. Chemistry CHEM5. (Specification 2420) Unit 5: Energetics, Redox and Inorganic Chemistry

Final. Mark Scheme. Chemistry CHEM5. (Specification 2420) Unit 5: Energetics, Redox and Inorganic Chemistry Version.2 General Certificate of Education (A-level) January 202 Chemistry CHEM5 (Specification 2420) Unit 5: Energetics, Redox and Inorganic Chemistry Final Mark Scheme Mark schemes are prepared by the

More information

CHEM 116-Dr. Babb s Sections Answer Key to Lecture Problem Sheet Questions for Chapters 20, 21, and 23.

CHEM 116-Dr. Babb s Sections Answer Key to Lecture Problem Sheet Questions for Chapters 20, 21, and 23. CHEM 116-Dr. Babb s Sections Answer Key to Lecture Problem Sheet Questions for Chapters 20, 21, and 23. 199. First complex: Co(NH 3 ) 6 Cl 3 + 3 AgNO 3 > Co(NH 3 ) 6 +3 + 3 AgCl(s); the three Cl - are

More information

7 COMPLEX FORMATION 7.1 WHAT IS A METAL COMPLEX?

7 COMPLEX FORMATION 7.1 WHAT IS A METAL COMPLEX? 7 COMPLEX ORMATION 7.1 WHAT IS A METAL COMPLEX? What is your picture of copper (II) nitrate dissolved in water? Most likely, it would be that the ions are floating around individually at random. This is

More information

Copper Chemistry. Cu : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 3d 10

Copper Chemistry. Cu : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 3d 10 Copper Chemistry Cu : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 3d 10 F. A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, C. A. Murillo, M. Bochman, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 6 th ed., John Wiley, New York, pp. 855-864. 1 Cuhasasingleselectroninitsfourthshell.Onemaybeinclinedtothink,basedon

More information

AP Chemistry Table of Contents: Ksp & Solubility Products Click on the topic to go to that section

AP Chemistry Table of Contents: Ksp & Solubility Products Click on the topic to go to that section Slide 1 / 91 Slide 2 / 91 AP Chemistry Aqueous Equilibria II: Ksp & Solubility Products Table of Contents: K sp & Solubility Products Slide 3 / 91 Click on the topic to go to that section Introduction

More information

Modified Dr. Cheng-Yu Lai

Modified Dr. Cheng-Yu Lai Ch16 Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium Solubility and Complex Ion Equilibria Lead (II) iodide precipitates when potassium iodide is mixed with lead (II) nitrate Modified Dr. Cheng-Yu Lai Solubility-product constant

More information

Chapter 14 Inorganic Chemistry

Chapter 14 Inorganic Chemistry Chapter 14 Inorganic Chemistry Introduction Organic chemistry is based on the chemistry of carbon, so that leaves the chemistry of over 100 other elements to be characterized as inorganic chemistry. The

More information

Chemistry STD-XII-Science-Top concepts and Notes on d and f block elements. The d and f-block Elements Top 15 Concepts

Chemistry STD-XII-Science-Top concepts and Notes on d and f block elements. The d and f-block Elements Top 15 Concepts The d and f-block Elements Top 15 Concepts 1. d -Block elements: The elements lying in the middle of periodic table belonging to groups 3 to 12 are known as d block elements. Their general electronic configuration

More information

AQA A2 CHEMISTRY TOPIC 5.3 REDOX EQUILIBRIA BOOKLET OF PAST EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

AQA A2 CHEMISTRY TOPIC 5.3 REDOX EQUILIBRIA BOOKLET OF PAST EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AQA A2 CHEMISTRY TOPIC 5.3 REDOX EQUILIBRIA BOOKLET OF PAST EXAMINATION QUESTIONS 1. (a) Define the term oxidising agent in terms of electrons.... 2. Use the data in the table below, where appropriate,

More information

Chapter 7 The Structure of Atoms and Periodic Trends

Chapter 7 The Structure of Atoms and Periodic Trends Chapter 7 The Structure of Atoms and Periodic Trends Jeffrey Mack California State University, Sacramento Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms Electrons in atoms are arranged as SHELLS (n) SUBSHELLS (l) ORBITALS

More information

CHEM J-3 June No. The molecule is linear so the dipoles in the C=O bonds cancel each other out.

CHEM J-3 June No. The molecule is linear so the dipoles in the C=O bonds cancel each other out. HEM1611 201-J-3 June 201 omplete the following table. 12 Molecule 2 S 2 Draw a Lewis structure ame the molecular geometry linear bent (approx 120 ) Does the molecule have a dipole moment? Give a reason

More information

Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes; VSEPR, Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories

Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes; VSEPR, Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 1 0 P a g e 1 Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes; VSEPR, Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories Homework: Read Chapter 10: Work out sample/practice

More information

AQA A2 CHEMISTRY TOPIC 5.4 TRANSITION METALS PART 2 REDOX REACTIONS AND CATALYSIS BOOKLET OF PAST EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

AQA A2 CHEMISTRY TOPIC 5.4 TRANSITION METALS PART 2 REDOX REACTIONS AND CATALYSIS BOOKLET OF PAST EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AQA A2 CHEMISTRY TOPIC 5.4 TRANSITION METALS PART 2 REDOX REACTIONS AND CATALYSIS BOOKLET OF PAST EXAMINATION QUESTIONS 1. Chemical reactions can be affected by homogeneous or by heterogeneous catalysts.

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Choose the polydentate ligand from the substances below. 1) A) oxalate ion B) nitrite

More information

CH 221 Chapter Four Part II Concept Guide

CH 221 Chapter Four Part II Concept Guide CH 221 Chapter Four Part II Concept Guide 1. Solubility Why are some compounds soluble and others insoluble? In solid potassium permanganate, KMnO 4, the potassium ions, which have a charge of +1, are

More information

CHAPTER TEN MOLECULAR GEOMETRY MOLECULAR GEOMETRY V S E P R CHEMICAL BONDING II: MOLECULAR GEOMETRY AND HYBRIDIZATION OF ATOMIC ORBITALS

CHAPTER TEN MOLECULAR GEOMETRY MOLECULAR GEOMETRY V S E P R CHEMICAL BONDING II: MOLECULAR GEOMETRY AND HYBRIDIZATION OF ATOMIC ORBITALS CHAPTER TEN CHEMICAL BONDING II: AND HYBRIDIZATION O ATOMIC ORBITALS V S E P R VSEPR Theory In VSEPR theory, multiple bonds behave like a single electron pair Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR)

More information

Chapter 23. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

Chapter 23. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry Chapter 23 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry The Transition Metals: Exact Definition Transition metal: An element whose atom has an incomplete d subshell or which can give rise to cations with

More information

Cartoon courtesy of NearingZero.net. Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Cartoon courtesy of NearingZero.net. Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Cartoon courtesy of NearingZero.net Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Chemical Bonds Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. 3 Major Types: Ionic bonds transfer

More information

1. This question is about Group 7 of the Periodic Table - the halogens. The standard electrode potentials for these elements are given below.

1. This question is about Group 7 of the Periodic Table - the halogens. The standard electrode potentials for these elements are given below. 1. This question is about Group 7 of the Periodic Table - the halogens. The standard electrode potentials for these elements are given below. Electrode reaction E /V 1 F 2 2 + e F +2.87 1 Cl 2 2 + e Cl

More information

Chapter 21 d-block metal chemistry: coordination complexes

Chapter 21 d-block metal chemistry: coordination complexes Chapter 21 d-block metal chemistry: coordination complexes Bonding: valence bond, crystal field theory, MO Spectrochemical series Crystal field stabilization energy (CFSE) Electronic Spectra Magnetic Properties

More information

Chemical Bonds In elements and compounds, the atoms are held together by chemical bonds.

Chemical Bonds In elements and compounds, the atoms are held together by chemical bonds. Chemical Bonds In elements and compounds, the atoms are held together by chemical bonds. Forming a bond makes an atom more stable, so atoms form as many bonds are they are able to. Bonds are made using

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 1 Chapter 4 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions (4.1) Precipitation Reactions (4.2) Acid-Base Reactions (4.3) Oxidation-Reduction Reactions (4.4) Concentration of Solutions

More information

Spectrochemical Series of some d-block Transition Metal Complexes

Spectrochemical Series of some d-block Transition Metal Complexes Spectrochemical Series of some d-block Transition Metal Complexes (Adapted from: Inorganic Chemistry: Discovery Laboratory Experiments for Part 1 by Gary Wulfsberg) Introduction: Description of some of

More information

Study Guide for Final Exam, Ch , Chem1B, General Chemistry II

Study Guide for Final Exam, Ch , Chem1B, General Chemistry II Study Guide for Final Exam, Ch. 14-21, 24-25 Chem1B, General Chemistry II MEMORIZE Rate Law, rate = k[a] m [B] n K c = ([products])/([reactants]), Q = ([products])/([reactants]) List of strong acids/bases

More information

CHERRY HILL TUITION EDEXCEL CHEMISTRY A2 PAPER 24 MARK SCHEME

CHERRY HILL TUITION EDEXCEL CHEMISTRY A2 PAPER 24 MARK SCHEME Chemistry Advanced Level Paper 1 (9CH0/01) Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark 1(a) A = CaO(s) (1) B = CO 2 (g) (1) C = Ca(OH) 2 (aq)/(s) (1) D = CaCl 2 (aq) (1) E = CaCO 3 (s) (1) Allow Ca(HCO

More information

Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria

Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria Solubility Equilibria Many natural processes depend on the precipitation or dissolving of a slightly soluble salt. In the next section, we look at the equilibria of

More information

Chem 105 Final Exam. Here is the summary of the total 225 points plus 10 bonus points. Carefully read the questions. Good luck!

Chem 105 Final Exam. Here is the summary of the total 225 points plus 10 bonus points. Carefully read the questions. Good luck! May 3 rd, 2012 Name: CLID: Score: Chem 105 Final Exam There are 50 multiple choices that are worth 3 points each. There are 4 problems and 1 bonus problem. Try to answer the questions, which you know first,

More information

Chapter 6: Chemical Bonding

Chapter 6: Chemical Bonding Chapter 6: Chemical Bonding Learning Objectives Describe the formation of ions by electron loss/gain to obtain the electronic configuration of a noble gas. Describe the formation of ionic bonds between

More information

Chemistry of Coordination Compounds - Chapter 19

Chemistry of Coordination Compounds - Chapter 19 Page III-19-1 / Chapter Nineteen Lecture Notes Chemistry of Coordination Compounds - Chapter 19 Color Theory Where does the color of objects come from? From the paint covering the object! Where does the

More information

If you put an electron into the t 2g, like that for Ti 3+, then you stabilize the barycenter of the d orbitals by 0.4 D o.

If you put an electron into the t 2g, like that for Ti 3+, then you stabilize the barycenter of the d orbitals by 0.4 D o. Crystal Field Stabilization Energy Week 2-1 Octahedral Symmetry (O h ) If you put an electron into the t 2g, like that for Ti 3+, then you stabilize the barycenter of the d orbitals by 0.4 D o. Each additional

More information

Jahn-Teller Distortions

Jahn-Teller Distortions Selections from Chapters 9 & 16 The transition metals (IV) CHEM 62 Monday, November 22 T. Hughbanks Jahn-Teller Distortions Jahn-Teller Theorem: Nonlinear Molecules in orbitally degenerate states are inherently

More information

Coordination Chemistry

Coordination Chemistry Coordination Chemistry 1893 To central atom, more ligands can be bound then is its oxidation number Alfred Werner (1866-1919) P in Chemistry 1913 [Co II (gly) 3 ] - 1 Coordination Compounds [Co(H 3 ) 6

More information

Frequency of scores on exam 2. Grade = n(right)/28 x 100

Frequency of scores on exam 2. Grade = n(right)/28 x 100 1 Frequency of scores on exam 2 Grade = n(right)/28 x 100 2 Photochemistry and biology Photons can be toxic (cause DNA bases to dimerize) Photons can be therapeutic: phototherapy Photons can track thoughts,

More information

Chemistry for the gifted and talented 45

Chemistry for the gifted and talented 45 45 Curly arrows and stereoselectivity in organic reactions Student worksheet: CDROM index 23SW Discussion of answers: CDROM index 23DA Topics Curly arrows, the mechanism for esterification, inversion during

More information

Inorganic Chemistry 411/511 Final Exam Name 115 minutes; 200 points total Show your work for partial credit.

Inorganic Chemistry 411/511 Final Exam Name 115 minutes; 200 points total Show your work for partial credit. Inorganic Chemistry 411/511 Final Exam Name 115 minutes; 200 points total Show your work for partial credit. 1 1. Draw the molecular geometry and indicate any deviations from ideal VSEPR coordination angles.

More information

CHEM1101 Worksheet 6: Lone Pairs and Molecular Geometry

CHEM1101 Worksheet 6: Lone Pairs and Molecular Geometry CHEM1101 Worksheet 6: Lone Pairs and Molecular Geometry Model 1: Oxidation numbers Oxidation numbers are a useful accountancy tool to help keep track of electrons in compounds and reactions. This is particularly

More information

Introduction to Chemical Bonding

Introduction to Chemical Bonding Chemical Bonding Introduction to Chemical Bonding Chemical bond! is a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together Why are most

More information

MODEL QUESTION PAPER FOR SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT CHEMISTRY PART-A

MODEL QUESTION PAPER FOR SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT CHEMISTRY PART-A MODEL QUESTION PAPER FOR SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT CHEMISTRY Time: 3 Hours Max Marks: 70 INSTRUCTIONS: i) The question paper has five parts A.B.C.D and E. All the parts are compulsory. Write balanced chemical

More information

Complex (Coordination) Compounds

Complex (Coordination) Compounds Complex (Coordination) Compounds Common chemical compounds are built according to the rules of valence: NН 3, Н 2 O, НCl and so on. These compounds are relatively simple. They can react with each other

More information

Problem Solving. Redox Equations

Problem Solving. Redox Equations Skills Worksheet Problem Solving Redox Equations The feature that distinguishes redox reactions from other types of reactions is that elements change oxidation state by gaining or losing electrons. Compare

More information

CHEM J-3 June 2014

CHEM J-3 June 2014 CEM1101 2014-J-3 June 2014 (R)-Carvone is a typical terpene, a class of compounds widely distributed in nature. n the structure of (R)-carvone below, circle all of the carbon atoms with trigonal planar

More information

Chapter 7. Generally, the electronic structure of atoms correlates w. the prop. of the elements

Chapter 7. Generally, the electronic structure of atoms correlates w. the prop. of the elements Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements I) Development of the P.T. Generally, the electronic structure of atoms correlates w. the prop. of the elements - reflected by the arrangement of the elements

More information

#35 balance the following chemical equations a) SiI 4(s) + 2Mg (s)! Si (s) + 2MgI 2(s) Si = 1 I = 4 Mg = 1 2. Si = 1 I = 2 4 Mg = 1 2 (1,2,1,2)

#35 balance the following chemical equations a) SiI 4(s) + 2Mg (s)! Si (s) + 2MgI 2(s) Si = 1 I = 4 Mg = 1 2. Si = 1 I = 2 4 Mg = 1 2 (1,2,1,2) #35 balance the following chemical equations a) SiI 4(s) 2Mg (s)! Si (s) 2MgI 2(s) Si = 1 I = 4 Mg = 1 2 Si = 1 I = 2 4 Mg = 1 2 SiI 4(s) 2Mg (s)! Si (s) 2MgI 2(s) (1,2,1,2) b) MnO 2(s) 2Mg (s)! Mn (s)

More information

Fill in the chart below to determine the valence electrons of elements 3-10

Fill in the chart below to determine the valence electrons of elements 3-10 Chemistry 11 Atomic Theory IV Name: Date: Block: 1. Lewis Diagrams 2. VSEPR Lewis Diagrams Lewis diagrams show the bonding between atoms of a molecule. Only the outermost electrons of an atom (called electrons)

More information

The d-block elements. Transition metal chemistry is d-orbitals/electrons

The d-block elements. Transition metal chemistry is d-orbitals/electrons The d-block elements d-block elements include Sc-Zn, Y-Cd, a(or u)-hg. Transition metal chemistry is d-orbitals/electrons H&S, Fig 1.1, p. 15 Properties of transition metal ions are very sensitive to the

More information

Properties of Acids and Bases

Properties of Acids and Bases Chapter 15 Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases Generally, an acid is a compound that releases hydrogen ions, H +, into water. Blue litmus is used to test for acids. Blue litmus

More information