Chapters 29 and 35 Thermochemistry and Chemical Thermodynamics

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapters 29 and 35 Thermochemistry and Chemical Thermodynamics"

Transcription

1 Chapters 9 and 35 Thermchemistry and Chemical Thermdynamics 1 Cpyright (c) 011 by Michael A. Janusa, PhD. All rights reserved.

2 Thermchemistry Thermchemistry is the study f the energy effects that accmpany chemical reactins. Why d chemical reactins ccur? What is the driving frce f rxn? Answer: Stability, wants t get t lwer E. Fr a rxn t take place spntaneusly the prducts f reactin must be mre stable (lwer E) than the starting reactants. Nnspntaneus means never happen by self. R release E, spn absrb E, nnspn P E P E R higher E, less stable, mre reactive lwer E, mre stable, less reactive

3 ( 9.1 Reactin Enthalpy In chemical reactins, heat is ften transferred frm the system r reactin t its surrundings, r vice versa. system - the substance r mixture f substances under study in which a change ccurs. The surrundings are everything in the vicinity f the thermdynamic system. system r rxn + int system - ut system surrundings 3

4 eat f Reactin eat flw is defined as the energy that flws int r ut f a system. We fllw heat flw by watching the difference in temperature between the system and its surrundings. Often we fllw the surrundings temp (slvent) and must realize that the ppsite is happening t the system. If system is absrbing heat frm the surrundings than the temp f the surrundings must be decreasing. T system (+) T surr (-) 4

5 eat f Reactin eat flw r heat f reactin is dented by the symbl q and is the amunt f heat required t return a system t the given temperature at the cmpletin f the reactin. Fr an endthermic rxn the sign f q is psitive; heat is absrbed by the system frm the surrundings. Surrundings absrb heat, nnspn (end) P T system T surr E R +q System q > 0 5

6 eat f Reactin Fr an exthermic rxn, the sign f q is negative; heat is evlved (released) by the system t the surrundings. Surrundings T system R release heat, spn (ex) T surr System -q E P q < 0 6

7 Enthalpy and Enthalpy Change The heat absrbed r evlved by a reactin depends n the cnditins under which it ccurs. ex. pressure Usually, a reactin takes place in an pen vessel, and therefre under the cnstant pressure f the atmsphere. heat f this type f reactin is dented q p ; this heat at cnstant pressure is named enthalpy and given symbl. is the heat flw at cnstant pressure. 7

8 Enthalpy and Enthalpy Change Enthalpy, dented, is an extensive prperty f a substance that can be used t btain the heat absrbed r evlved in a chemical reactin at cnstant pressure. an extensive prperty - depends n the quantity f substance. Enthalpy is a state functin, a prperty f a system that depends nly n its present state and is independent f any previus histry f the system. 8

9 Enthalpy and Enthalpy Change The reactin enthalpy fr a reactin at a given temperature and pressure (final) (initial) (prducts) (reactants) 9

10 Enthalpy and Enthalpy Change As we already stated the reactin enthalpy is equal t the heat f reactin at cnstant pressure. This represents the entire change in internal energy ( U) minus any expansin wrk dne by the system; therefre we can define enthalpy and internal wrk by the 1st law f thermdynamics: In any prcess, the ttal change in energy f the system, U, is equal t the sum f the heat absrbed, q, and the wrk, w, dne by the system. U = q p + w = + w 10

11 Changes in E manifest themselves as exchanges f energy between the system and surrundings. These exchanges f energy are f tw kinds; heat and wrk - must accunt fr bth. eat is energy that mves int r ut f a system because f a temperature difference between system and surrundings. Wrk is the energy exchange that results when a frce F mves an bject thrugh a distance d; wrk (w) = F d In chemical systems, wrk is defined as a change in vlume at a given pressure, that is: w P V 11

12 w P V negative sign is t keep sign crrect in terms f system. Fr expansin, V, will be a psitive value but expansin invlves the system ding wrk n the surrundings and a decrease in internal energy -- negative keeps it neg. Fr cntractin wrk, V, will be a negative value but cntractin invlves the surrundings ding wrk n the system and an increase in internal energy -- negative keeps it psitive (- x - = +). Giving us the 1st law f therm is mre useful frm: U P V realize absrb heat (+) W 44 release r evlved heat (-) 1

13 9.3 Thermchemical Equatins A thermchemical equatin is the chemical equatin fr a reactin (including phase labels {imprtant}) in which the equatin is given a mlar interpretatin, and the enthalpy f reactin fr these mlar amunts is written directly after the equatin. N (g) 3 (g) N (g); kJ If has a superscript like, means therm standard cnditins -- 5 C (98K) and 1 atm. 13

14 14 The fllwing are tw imprtant rules fr manipulating thermchemical equatins: 1.) When a thermchemical equatin is multiplied by any factr, the value f fr the new equatin is btained by multiplying the in the riginal equatin by that same factr..) When a chemical equatin is reversed, the value f is reversed in sign. Thermchemical Equatins kj ; ) ( 4 ) ( ) ( kj ; ) ( ) ( ) ( g O g O g g O g O g kj ; ) ( ) ( ) ( kj ; ) ( ) ( ) ( g O g g O g O g O g ex end

15 9.5 ess s Law ess s law f heat summatin states that fr a chemical equatin that can be written as the sum f tw r mre steps, the enthalpy change fr the verall equatin is the sum f the enthalpy changes fr the individual steps. Basically, R & P in individual steps can be added like algebraic quantities in determining verall equatin and enthalpy change. 15

16 simple example : Given: A + D E + C = X kj A + B C = Y kj Questin: D B + E =? 1. Crrect side?. Crrect # mles? A + D E + C = X kj C A + B = -Y kj D B + E = X Y kj 16

17 Fr example, suppse yu are given the fllwing GIVEN data: S(s) SO 3 (g) O (g) SO ess s Law SO (g) (g); O (g); -97 kj 198 kj use these data t btain the enthalpy change fr the fllwing reactin? x flip S(s) 3O (g) SO 3 (g);? 17

18 S(s) SO If we multiply the first equatin by and reverse the secnd equatin, they will sum tgether t becme the third. S(s) SO 3 (g) (g) S(s) O O O (g) 3O (g) SO (g) (g) SO (g) SO SO (g); 3 SO (g); O 3 (g); (g); (g); -97 kj 198 kj (-97 kj) (198 kj) -79 kj x flip () (-1) W 45 18

19 9.6 Standard Enthalpies f Frmatin (mlecular scale) The standard enthalpy f frmatin f a substance, dented f, is the enthalpy change fr the frmatin f ne mle f a substance in its standard state frm its cmpnent elements in their standard state (98K & 1 atm). Ag (s) + ½ Cl (g) AgCl (s) f AgCl Nte that the standard enthalpy f frmatin fr a pure element in its standard state and + is zer. This means elements in their standard state has f = 0: metals - slids, diatmic gases, + in. 19

20 Standard Enthalpies f Frmatin Anther way t determine heat f reactin is the The law f summatin f heats f frmatin which states that the enthalpy f a reactin is equal t the ttal frmatin energy f the prducts minus that f the reactants. n f (prducts) (reactants ) is the mathematical symbl meaning the sum f, and n is the cefficients f the substances in the chemical equatin. n f 0

21 Ex. Generic Law f Summatin aa + bb cc + dd n f (prducts) n f (reactants ) 1

22 f A Prblem t Cnsider 4N (g) 5O (g) 4NO(g) 6 O(g) 3 : 45.9kJ / ml What is the standard reactin enthalpy, rxn, fr this reactin? n f (prducts) n f (reactants )

23 f Using the summatin law: 4N (g) 5O (g) 4NO(g) 6 O(g) 3 : 45.9kJ / ml [4mlN ( n f [4mlNO(90.3kJ kJ [361.kJ kJ (prducts) / mlno) / mln ( 3 ) m 6ml 5mlO kJ)] 183.6kJ O( (0kJ 906kJ f (reactants) 41.8kJ / mlo W kJ [( 183.6kJ) )] / ml 0kJ] O)] Be careful f arithmetic signs as they are a likely surce f mistakes. 3

24 35.1. The Secnd Law f Thermdynamics The secnd law f thermdynamics addresses questins abut spntaneity in terms f a quantity called entrpy. Entrpy, S, is a thermdynamic quantity that is a measure f the randmness r disrder f a system. The SI unit f entrpy is jules per Kelvin (J/K) and, like enthalpy, is a state functin. 4

25 R release E, spn (ex) absrb E, nnspn (end) P E P E R Mst sluble salts disslve in water spntaneusly; hwever, mst sluble salts disslve by an endthermic prcess. N 4 NO 3 (s) N 4 + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) = 8.1 kj There is an increase in mlecular disrder r randmness f the system. Slids: high rder/lw disrder, high energy Liquids: middle rder/lw disrder, medium energy Gases: lw rder/high disrder, lw energy 5

26 entrpy (S) - is a thermdynamic quantity that is a measure f hw dispersed the energy f a system is amng the different pssible ways that system can cntain energy, typically in J/K units. One example f entrpy is the amunt f mlecular disrder r randmness in the system. S increases as disrder increases and energy decreases gases have high disrder, lw energy slids have lw disrder, high energy We typically fllw the change in entrpy in the system s we treat it as a state prperty and measure S = S final - S initial + S = increase in entrpy, i.e. disrder increased; - U - S = decrease in entrpy, ie. disrder decreased ; + U This gets us t the secnd law f therm 6

27 Entrpy and the Secnd Law f Thermdynamics The secnd law f thermdynamics states that the ttal entrpy f a system and its surrundings increases fr a spntaneus prcess. 7

28 The tendency f a system t increase its entrpy (+ S) is the secnd imprtant factr in determining the spntaneity f a chemical r physical change in additin t. recap: spntaneus prcess: (system ges t lwer energy state) favred by - (ex) favred by + S (ie. increase disrder) nnspntaneus prcess: (system ges t higher energy state) favred by + (end) favred by - S (ie. decrease in disrder) D bth need t be true fr spn rxn? N, remember sluble salt disslving example. The larger term will dictate verall prcess. 8

29 35.4 Third Law f Thermdynamics The third law f thermdynamics states that the entrpy f all perfect crystalline substances appraches zer as the temperature appraches abslute zer (Kelvin). As temperature is raised the substance becmes mre disrdered as it absrbs heat and becmes a liquid then a gas, where entrpy > 0; S increases as temp increase. The entrpy f a substance is determined by measuring hw much heat is required t change its temperature per Kelvin degree (J/K). 9

30 35.5 Standard Reactin Entrpy The standard entrpy f a substance r in, als called its abslute entrpy, S, is the entrpy value fr the standard state f the species. Similar t heats f frmatin, f, except n abslute nt relative scale. Standard state implies 5 C (98K), 1 atm pressure, and 1 M fr disslved substances.(therm standard state) 30

31 Standard Entrpies and the Third Law f Thermdynamics This means that elements have nnzer values fr entrpy (abslute scale), unlike standard enthalpies f frmatin, f, which by cnventin, are zer (relative scale). The symbl S, rather than S, is used fr standard entrpies t emphasize that they riginate frm the third law and abslute nt relative values. 31

32 Entrpy Change fr a Reactin Yu can calculate the entrpy change fr a reactin using a summatin law, similar t the way yu btained f. S ns (prducts) ms (reactants ) Even withut knwing the values fr the entrpies f substances, yu can smetimes predict the sign f S fr a reactin. 3

33 Entrpy Change fr a Reactin The entrpy usually increases in the fllwing situatins: 1. A reactin in which a mlecule is brken int tw r mre smaller mlecules. AB A + B + S. A reactin in which there is an increase in the mles f gases. A(g) B(g) + C(g) + S 3. A prcess in which a slid changes t liquid r gas, r a liquid changes t gas. A(s) B(l) r B(g) B(l) C(g) + S + S 33

34 Predict S and spn/nnspn based nly n entrpy fr the fllwing rxns: C 4 (g) + Br (g) BrC C Br (l) gas t liquid; decrease in disrder; - S; nnspn based n S nly C 6 (g) + 7 O (g) 4 CO (g) + 6 O (g) 9 mls gas t 10 mls f gas; increase in disrder; + S; spn based n S nly W 47 C 6 1 O 6 (s) C 5 O (l) + CO (g) slid t liquid/gas (decmpse); increase in disrder; + S; spn based n S nly 34

35 A Prblem T Cnsider Calculate the change in entrpy, S, at 5 C fr the reactin in which urea is frmed frm N 3 and CO. N3(g) CO(g) NCON(aq) O(l) The calculatin is similar t that used t btain frm standard enthalpies f frmatin. Gas t liquid; decrease in disrder; predict - S 35

36 A Prblem T Cnsider N3( g) CO ( g) NCON ( aq) O( l) S : 193 J/ml. K S ns (prducts) ms (reactants ) S [(1mlN [(mln 3 )(193J CON / mlk ) )(174J / mlk ) (1mlCO (1ml O)(70J )(14J / mlk )] / mlk )] 356 J/K decrease in disrder as predicted 36

37 35.6 Gibbs Free Energy The questin arises as t hw d we decide if enthalpy r entrpy dictates the spntaneity f a reactin. What is the relatinship between and S? The American physicist J. Willard Gibbs intrduced the cncept f free energy (smetimes called the Gibbs free energy), G, which is a thermdynamic quantity defined by the equatin G= -T S T Kelvin scale This quantity gives a direct criterin fr spntaneity f reactin. 37

38 Free Energy and Spntaneity Changes in an S during a reactin result in a change in free energy, G, given by the equatin G At a given temperature and pressure G = 0, the reactin gives an equilibrium mixture with significant amunts f bth reactants and prducts (Temp transfer pint where reactin switches spn/nnspn) G > 0, the reactin is nnspntaneus as written, and reactants d nt give significant amunts f prduct at equilibrium. G < 0, the reactin is spntaneus as written, and the reactants transfrm almst entirely t prducts when equilibrium is reached. T S 38

39 G T S Lets lk at relatinship amng the signs f, S and G and spntaneity. Nte that temperature will dictate which will rule. Als realize T is in K meaning n negative temp. S G Descriptin (ex) spn +disrder spn spn Spntaneus at all T + (end) nn disrder nn + nn Nnspntaneus at all T (ex) Spn disrder nn + r Spntaneus at lw T (rm); > T S; - G Nnspntaneus at high T (1000K); < T S + G Nnspntaneus at lw T; > T S; + G + (end) +disrder + r Spntaneus at high T; < T S; - G Nn spn enthalpy rules at lw temp but entrpy at very high T 39

40 35.7 Gibbs Energy and Equilibrium The standard free energy change, G, is the free energy change that ccurs when reactants and prducts are in their standard states. The next example illustrates the calculatin f the standard free energy change, G, frm and S. G T S 40

41 A Prblem T Cnsider What is the standard free energy change, G, fr the fllwing reactin at 5 C? N(g) 3(g) N3(g) f : kj/ml S : J/ml K predict, spn S, nnspn G, spn 41

42 n [ mln 3 S [(mln (3ml ns 3 f ( (prducts) )(130.6J 45.9kJ (prducts) )(193J / mlk )] / ml)] / mlk )] m ms [0] f [(1mlN -197 J/K (reactants) 91.8 (reactants ) )(191.5J kj / mlk ) kj/k Nw substitute int ur equatin fr G. Nte that S is cnverted t kj/k and Kelvin fr temp. G N( g) 3( g) N3( g) f : 0 S : kj/ml J/ml K T 91.8kJ kj S (98 K)( 33.1 spn rxn as written kj/k) 4

43 Standard Free Energies f Frmatin The standard free energy f frmatin, G f, f a substance is the free energy change that ccurs when 1 ml f a substance is frmed frm its elements in their stablest states at 1 atm pressure and 5 C. By tabulating G f fr substances, yu can calculate the G fr a reactin by using a summatin law. G n G f (prducts) m G f (reactants) 43

44 A Prblem T Cnsider Calculate G fr the fllwing reactin at 5 C using std. free energies f frmatin. C5O ( l) 3O ( g) CO ( g) 3O( g) G f : kj/ml G n G f (prducts) m G f (reactants) G [(1mlC [(mlco )( O )( kJ 174.8kJ / ml) / ml) (3ml 0] O)( 8.6kJ / ml)] G kj spn rxn 44

45 Relating G t the Equilibrium Cnstant The free energy change ( G) when reactants are in nn-standard states (meaning ther than 98K, 1 atm pressure r 1 M) is related t the standard free energy change, G, by the fllwing equatin. G G RTlnQ ere Q is the thermdynamic frm f the reactin qutient ([prducts]/[reactants] nt necessarily at equil); T in kelvin; R=8.31 J/mlK. 45

46 Relating G t the Equilibrium Cnstant G represents an instantaneus change in free energy at sme pint in the reactin appraching equilibrium G=0. G At equilibrium, G=0 and the reactin qutient Q becmes the equilibrium cnstant K. 0 G G RT ln Q RTlnK 46

47 Relating G t the Equilibrium G Cnstant This result easily rearranges t give the basic equatin relating the standard free-energy change t the equilibrium cnstant. RTlnK When K > 1 (meaning equil lies t the right), the ln K is psitive and G is negative (spn). When K < 1 (meaning equil lies t the left), the ln K is negative and G is psitive (nnspn). 47

48 A Prblem T Cnsider Find the value fr the equilibrium cnstant, K, at 5 C (98 K) fr the fllwing reactin. The standard free-energy change, G, at 5 C equals 13.6 kj/ml. N3(g) CO(g) NCON(aq) O(l) Rearrange the equatin G = -RTlnK t give lnk G RT 48

49 A Prblem T Cnsider lnk G Substituting numerical values int the equatin, RT ln K J / 8.31J/(ml K) ml 98 K 5.49 K 5.49 e

50 Calculatin f G at Varius Temperatures We typically assume that and S are essentially cnstant with respect t temperature. Yu get the value f G T at any temperature T by substituting values f and S at 5 C int the fllwing equatin. G T T S 50

51 A Prblem T Cnsider Find the G fr the fllwing reactin at 5 C and 1000 C. Relate this t reactin spntaneity. CaCO3(s) CaO(s) CO(g) f : kj/ml S : J/ml K 51

52 [( S n f ns (prducts) m f (reactants) 393.5) ( 106.9)]kJ kj (prducts) ms [( ) (9.9)] J / K (reactants ) kj/k G T S T Nw yu substitute, S (= kj/k), and T (=98K) int the equatin fr G f. G G CaCO3(s) CaO(s) CO(g) f : S : kj/ml J/ml K 178.3kJ (98 K)( kj / K) 5 C 5 C kj S the reactin is nnspntaneus at 5 C. 5

53 A Prblem T Cnsider Find the G fr the fllwing reactin at 1000 C. Nw we ll use 1000 C (173 K) alng with ur previus values fr and S because assume des nt change much. G G 178.3kJ (173 K)( kj / K) 1000 C 1000 C 4.1kJ S the reactin is spntaneus at 1000 C. Yu see that this reactin change frm nnspn t spn smewhere between 5 C t 1000 C. w can we determine at what temp this switch ccurred? G=0 is equil, switch pint 53

54 T T determine the minimal temperature fr spntaneity, we can set Gº=0 and slve fr T. G 0 T S T S kj 111K ( kJ / K T S CaCO3(s) CaO(s) CO(g) nnspn < 848 C; CaCO 3 stable spn > 848 C; CaCO 3 decmpses easily C) W 48 Thus, CaCO 3 shuld be thermally stable until its heated t apprximately 848 C. This is way yu culd calculate the nrmal biling pint f a liquid. At G=0, the liquid phase and l g gas phase will be at equilibrium; temperature at which switch frm liquid t gaseus phase. 54

Thermodynamics and Equilibrium

Thermodynamics and Equilibrium Thermdynamics and Equilibrium Thermdynamics Thermdynamics is the study f the relatinship between heat and ther frms f energy in a chemical r physical prcess. We intrduced the thermdynamic prperty f enthalpy,

More information

Part One: Heat Changes and Thermochemistry. This aspect of Thermodynamics was dealt with in Chapter 6. (Review)

Part One: Heat Changes and Thermochemistry. This aspect of Thermodynamics was dealt with in Chapter 6. (Review) CHAPTER 18: THERMODYNAMICS AND EQUILIBRIUM Part One: Heat Changes and Thermchemistry This aspect f Thermdynamics was dealt with in Chapter 6. (Review) A. Statement f First Law. (Sectin 18.1) 1. U ttal

More information

Chapter 17 Free Energy and Thermodynamics

Chapter 17 Free Energy and Thermodynamics Chemistry: A Mlecular Apprach, 1 st Ed. Nivald Tr Chapter 17 Free Energy and Thermdynamics Ry Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Cmmunity Cllege Wellesley Hills, MA 2008, Prentice Hall First Law f Thermdynamics

More information

Thermodynamics Partial Outline of Topics

Thermodynamics Partial Outline of Topics Thermdynamics Partial Outline f Tpics I. The secnd law f thermdynamics addresses the issue f spntaneity and invlves a functin called entrpy (S): If a prcess is spntaneus, then Suniverse > 0 (2 nd Law!)

More information

AP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 6 NOTES THERMOCHEMISTRY

AP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 6 NOTES THERMOCHEMISTRY AP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 6 NOTES THERMOCHEMISTRY Energy- the capacity t d wrk r t prduce heat 1 st Law f Thermdynamics: Law f Cnservatin f Energy- energy can be cnverted frm ne frm t anther but it can be neither

More information

Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium

Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium Nv. 26 Chapter 19 Chemical Thermdynamics Entrpy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium Nv. 26 Spntaneus Physical and Chemical Prcesses Thermdynamics: cncerned with the questin: can a reactin ccur? A waterfall runs

More information

Chapter 17: Thermodynamics: Spontaneous and Nonspontaneous Reactions and Processes

Chapter 17: Thermodynamics: Spontaneous and Nonspontaneous Reactions and Processes Chapter 17: hermdynamics: Spntaneus and Nnspntaneus Reactins and Prcesses Learning Objectives 17.1: Spntaneus Prcesses Cmparing and Cntrasting the hree Laws f hermdynamics (1 st Law: Chap. 5; 2 nd & 3

More information

Unit 14 Thermochemistry Notes

Unit 14 Thermochemistry Notes Name KEY Perid CRHS Academic Chemistry Unit 14 Thermchemistry Ntes Quiz Date Exam Date Lab Dates Ntes, Hmewrk, Exam Reviews and Their KEYS lcated n CRHS Academic Chemistry Website: https://cincchem.pbwrks.cm

More information

Examples: 1. How much heat is given off by a 50.0 g sample of copper when it cools from 80.0 to 50.0 C?

Examples: 1. How much heat is given off by a 50.0 g sample of copper when it cools from 80.0 to 50.0 C? NOTES: Thermchemistry Part 1 - Heat HEAT- TEMPERATURE - Thermchemistry: the study f energy (in the frm f heat) changes that accmpany physical & chemical changes heat flws frm high t lw (ht cl) endthermic

More information

CHEM Thermodynamics. Change in Gibbs Free Energy, G. Review. Gibbs Free Energy, G. Review

CHEM Thermodynamics. Change in Gibbs Free Energy, G. Review. Gibbs Free Energy, G. Review Review Accrding t the nd law f Thermdynamics, a prcess is spntaneus if S universe = S system + S surrundings > 0 Even thugh S system

More information

ALE 21. Gibbs Free Energy. At what temperature does the spontaneity of a reaction change?

ALE 21. Gibbs Free Energy. At what temperature does the spontaneity of a reaction change? Name Chem 163 Sectin: Team Number: ALE 21. Gibbs Free Energy (Reference: 20.3 Silberberg 5 th editin) At what temperature des the spntaneity f a reactin change? The Mdel: The Definitin f Free Energy S

More information

Chapter 4 Thermodynamics and Equilibrium

Chapter 4 Thermodynamics and Equilibrium Chapter Thermdynamics and Equilibrium Refer t the fllwing figures fr Exercises 1-6. Each represents the energies f fur mlecules at a given instant, and the dtted lines represent the allwed energies. Assume

More information

Types of Energy COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS CHEMICAL REACTIONS INVOLVE ENERGY

Types of Energy COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS CHEMICAL REACTIONS INVOLVE ENERGY CHEMICAL REACTIONS INVOLVE ENERGY The study energy and its transrmatins is knwn as thermdynamics. The discussin thermdynamics invlve the cncepts energy, wrk, and heat. Types Energy Ptential energy is stred

More information

Thermochemistry. Thermochemistry

Thermochemistry. Thermochemistry Thermchemistry Petrucci, Harwd and Herring: Chapter 7 CHEM 1000A 3.0 Thermchemistry 1 Thermchemistry The study energy in chemical reactins A sub-discipline thermdynamics Thermdynamics studies the bulk

More information

Spontaneous Processes, Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Spontaneous Processes, Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics Chemical Thermdynamics Spntaneus Prcesses, Entrpy and the Secnd Law f Thermdynamics Review Reactin Rates, Energies, and Equilibrium Althugh a reactin may be energetically favrable (i.e. prducts have lwer

More information

REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 18. H = H (Products) - H (Reactants) H (Products) = (1 x -125) + (3 x -271) = -938 kj

REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 18. H = H (Products) - H (Reactants) H (Products) = (1 x -125) + (3 x -271) = -938 kj Chemistry 102 ANSWER KEY REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 18 1. Calculate the heat reactin ( H ) in kj/ml r the reactin shwn belw, given the H values r each substance: NH (g) + F 2 (g) NF (g) + HF (g) H (kj/ml)

More information

How can standard heats of formation be used to calculate the heat of a reaction?

How can standard heats of formation be used to calculate the heat of a reaction? Answer Key ALE 28. ess s Law and Standard Enthalpies Frmatin (Reerence: Chapter 6 - Silberberg 4 th editin) Imprtant!! Fr answers that invlve a calculatin yu must shw yur wrk neatly using dimensinal analysis

More information

CHEM 116 Electrochemistry at Non-Standard Conditions, and Intro to Thermodynamics

CHEM 116 Electrochemistry at Non-Standard Conditions, and Intro to Thermodynamics CHEM 116 Electrchemistry at Nn-Standard Cnditins, and Intr t Thermdynamics Imprtant annuncement: If yu brrwed a clicker frm me this semester, return it t me at the end f next lecture r at the final exam

More information

GOAL... ability to predict

GOAL... ability to predict THERMODYNAMICS Chapter 18, 11.5 Study f changes in energy and transfers f energy (system < = > surrundings) that accmpany chemical and physical prcesses. GOAL............................. ability t predict

More information

Find this material useful? You can help our team to keep this site up and bring you even more content consider donating via the link on our site.

Find this material useful? You can help our team to keep this site up and bring you even more content consider donating via the link on our site. Find this material useful? Yu can help ur team t keep this site up and bring yu even mre cntent cnsider dnating via the link n ur site. Still having truble understanding the material? Check ut ur Tutring

More information

CHEM 1001 Problem Set #3: Entropy and Free Energy

CHEM 1001 Problem Set #3: Entropy and Free Energy CHEM 1001 Prblem Set #3: Entry and Free Energy 19.7 (a) Negative; A liquid (mderate entry) cmbines with a slid t frm anther slid. (b)psitive; One mle f high entry gas frms where n gas was resent befre.

More information

When a substance heats up (absorbs heat) it is an endothermic reaction with a (+)q

When a substance heats up (absorbs heat) it is an endothermic reaction with a (+)q Chemistry Ntes Lecture 15 [st] 3/6/09 IMPORTANT NOTES: -( We finished using the lecture slides frm lecture 14) -In class the challenge prblem was passed ut, it is due Tuesday at :00 P.M. SHARP, :01 is

More information

Chapter Outline 4/28/2014. P-V Work. P-V Work. Isolated, Closed and Open Systems. Exothermic and Endothermic Processes. E = q + w

Chapter Outline 4/28/2014. P-V Work. P-V Work. Isolated, Closed and Open Systems. Exothermic and Endothermic Processes. E = q + w Islated, Clsed and Open Systems 9.1 Energy as a Reactant r a Prduct 9.2 Transferring Heat and Ding Wrk 9.5 Heats f Reactin and Calrimetry 9.6 Hess s Law and Standard Heats f Reactin 9.7 Heats f Reactin

More information

How can standard heats of formation be used to calculate the heat of a reaction?

How can standard heats of formation be used to calculate the heat of a reaction? Name Chem 161, Sectin: Grup Number: ALE 28. Hess s Law and Standard Enthalpies Frmatin (Reerence: Chapter 6 - Silberberg 5 th editin) Imprtant!! Fr answers that invlve a calculatin yu must shw yur wrk

More information

Lecture 4. The First Law of Thermodynamics

Lecture 4. The First Law of Thermodynamics Lecture 4. The First Law f Thermdynamics THERMODYNAMICS: Basic Cncepts Thermdynamics: (frm the Greek therme, meaning "heat" and, dynamis, meaning "pwer") is the study f energy cnversin between heat and

More information

University Chemistry Quiz /04/21 1. (10%) Consider the oxidation of ammonia:

University Chemistry Quiz /04/21 1. (10%) Consider the oxidation of ammonia: University Chemistry Quiz 3 2015/04/21 1. (10%) Cnsider the xidatin f ammnia: 4NH 3 (g) + 3O 2 (g) 2N 2 (g) + 6H 2 O(l) (a) Calculate the ΔG fr the reactin. (b) If this reactin were used in a fuel cell,

More information

Thermodynamics 1/16/2013. Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics 1/16/2013. Thermodynamics Thermdynamics http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/hwtslveit/hwtslveit.html 1 Thermdynamics Study f energy changes and flw f energy Answers several fundamental questins: Is it pssible fr reactin t ccur? Will

More information

CHAPTER Read Chapter 17, sections 1,2,3. End of Chapter problems: 25

CHAPTER Read Chapter 17, sections 1,2,3. End of Chapter problems: 25 CHAPTER 17 1. Read Chapter 17, sectins 1,2,3. End f Chapter prblems: 25 2. Suppse yu are playing a game that uses tw dice. If yu cunt the dts n the dice, yu culd have anywhere frm 2 t 12. The ways f prducing

More information

Chemical Thermodynamics

Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical Thermdynamics Objectives 1. Be capable f stating the First, Secnd, and Third Laws f Thermdynamics and als be capable f applying them t slve prblems. 2. Understand what the parameter entrpy means.

More information

Lecture 17: Free Energy of Multi-phase Solutions at Equilibrium

Lecture 17: Free Energy of Multi-phase Solutions at Equilibrium Lecture 17: 11.07.05 Free Energy f Multi-phase Slutins at Equilibrium Tday: LAST TIME...2 FREE ENERGY DIAGRAMS OF MULTI-PHASE SOLUTIONS 1...3 The cmmn tangent cnstructin and the lever rule...3 Practical

More information

Chem 112, Fall 05 (Weis/Garman) Exam 4A, December 14, 2005 (Print Clearly) +2 points

Chem 112, Fall 05 (Weis/Garman) Exam 4A, December 14, 2005 (Print Clearly) +2 points +2 pints Befre yu begin, make sure that yur exam has all 7 pages. There are 14 required prblems (7 pints each) and tw extra credit prblems (5 pints each). Stay fcused, stay calm. Wrk steadily thrugh yur

More information

Advanced Chemistry Practice Problems

Advanced Chemistry Practice Problems Advanced Chemistry Practice Prblems Thermdynamics: Gibbs Free Energy 1. Questin: Is the reactin spntaneus when ΔG < 0? ΔG > 0? Answer: The reactin is spntaneus when ΔG < 0. 2. Questin: Fr a reactin with

More information

Lecture 12: Chemical reaction equilibria

Lecture 12: Chemical reaction equilibria 3.012 Fundamentals f Materials Science Fall 2005 Lecture 12: 10.19.05 Chemical reactin equilibria Tday: LAST TIME...2 EQUATING CHEMICAL POTENTIALS DURING REACTIONS...3 The extent f reactin...3 The simplest

More information

188 CHAPTER 6 THERMOCHEMISTRY

188 CHAPTER 6 THERMOCHEMISTRY 188 CHAPTER 6 THERMOCHEMISTRY 4. a. ΔE = q + w = J + 100. J = 77 J b. w = PΔV = 1.90 atm(.80 L 8.0 L) = 10.5 L atm ΔE = q + w = 50. J + 1060 = 1410 J c. w = PΔV = 1.00 atm(9.1 L11. L) = 17.9 L atm 101.

More information

CHM 152 Practice Final

CHM 152 Practice Final CM 152 Practice Final 1. Of the fllwing, the ne that wuld have the greatest entrpy (if cmpared at the same temperature) is, [a] 2 O (s) [b] 2 O (l) [c] 2 O (g) [d] All wuld have the same entrpy at the

More information

Thermochemistry. The study of energy changes that occur during chemical : at constant volume ΔU = q V. no at constant pressure ΔH = q P

Thermochemistry. The study of energy changes that occur during chemical : at constant volume ΔU = q V. no at constant pressure ΔH = q P Thermchemistry The study energy changes that ccur during chemical : at cnstant vlume ΔU = q V n at cnstant pressure = q P nly wrk Fr practical reasns mst measurements are made at cnstant, s thermchemistry

More information

Lecture 16 Thermodynamics II

Lecture 16 Thermodynamics II Lecture 16 Thermdynamics II Calrimetry Hess s Law Enthalpy r Frmatin Cpyright 2013, 2011, 2009, 2008 AP Chem Slutins. All rights reserved. Fur Methds fr Finding H 1) Calculate it using average bnd enthalpies

More information

Chemistry 114 First Hour Exam

Chemistry 114 First Hour Exam Chemistry 114 First Hur Exam Please shw all wrk fr partial credit Name: (4 pints) 1. (12 pints) Espress is made by frcing very ht water under high pressure thrugh finely grund, cmpacted cffee. (Wikipedia)

More information

CHEM 1032 FALL 2017 Practice Exam 4 1. Which of the following reactions is spontaneous under normal and standard conditions?

CHEM 1032 FALL 2017 Practice Exam 4 1. Which of the following reactions is spontaneous under normal and standard conditions? 1 CHEM 1032 FALL 2017 Practice Exam 4 1. Which f the fllwing reactins is spntaneus under nrmal and standard cnditins? A. 2 NaCl(aq) 2 Na(s) + Cl2(g) B. CaBr2(aq) + 2 H2O(aq) Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2 HBr(aq) C.

More information

SPONTANEITY, ENTROPY, AND FREE ENERGY

SPONTANEITY, ENTROPY, AND FREE ENERGY CHAER 7 SONANEIY, ENROY, AND FREE ENERGY Questins. Living rganisms need an external surce f energy t carry ut these prcesses. Green plants use the energy frm sunlight t prduce glucse frm carbn dixide and

More information

Heat Effects of Chemical Reactions

Heat Effects of Chemical Reactions eat Effects f hemical Reactins Enthalpy change fr reactins invlving cmpunds Enthalpy f frmatin f a cmpund at standard cnditins is btained frm the literature as standard enthalpy f frmatin Δ (O (g = -9690

More information

Chemistry 1A Fall 2000

Chemistry 1A Fall 2000 Chemistry 1A Fall 2000 Midterm Exam III, versin B Nvember 14, 2000 (Clsed bk, 90 minutes, 155 pints) Name: SID: Sectin Number: T.A. Name: Exam infrmatin, extra directins, and useful hints t maximize yur

More information

CHEM 103 Calorimetry and Hess s Law

CHEM 103 Calorimetry and Hess s Law CHEM 103 Calrimetry and Hess s Law Lecture Ntes March 23, 2006 Prf. Sevian Annuncements Exam #2 is next Thursday, March 30 Study guide, practice exam, and practice exam answer key are already psted n the

More information

General Chemistry II, Unit I: Study Guide (part I)

General Chemistry II, Unit I: Study Guide (part I) 1 General Chemistry II, Unit I: Study Guide (part I) CDS Chapter 14: Physical Prperties f Gases Observatin 1: Pressure- Vlume Measurements n Gases The spring f air is measured as pressure, defined as the

More information

Work and Heat Definitions

Work and Heat Definitions Wrk and eat Deinitins FL- Surrundings: Everything utside system + q -q + System: he part S the rld e are bserving. Wrk, : transer energy as a result unbalanced rces - eat, q: transer energy resulting rm

More information

Find this material useful? You can help our team to keep this site up and bring you even more content consider donating via the link on our site.

Find this material useful? You can help our team to keep this site up and bring you even more content consider donating via the link on our site. Find this material useful? Yu can help ur team t eep this site up and bring yu even mre cntent cnsider dnating via the lin n ur site. Still having truble understanding the material? Chec ut ur Tutring

More information

Semester 2 AP Chemistry Unit 12

Semester 2 AP Chemistry Unit 12 Cmmn In Effect and Buffers PwerPint The cmmn in effect The shift in equilibrium caused by the additin f a cmpund having an in in cmmn with the disslved substance The presence f the excess ins frm the disslved

More information

Solutions to the Extra Problems for Chapter 14

Solutions to the Extra Problems for Chapter 14 Slutins t the Extra Prblems r Chapter 1 1. The H -670. T use bnd energies, we have t igure ut what bnds are being brken and what bnds are being made, s we need t make Lewis structures r everything: + +

More information

Unit 11 Solutions- Guided Notes. What are alloys? What is the difference between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures?

Unit 11 Solutions- Guided Notes. What are alloys? What is the difference between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures? Name: Perid: Unit 11 Slutins- Guided Ntes Mixtures: What is a mixture and give examples? What is a pure substance? What are allys? What is the difference between hetergeneus and hmgeneus mixtures? Slutins:

More information

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 8 Thermochemistry (Continued), Electromagnetic Radiation, and Line Spectra

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 8 Thermochemistry (Continued), Electromagnetic Radiation, and Line Spectra Chem 115 POGIL Wrksheet - Week 8 Thermchemistry (Cntinued), Electrmagnetic Radiatin, and Line Spectra Why? As we saw last week, enthalpy and internal energy are state functins, which means that the sum

More information

Find this material useful? You can help our team to keep this site up and bring you even more content consider donating via the link on our site.

Find this material useful? You can help our team to keep this site up and bring you even more content consider donating via the link on our site. Find this material useful? Yu can help ur team t keep this site up and bring yu even mre cntent cnsider dnating via the link n ur site. Still having truble understanding the material? Check ut ur Tutring

More information

Chapter 19. Electrochemistry. Dr. Al Saadi. Electrochemistry

Chapter 19. Electrochemistry. Dr. Al Saadi. Electrochemistry Chapter 19 lectrchemistry Part I Dr. Al Saadi 1 lectrchemistry What is electrchemistry? It is a branch f chemistry that studies chemical reactins called redx reactins which invlve electrn transfer. 19.1

More information

A.P. CHEMISTRY. SOLUTIONS AND ACID BASE CHEMISTRY. p 1

A.P. CHEMISTRY. SOLUTIONS AND ACID BASE CHEMISTRY. p 1 A.P. CHEMISTRY. SOLUTIONS AND ACID BASE CHEMISTRY. p 1 (Nte: questins 1 t 14 are meant t be dne WITHOUT calculatrs!) 1.Which f the fllwing is prbably true fr a slid slute with a highly endthermic heat

More information

N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) o Three mole ratios can be derived from the balanced equation above: Example: Li(s) + O 2 (g) Li 2 O(s)

N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) o Three mole ratios can be derived from the balanced equation above: Example: Li(s) + O 2 (g) Li 2 O(s) Chapter 9 - Stichimetry Sectin 9.1 Intrductin t Stichimetry Types f Stichimetry Prblems Given is in mles and unknwn is in mles. Given is in mles and unknwn is in mass (grams). Given is in mass and unknwn

More information

Chem 75 February 16, 2017 Exam 2 Solutions

Chem 75 February 16, 2017 Exam 2 Solutions 1. (6 + 6 pints) Tw quick questins: (a) The Handbk f Chemistry and Physics tells us, crrectly, that CCl 4 bils nrmally at 76.7 C, but its mlar enthalpy f vaprizatin is listed in ne place as 34.6 kj ml

More information

" 1 = # $H vap. Chapter 3 Problems

 1 = # $H vap. Chapter 3 Problems Chapter 3 rblems rblem At 1 atmsphere pure Ge melts at 1232 K and bils at 298 K. he triple pint ccurs at =8.4x1-8 atm. Estimate the heat f vaprizatin f Ge. he heat f vaprizatin is estimated frm the Clausius

More information

Matter Content from State Frameworks and Other State Documents

Matter Content from State Frameworks and Other State Documents Atms and Mlecules Mlecules are made f smaller entities (atms) which are bnded tgether. Therefre mlecules are divisible. Miscnceptin: Element and atm are synnyms. Prper cnceptin: Elements are atms with

More information

Edexcel IGCSE Chemistry. Topic 1: Principles of chemistry. Chemical formulae, equations and calculations. Notes.

Edexcel IGCSE Chemistry. Topic 1: Principles of chemistry. Chemical formulae, equations and calculations. Notes. Edexcel IGCSE Chemistry Tpic 1: Principles f chemistry Chemical frmulae, equatins and calculatins Ntes 1.25 write wrd equatins and balanced chemical equatins (including state symbls): fr reactins studied

More information

General Chemistry II, Unit II: Study Guide (part 1)

General Chemistry II, Unit II: Study Guide (part 1) General Chemistry II, Unit II: Study Guide (part 1) CDS Chapter 21: Reactin Equilibrium in the Gas Phase General Chemistry II Unit II Part 1 1 Intrductin Sme chemical reactins have a significant amunt

More information

Lecture 13: Electrochemical Equilibria

Lecture 13: Electrochemical Equilibria 3.012 Fundamentals f Materials Science Fall 2005 Lecture 13: 10.21.05 Electrchemical Equilibria Tday: LAST TIME...2 An example calculatin...3 THE ELECTROCHEMICAL POTENTIAL...4 Electrstatic energy cntributins

More information

A Chemical Reaction occurs when the of a substance changes.

A Chemical Reaction occurs when the of a substance changes. Perid: Unit 8 Chemical Reactin- Guided Ntes Chemical Reactins A Chemical Reactin ccurs when the f a substance changes. Chemical Reactin: ne r mre substances are changed int ne r mre new substances by the

More information

More Tutorial at

More Tutorial at Answer each questin in the space prvided; use back f page if extra space is needed. Answer questins s the grader can READILY understand yur wrk; nly wrk n the exam sheet will be cnsidered. Write answers,

More information

CHAPTER PRACTICE PROBLEMS CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER PRACTICE PROBLEMS CHEMISTRY Chemical Kinetics Name: Batch: Date: Rate f reactin. 4NH 3 (g) + 5O (g) à 4NO (g) + 6 H O (g) If the rate f frmatin f NO is 3.6 0 3 ml L s, calculate (i) the rate f disappearance f NH 3 (ii) rate f frmatin

More information

Hess Law - Enthalpy of Formation of Solid NH 4 Cl

Hess Law - Enthalpy of Formation of Solid NH 4 Cl Hess Law - Enthalpy f Frmatin f Slid NH 4 l NAME: OURSE: PERIOD: Prelab 1. Write and balance net inic equatins fr Reactin 2 and Reactin 3. Reactin 2: Reactin 3: 2. Shw that the alebraic sum f the balanced

More information

NUMBERS, MATHEMATICS AND EQUATIONS

NUMBERS, MATHEMATICS AND EQUATIONS AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM PHYSICS GETTING STARTED WITH PHYSICS NUMBERS, MATHEMATICS AND EQUATIONS An integral part t the understanding f ur physical wrld is the use f mathematical mdels which can be used t

More information

Tuesday, 5:10PM FORM A March 18,

Tuesday, 5:10PM FORM A March 18, Name Chemistry 153-080 (3150:153-080) EXAM II Multiple-Chice Prtin Instructins: Tuesday, 5:10PM FORM A March 18, 2003 120 1. Each student is respnsible fr fllwing instructins. Read this page carefully.

More information

Lecture 24: Flory-Huggins Theory

Lecture 24: Flory-Huggins Theory Lecture 24: 12.07.05 Flry-Huggins Thery Tday: LAST TIME...2 Lattice Mdels f Slutins...2 ENTROPY OF MIXING IN THE FLORY-HUGGINS MODEL...3 CONFIGURATIONS OF A SINGLE CHAIN...3 COUNTING CONFIGURATIONS FOR

More information

Chem 116 POGIL Worksheet - Week 3 - Solutions Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, Solids, and Solutions

Chem 116 POGIL Worksheet - Week 3 - Solutions Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, Solids, and Solutions Chem 116 POGIL Wrksheet - Week 3 - Slutins Intermlecular Frces, Liquids, Slids, and Slutins Key Questins 1. Is the average kinetic energy f mlecules greater r lesser than the energy f intermlecular frces

More information

Name: Period: Date: BONDING NOTES HONORS CHEMISTRY

Name: Period: Date: BONDING NOTES HONORS CHEMISTRY Name: Perid: Date: BONDING NOTES HONORS CHEMISTRY Directins: This packet will serve as yur ntes fr this chapter. Fllw alng with the PwerPint presentatin and fill in the missing infrmatin. Imprtant terms

More information

AP Chemistry Assessment 2

AP Chemistry Assessment 2 AP Chemistry Assessment 2 DATE OF ADMINISTRATION: January 8 January 12 TOPICS COVERED: Fundatinal Tpics, Reactins, Gases, Thermchemistry, Atmic Structure, Peridicity, and Bnding. MULTIPLE CHOICE KEY AND

More information

Chem 111 Summer 2013 Key III Whelan

Chem 111 Summer 2013 Key III Whelan Chem 111 Summer 2013 Key III Whelan Questin 1 6 Pints Classify each f the fllwing mlecules as plar r nnplar? a) NO + : c) CH 2 Cl 2 : b) XeF 4 : Questin 2 The hypthetical mlecule PY 3 Z 2 has the general

More information

Materials Engineering 272-C Fall 2001, Lecture 7 & 8 Fundamentals of Diffusion

Materials Engineering 272-C Fall 2001, Lecture 7 & 8 Fundamentals of Diffusion Materials Engineering 272-C Fall 2001, Lecture 7 & 8 Fundamentals f Diffusin Diffusin: Transprt in a slid, liquid, r gas driven by a cncentratin gradient (r, in the case f mass transprt, a chemical ptential

More information

Find this material useful? You can help our team to keep this site up and bring you even more content consider donating via the link on our site.

Find this material useful? You can help our team to keep this site up and bring you even more content consider donating via the link on our site. Find this material useful? Yu can help ur team t keep this site up and bring yu even mre cntent cnsider dnating via the link n ur site. Still having truble understanding the material? Check ut ur Tutring

More information

Find this material useful? You can help our team to keep this site up and bring you even more content consider donating via the link on our site.

Find this material useful? You can help our team to keep this site up and bring you even more content consider donating via the link on our site. Find this material useful? Yu can help ur team t keep this site up and bring yu even mre cntent cnsider dnating via the link n ur site. Still having truble understanding the material? Check ut ur Tutring

More information

Chapter 8 Reduction and oxidation

Chapter 8 Reduction and oxidation Chapter 8 Reductin and xidatin Redx reactins and xidatin states Reductin ptentials and Gibbs energy Nernst equatin Disprprtinatin Ptential diagrams Frst-Ebswrth diagrams Ellingham diagrams Oxidatin refers

More information

Thermochemistry Heats of Reaction

Thermochemistry Heats of Reaction hermchemistry Heats f Reactin aa + bb cc + dd hermchemical Semantics q V = Heat f Rxn at [V] = U = Energy (change) f Rxn q P = Heat f Rxn at [P] = H = Enthalpy (change) f Rxn Exthermic rxns: q < 0 Endthermic

More information

CHE 105 EXAMINATION III November 11, 2010

CHE 105 EXAMINATION III November 11, 2010 CHE 105 EXAMINATION III Nvember 11, 2010 University f Kentucky Department f Chemistry READ THESE DIRECTIONS CAREFULLY BEFORE STARTING THE EXAMINATION! It is extremely imprtant that yu fill in the answer

More information

2 Physico-Chemical Principles of Steelmaking Processes

2 Physico-Chemical Principles of Steelmaking Processes 2 Physic-Chemical Principles f Steelmaking Prcesses 2.1 INRODUCION Irnmaking and steelmaking invlve a variety f chemical reactins, and ther physicchemical prcesses, such as viscus flw, interfacial phenmena,

More information

BIT Chapters = =

BIT Chapters = = BIT Chapters 17-0 1. K w = [H + ][OH ] = 9.5 10 14 [H + ] = [OH ] =.1 10 7 ph = 6.51 The slutin is neither acidic nr basic because the cncentratin f the hydrnium in equals the cncentratin f the hydride

More information

CHEM-443, Fall 2013, Section 010 Midterm 2 November 4, 2013

CHEM-443, Fall 2013, Section 010 Midterm 2 November 4, 2013 CHEM-443, Fall 2013, Sectin 010 Student Name Midterm 2 Nvember 4, 2013 Directins: Please answer each questin t the best f yur ability. Make sure yur respnse is legible, precise, includes relevant dimensinal

More information

CHAPTER 6 THERMOCHEMISTRY. Questions

CHAPTER 6 THERMOCHEMISTRY. Questions CHAPTER 6 THERMOCHEMISTRY Questins 11. Path-dependent functins fr a trip frm Chicag t Denver are thse quantities that depend n the rute taken. One can fly directly frm Chicag t Denver, r ne culd fly frm

More information

Find this material useful? You can help our team to keep this site up and bring you even more content consider donating via the link on our site.

Find this material useful? You can help our team to keep this site up and bring you even more content consider donating via the link on our site. Find this material useful? Yu can help ur team t keep this site up and bring yu even mre cntent cnsider dnating via the link n ur site. Still having truble understanding the material? Check ut ur Tutring

More information

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 14 CHAPTER CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 14.1 The Nature f Chemical Equilibrium 14. The Empirical Law f Mass Actin 14.3 Thermdynamic Descriptin f the Equilibrium State 14.4 The Law f Mass Actin fr Related and Simultaneus

More information

CHEM 1413 Chapter 6 Homework Questions TEXTBOOK HOMEWORK

CHEM 1413 Chapter 6 Homework Questions TEXTBOOK HOMEWORK CHEM 1413 Chapter 6 Hmewrk Questins TEXTBOOK HOMEWORK 6.25 A 27.7-g sample f the radiatr clant ethylene glycl releases 688 J f heat. What was the initial temperature f the sample if the final temperature

More information

Entropy and Gibbs energy

Entropy and Gibbs energy 14 Entrpy and Gibbs energy Answers t wrked examples WE 14.1 Predicting the sign f an entrpy change (n p. 658 in Chemistry 3 ) What will be the sign f the value f S fr: (a) crystallizatin f salt frm a slutin;

More information

/ / Chemistry. Chapter 1 Chemical Foundations

/ / Chemistry. Chapter 1 Chemical Foundations Name Chapter 1 Chemical Fundatins Advanced Chemistry / / Metric Cnversins All measurements in chemistry are made using the metric system. In using the metric system yu must be able t cnvert between ne

More information

Lecture 14 Chapter 16, Sections 3-4 Equilibrium. Nifty K eq math Q and K eq Connection with G Le Chatelier

Lecture 14 Chapter 16, Sections 3-4 Equilibrium. Nifty K eq math Q and K eq Connection with G Le Chatelier Lecture 14 Chater 16, Sectins 3-4 Equilibrium Nifty K math Q and K Cnnectin with G Le Chatelier Remember In general fr a reactin like aa + bb dd + ee K [ ] d D [ E] e [ ] a A [ ] b B K s can be cmbined

More information

Chapter 11: Atmosphere

Chapter 11: Atmosphere Chapter 11: Atmsphere Sectin 1: Atmspheric Basics Objectives 1. Describe the cmpsitin f the atmsphere. 2. Cmpare and cntrast the varius layers f the atmsphere. 3. Identify three methds f transferring energy

More information

Kinetic Model Completeness

Kinetic Model Completeness 5.68J/10.652J Spring 2003 Lecture Ntes Tuesday April 15, 2003 Kinetic Mdel Cmpleteness We say a chemical kinetic mdel is cmplete fr a particular reactin cnditin when it cntains all the species and reactins

More information

Electrochemistry. Reduction: the gaining of electrons. Reducing agent (reductant): species that donates electrons to reduce another reagent.

Electrochemistry. Reduction: the gaining of electrons. Reducing agent (reductant): species that donates electrons to reduce another reagent. Electrchemistry Review: Reductin: the gaining f electrns Oxidatin: the lss f electrns Reducing agent (reductant): species that dnates electrns t reduce anther reagent. Oxidizing agent (xidant): species

More information

CHM112 Lab Graphing with Excel Grading Rubric

CHM112 Lab Graphing with Excel Grading Rubric Name CHM112 Lab Graphing with Excel Grading Rubric Criteria Pints pssible Pints earned Graphs crrectly pltted and adhere t all guidelines (including descriptive title, prperly frmatted axes, trendline

More information

Experiment #3. Graphing with Excel

Experiment #3. Graphing with Excel Experiment #3. Graphing with Excel Study the "Graphing with Excel" instructins that have been prvided. Additinal help with learning t use Excel can be fund n several web sites, including http://www.ncsu.edu/labwrite/res/gt/gt-

More information

Combustion Chemistry

Combustion Chemistry Cmbustin Chemistry Hai Wang Stanfrd University 2015 Princetn-CEFRC Summer Schl On Cmbustin Curse Length: 3 hrs June 22 26, 2015 Cpyright 2015 by Hai Wang This material is nt t be sld, reprduced r distributed

More information

GASES. PV = nrt N 2 CH 4 CO 2 O 2 HCN N 2 O NO 2. Pressure & Boyle s Law Temperature & Charles s Law Avogadro s Law IDEAL GAS LAW

GASES. PV = nrt N 2 CH 4 CO 2 O 2 HCN N 2 O NO 2. Pressure & Boyle s Law Temperature & Charles s Law Avogadro s Law IDEAL GAS LAW GASES Pressure & Byle s Law Temperature & Charles s Law Avgadr s Law IDEAL GAS LAW PV = nrt N 2 CH 4 CO 2 O 2 HCN N 2 O NO 2 Earth s atmsphere: 78% N 2 21% O 2 sme Ar, CO 2 Sme Cmmn Gasses Frmula Name

More information

Answer Key, Problem Set 8b (full)

Answer Key, Problem Set 8b (full) Chemistry 11 Mines, Fall 017 Answer Key, Prblem Set 8b (full) 1. NT1;. NT; 3. 6.58 (with extra parts added); 4. NT3; 5. 6. & 6.3; 6. 6.93; 7. 6.99; 8. 6.75 (i.e., determine the H fr the thermchemical equatin);

More information

CHAPTER 6 / HARVEY A. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM B. THERMODYNAMICS AND EQUILIBRIUM C. MANUPULATING EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS

CHAPTER 6 / HARVEY A. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM B. THERMODYNAMICS AND EQUILIBRIUM C. MANUPULATING EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS CHPTER 6 / HRVEY. CHEMICL B. THERMODYNMICS ND C. MNUPULTING CONSTNTS D. CONSTNTS FOR CHEMICL RECTIONS 1. Precipitatin Reactins 2. cid-base Reactins 3. Cmplexatin Reactins 4. Oxidatin-Reductin Reactins

More information

This section is primarily focused on tools to aid us in finding roots/zeros/ -intercepts of polynomials. Essentially, our focus turns to solving.

This section is primarily focused on tools to aid us in finding roots/zeros/ -intercepts of polynomials. Essentially, our focus turns to solving. Sectin 3.2: Many f yu WILL need t watch the crrespnding vides fr this sectin n MyOpenMath! This sectin is primarily fcused n tls t aid us in finding rts/zers/ -intercepts f plynmials. Essentially, ur fcus

More information