Effect of ExB Driven Transport on the Deposition of Carbon in the Outer Divertor of. ASDEX Upgrade

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1 Association Euratom-Tekes ASDEX Upgrade Effect of ExB Driven Transport on the Deposition of Carbon in the Outer Divertor of ASDEX Upgrade L. Aho-Mantila 1,2, M. Wischmeier 3, K. Krieger 3, V. Rohde 3, H. W. Müller 3, D.P. Coster 3, M. Groth 2, A. Kirschner 4, R. Neu 3, S. Potzel 3, B. Sieglin 3, E. Wolfrum 3, ASDEX Upgrade Team 1 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland 2 Aalto University, School of Science and Technology 3 Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching 4 Forschungszentrum Jülich, Trilateral Euregio Cluster Work supported by EFDA PWI and ITM, the Academy of Finland projects and SimITER, and the CSC computing center 19th International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions, San Diego, 21

2 Introduction: ASDEX Upgrade 13 C experiments Z [m] ASDEX Upgrade (AUG): vertical target configuration tungsten-coated PFCs UV LV Carbon transport studies: 13 CH 4 injection during repeated discharges Post-mortem analysis of re-deposited 13 C Numerical modelling: what produces the observed deposition pattern? UV 1.2 LV Major radius [m] O-29: Effect of ExB on Carbon Deposition in AUG Outer Divertor L. Aho-Mantila et al, PSI-19 1/13

3 Considerably different 13 C deposition in fwd/rev Bt+Ip 2 experiments in low-density L-mode, similar main plasma parameters: S coordinate [mm] FWD: Bt=-2.5T, Ip=.8MA deuterium, n/n GW = MW ECRH heating 11 discharges / 33 s injection 32% (UV) / 24% (LV) of 13 C locally re-deposited FWD gap > gap > magn. field line B > NRA REV: Bt=2.5T, Ip=-.8MA REV deuterium, n/n GW =.32.9 MW ECRH heating 8 discharges / 3 s injection 18% (UV) / 12% (LV) of 13 C locally re-deposited < B NRA x1 15 at/cm O-29: Effect of ExB on Carbon Deposition in AUG Outer Divertor L. Aho-Mantila et al, PSI-19 2/13

4 Integrated modelling to describe 13 C transport 1 Plasma background: SOLPS5. B2.5: Plasma fluid, drift terms activated Eirene: Monte Carlo neutrals AUG vessel SOLPS grid separatrix ERO volume T e, T i, n e, u, E, B Z [m] C injection: ERO CH 4 source, break-up and 3D transport Carbon layer formation, re-deposition and re-erosion fwd rev Major radius [m] O-29: Effect of ExB on Carbon Deposition in AUG Outer Divertor L. Aho-Mantila et al, PSI-19 3/13 x n e x 1 19 z B t : I p : UV LV

5 SOLPS: global solution for SOL plasma Plasma solutions agree with measured profiles at the outer midplane: n e [1 19 m 3 ] T e [ev] T i [ev] FWD Bt+Ip: REV Bt+Ip: 1 2 Li beam Thomson sc. ECE Thomson sc. Li beam R Rsep [cm] R Rsep [cm] SOLPS R Rsep [cm] O-29: Effect of ExB on Carbon Deposition in AUG Outer Divertor L. Aho-Mantila et al, PSI-19 4/13

6 Target solution in fwd B in line with measurements z [m] Outer target in attached, low-recycling regime, n t m 3 Presheath electric field towards the target: E z 1 V/mm Radial electric field towards the outer SOL: E r = dv p /dr 1 V/mm B t E r E z 1e+19/m 3 1e+18/m R [m] S 3 reflected light 2 from inboard Spectroscopy D α CIII ds [cm] Langmuir probes Γ n e c s models differ T e V p e+23/m 3 5 LV UV ds [cm] O-29: Effect of ExB on Carbon Deposition in AUG Outer Divertor L. Aho-Mantila et al, PSI-19 5/13 5 1e+18/m 3 [ev] [V]

7 Significantly higher density in reversed field z [m] Outer target attached, but 1x higher density: n t m 3 Short density decay length compared to probe measurements E z 1 V/mm, radial electric field E r underestimated? B t E z 1e+17/m 3 1e+17/m R [m] S 5 no reflection 5 Spectroscopy D γ CII ds [cm] Langmuir probes Γ n e T e 2 1 1e+24/m LV UV ds [cm] 1e+19/m 3 [ev] 4 V p 2 O-29: Effect of ExB on Carbon Deposition in AUG Outer Divertor L. Aho-Mantila et al, PSI-19 6/13 [V]

8 CH 4 dissociates within a few cm from surface distance from surface [mm] Trajectories excluding E B, from ERO: Upstream B Downstream Shallow magnetic field incidence angle Without drifts, no ions impinging on upstream surface parts Neutral dissociation products deposition close to valves, upstream deposition possible neutral O-29: Effect of ExB on Carbon Deposition in AUG Outer Divertor L. Aho-Mantila et al, PSI-19 7/13

9 Ions influenced by plasma friction and E B Transport parallel to B: Plasma friction dominates over forces due to E and T i,e Upstream/downstream transport determined by plasma collisionality Deposition (normalized) 15eV, 1E18m 3 8eV, 2.3E18m 3 5eV, 4E18m 3 upstr downstr 19% 81% 1% 9% 5% 95% toroidal coord. [mm] Transport perpendicular to B: v E B 4 m/s, average initial velocity of ions: 16 m/s Fwd B: E B towards the strike point and towards the surface Rev B: E B towards the outer SOL z [m] B t B t ExB ExB R [m] O-29: Effect of ExB on Carbon Deposition in AUG Outer Divertor L. Aho-Mantila et al, PSI-19 8/13

10 Similar PSI assumptions as in TEXTOR modelling Erosion yields: Enhanced Y chem = 15% of D + flux assumed Injection-free periods (2-3% of flattop time) not taken into account Reflection: Small effective sticking of hydrocarbons Broader distributions: CH sticks to surface, CH X reflected Layer formation: Homogeneous C/W mixing model deposition over-estimated No surface roughness effects deposition under-estimated O-29: Effect of ExB on Carbon Deposition in AUG Outer Divertor L. Aho-Mantila et al, PSI-19 9/13

11 Observed transport is not due to electrostatic sheath S coordinate [mm] FWD % 115 NRA 24% FWD 16% SOLPS/ERO 38% Modelling yields circular patterns around the valves deposition due to neutrals Upstream deposition underestimated and shows no transport towards the strike point Sticking CH amplifies deposition close to LV O-29: Effect of ExB on Carbon Deposition in AUG Outer Divertor L. Aho-Mantila et al, PSI-19 1/13

12 Inclusion of SOLPS potential crucial S coordinate [mm] FWD % 115 NRA 24% FWD 3% SOLPS/ERO 44% Electric field according to SOLPS solution added more ions impinging on the surface Higher deposition efficiency Upstream deposition (1/3) close to measured values (4%) Downward transport correctly reproduced O-29: Effect of ExB on Carbon Deposition in AUG Outer Divertor L. Aho-Mantila et al, PSI-19 11/13

13 Simulations reverse the deposition tails in rev B S coordinate [mm] REV % 115 NRA 12% Simulations agree with the measured smaller, reversed deviation from the magnetic field line and small upstream deposition at LV compared to fwd B Modelled UV pattern indicates underestimation of n e in background plasma (friction) Deficiencies in modelled electric field? REV 24% SOLPS/ERO 36% O-29: Effect of ExB on Carbon Deposition in AUG Outer Divertor L. Aho-Mantila et al, PSI-19 12/13

14 Conclusions E B driven transport plays a major role in the deposition of carbon in AUG outer divertor - Direct influence on the transport of hydrocarbons - Effect on local plasma conditions - Increase in re-deposition efficiencies in normal field configuration Inclusion of cross-field drifts in simulations crucial for matching the experimental results - In forward Bt/Ip, SOLPS5.+ERO simulations brought significantly closer to the measured plasma conditions and 13 C deposition - Reversal of Bt/Ip reverses the deposition tails also in simulations, considerable change in local plasma conditions O-29: Effect of ExB on Carbon Deposition in AUG Outer Divertor L. Aho-Mantila et al, PSI-19 13/13

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