Flushing Out the Moles in Lab: The Reaction of Calcium Chloride with Carbonate Salts

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2 2 Some Common Ions Cations Anions H + hydrogen ion OH hydroxide ion Na + sodium ion Cl chloride ion K + potassium ion 2 CO 3 carbonate ion Ca 2+ calcium ion NO 3 nitrate ion Ag + silver ion 3 PO 4 phosphate ion + NH 4 ammonium ion 2 SO 4 sulfate ion Predicting the product of precipitation reactions. Sometimes a precipitate results when two soluble ionic compounds are mixed in aqueous solution. For example, a precipitate is formed when solutions of silver nitrate and sodium chloride are mixed. How would you predict the identity of the precipitate? This can be done in two steps. First, break the parent compounds into their respective ions, and then exchange the ions between partners to predict the products. For example, silver nitrate and sodium chloride dissociate into ions in solution: AgNO 3 (aq) NaCl (aq) Ag + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) Na + (aq) + Cl (aq) In the mixture of silver nitrate and sodium chloride solutions, we consider the products formed by the exchange of partners (each cation ends up with a different anion than it started with), predicting the possible products AgCl and NaNO 3. Therefore, the observed precipitate could be AgCl or NaNO 3, or it could be both. Later in this course you will learn how to predict which ionic substances will be insoluble. In this example, AgCl is insoluble in water and precipitates out of solution, while NaNO 3 is soluble, so the Na + and NO 3 ions remain dissolved and, therefore, uncombined in solution. This reaction would then have the balanced equation: AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) AgCl (s) + Na + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) The net ionic equation for this reaction is: Ag + (aq) + Cl (aq) AgCl(s) The general rules for water solubility of common ionic compounds include the following two rules, with rule one taking precedence over rule two: 1. All common compounds of the alkali metals and the ammonium ion are soluble. 2. Almost all carbonate, phosphate, and hydroxide compounds are insoluble. Therefore, MgCO 3, Ag 3 PO 4, and Ca(OH) 2 are predicted to be insoluble in water, but Na 2 CO 3, (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4, and KOH are predicted to be soluble. Procedure for experiment You will work individually on the experimental portion of this laboratory with one carbonate salt assigned to you by your instructor. You will then partner with two other students to analyze the data for all three carbonate salts. The step by step instructions follow.

5 5 What should be in your laboratory report? You will submit only one report as a group and all members of the group will receive the same grade. So please talk with one another to make sure the report is just the way you want it before submitting. Your report will need to include the following and should be limited to two pages. A title for the experiment, names of all authors, lab section, and date. A Figure made up of a well constructed graph with an appropriate title, properly labeled axes, and equations for the trend lines with R 2 values included. The data points and trend lines for each of the three reactions should be clearly identified including the specific data point contributed by each partner. The graph should contain a caption, not to exceed 8 lines, that compares the trends observed for the three reactions and the meaning of those trends. Do not attach the table. A Results and Discussion section in which each partner contributes one paragraph describing the results of his/her reaction and discussing the meaning of the data for that particular reaction. The length of each paragraph should not exceed 75 words. The word count feature of the software should be used and the number of words should be included in parenthesis at the end of each paragraph.

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