Hydrodynamic modeling of the jet bubbling reactor

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Hydrodynamic modeling of the jet bubbling reactor"

Transcription

1 Hydrodynamic modeling of the jet bubbling reactor CORNEL MUNTEA*, IOAN CĂLDARE**, IOAN GIURCA*, DORIN CRISTIAN NĂSTAC*** * Building Services Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca ** Mechanic Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca *** Building Services Engineering Department, Transilvania University of Braşov Boulevard December 21, no , , Cluj-Napoca Romania Abstract: This paper presents a hydrodynamic model for a very diluted pollution absorber, the jet bubbling reactor (JBR). Also it propose a mathematical model for the principal reactor features using the mass transfer local coefficients, k G and k L, in accordance with the double film theory. Key-Words: jet bubbling reactor, hydrodynamic modeling, reaction solution, sulfur dioxide, flue gases, flue gas desulphurization. 1 Introduction The retention of sulfur dioxide from flue gases is mainly by washing them with a solution of reactant. The absorption of gases in solutions is a physical-chemical process in which two phenomena occur: mass transfer, which is a physical process, followed by chemical reaction. Because chemical reactions are dependent on the physical and chemical properties of reactants, just mass transfer is influenced by the type and characteristics of reactors used. The present paper aims to analyze a reactor used less flue gas desulphurization, the jet bubbling reactor. This, in the principle, is made up of a lot of vertical pipes, immersed in the reaction solution (fig. 1). The reactor is continuously fed with the reaction solution of a given concentration is, also, continuously removed from the reactor at a rate corresponding to the solution containing the reaction product. Through vertical pipes, the flue gas are blown in the reaction solution, and this, because Archimedes Force of liquid, bubbled through the liquid upward vertical assigning gas bubbles are circular, outside pipes bubbling. 2 Model presentation In the analysis that follows we will focus on a single vertical pipe with diameter (d) (wall thickness is neglected) and depth of immersion (h) (fig. 2). Fig. 1 Jet Bubbling Reactor CT 121 Fig. 2 Hydrodynamic model scheme ISBN:

2 We consider the following working hypotheses: - stationary working regime - gases that go with a certain velocity in the liquid layer, immediately receive upward vertical velocity, around the pipe submerged, the upward flow area of the gas bubbles is constant and being limited by the outer circumference of the pipe the diameter is d and also an outer circumference with diameter x, which is going to determine it - bubbles are characterized by: V b - unit volume of a bubble V b, N b - number of bubbles per unit volume of reactor N b, bubble surface area relative to volume bubble av (for sferic bubble a v = 6/d b ), bubble diameter d b, ascending velocity of bubbles w b - consider the reaction solution is a move up and down (z axis) without there is a radial component of movement - given that the gas to be cleaned is very dilute d and the depth of immersion, h, is relatively low, we consider that the volume of a bubble V b, emains constant. Also, on this hypothesis w b and a v can be considered as constant. We consider the chemical reaction of the type: A + b B products 3 The process rate definition To calculate the process rate of mass transfer with chemical reaction, the best theori is two-film theory (Lewis and Whitman). mass transfer. This implied in each of the two films of a concentration gradient. Thus, as shown in figure 3, gas film, the concentration or the partial pressure decrease from the value y A, respective p A, to value y Ai, respective p Ai, and liquid film, from the value x Ai, respective c Ai, to value x A respective c A. Resistance at the interface separating the two phases can be neglected, so here are created conditions for equilibrium between y Ai and x Ai concentrations or p Ai and c Ai, therefore these concentrations can be correlated to the equilibrium curve y Ai = f(x Ai ) or p Ai = f(c Ai ) (fig. 4). Fig. 4 Echilibrium curve y Ai = f(x Ai ) The flow N A transferred from gas phase to liquid phase is equal to the process rate v p. N A = v p = k y (y A - Y Ai ) = k x (x Ai - x A ) (1) Respective: N A = v p = k G (p A - p Ai ) = k L (c Ai - c A ) (2) Fig. 3 Concentration gradients in the gas-lichid interface According to this, mass transfer from the gas phase in the liquid phase, at the interface, in both phases form a film, which is the main resistance to Where mass transfer occurs at low concentrations of A (cases we are interested) it can be considered that these coefficients are equal along the process. To find their values need to be correlated with the similarity theory using dimensional analysis for the reactor examined. It is impossible to determine the values of the mass transfer coefficients at the interface. Therefore, overall mass transfer coefficients are used; they refer to the size of the gas-liquid equilibrium curve, which are generally known. If rewrite process rate relationships are obtained: v p = K y (y A - Y A *) = Kx (x A * - x A ) (3) ISBN:

3 respective: v p = K G (p A - p A *) = K L (c A * - c A ) (4) In our study, solubility follow Henry's law, so, between overall and individual coefficients may be determined following equations: 1/K y = 1/k y + H/k x (5) 1/K x = 1/k x + H/k y (6) respective: 1/K G = 1/k G + H/k L (7) 1/K L = 1/k L + 1/Hk G (8) Where H is Henry's constant. Where mass transfer accompanied by chemical reaction occurs, if its rate is high, the process will be accelerated, so that the relations above will encompass and the chemical accelerating factor, Φ. This parameter is well known in the theory of chemical reactors. By specifying the above mentioned, the following correlation between overall and individual mass transfer coefficients: Respective: 1/K L = 1/Φk L + 1/Hk G (10) 4 Balance sheets of the jet bubbling reactor - Balance equation of the gas entering the reactor tube: D Vg = w g (11) Wg and d are chosen; neglecting the thickness of pipe - Balance equation for bubbles upward: D Vg = wb (x 2 - d 2 )/ε g (12) If x is determined on a laboratory model under certain conditions, and by means of a pulsed jet also determine w b, from (12), volumetric fraction of gas, ε g can be calculated, being able to compare with data from specialized literature. - The molar balance equation of the reactor A, gas phase of reactor element: 1/K G = 1/k G + H/Φk L (9) = v p a v V b N b S x (13) residual gas flow decreased in reactor element dz retained residual gas flow - From equation (13) with the simplifying assumptions, it result: V p = K G.p (y A - ) (16) By entering (16) to (14), we obtain: p = v p a v (14) - Process rate will be: = K G. a v (y A - ) (17) When separating the variables and integrating, we obtain: v p = K G (p A - H.c A ) = K G. p (y A - ) (15) - It is assumed that the liquid phase is completely homogeneous, so c A = c Ai With this specification, we obtain: = (18) So, the depth of the immersion is given by: ISBN:

4 h = (19) Commonly, when designing a reactor, c A1 and c A2 are given, and volume flow of fluid is calculated. - Molar balance equation of A, in liquid phase the entire volume of between exterior and sparger pipe circumference to diameter x: + a v V b N b S x dz = + v RA V x (1 - ε g ) (20) The reaction rate depends on several factors, such as: the level of reaction, reactant concentrations, temperature. - If the relation (20) is inserted process rate (16), taking into account the vertical variation of concentration y A, is obtained: ( - ) - v RA h (1 - ε g ) = ( - c A2 ) (21) is denoted by - the apparent velocity of the liquid in the reactor w L = (22) In this way we can find the necessary flow of solution in the reactor. - Molar balance equation for B in the liquid phase, written for the whole volume of the reaction: D VL (c B2 - c B1 ) = b [D MG (y A1 - y A2 ) - D VL (c A1 - c A2 )] (23) the flux of substance B flow substance that reacts with A flow of substance B extracted through the circulation solution From this relationship, we can calculate the concentration of reactant B at the exit of the reactor, c B1. 6 Conclusion This paper propose a hydrodynamic model to study the jet bubbling rector in order to establish ways of designing. To establish design relationships will be determined at the laboratory scale, the following types of relationships: - the relationships for local mass transfer coefficients, k G and k L ; - relationships for ascending velocity of bubbles, w b ; - relationships for volumetric fraction of gas, ε g ; - relationships for bubble surface area relative to volume bubble, a v. Notations a v - bubble surface area relative to volume bubble [m 2 /m 3 ] b - the stoichiometric equivalent of reaction dimensionless number c A, c Ai - the concentration of A in the liquid mass, that is at the interface of the liquid film [kmol/m 3 ] ISBN:

5 c B1, c B2 - the concentration of the reaction B substance to exit from the reactor respectively reactor inlet [kmol/m 3 ] d - pipe diameter [m] D VG - gas volume flow entering the pipe reactor [m 3 /s] D VL - volume flow of fluid through which circulates gases bubbled [m 3 /s] H - Henry's constant [Nm/kmol] k G - local mass transfer coefficient on the gas [kmol/ns] k L - local mass transfer coefficient on the liquid k x, k y - local mass transfer coefficients in the liquid or gas [kmol/m 2 s] K G - overall mass transfer coefficient in the gas phase [kmol/ns] K L - overall mass transfer coefficient in liquid phase K x, K y - overall mass transfer coefficients in the liquid or gas [kmol/m 2 s] N b - umber of bubbles per unit volume of reactor [1/m 3 ] P - the total pressure of the gas [N/m 2 ] p A - partial pressure of A in the gas volume [N/m 2 ] p Ai - partial pressure of A at the interface [N/m 2 ] R - universal gas constant [J/kmol. K] S x - the flow area of the ascending gas bubbles [m 2 ] T - gas temperature [K] v p - the process rate [kmol/m 2 s] v R,A - reaction rate of A [kmol/m 3 s] V b - unit volume of a bubble [m 3 ] V x - the considered reaction volume [m 3 ] w b - ascending velocity of bubbles w g - gas velocity w L - the apparent velocity of the liquid in the reactor x - that surrounds the circumference diameter bubbles in ascending movement [m] x A, x Ai - the molar fraction of A in the liquid volume [kmol/kmol liquid] y A, y Ai - the molar fraction of A in the gas volume [kmol/kmol gas] c A *, x A *, p A *, y A * - values of equilibrium gas phase - liquid phase of component A ε g - volumetric fraction of gas Φ - the chemical accelerating factor [2] Muntea, C., Contribuţii teoretice şi experimentale privind instalaţiile de desulfurare a gazelor de ardere, Teză de doctorat, Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, 1998, pp [3] Muntea, C., Căldare, I., Giurca, I., Flue Gas Desulphuriation Using Jet Bubbling Reactor. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Energy and Environment Technologies and Equipment (EEETE '13), June 1-3, 2013, Braşov, Romania. [4] Muntea, C., Transferul de masă într-un reactor gaz-lichid. Conferinţa Naţională de Termotehnică cu participare internaţională, vol 1, mai 1998, Piteşti. [5] Pasiuk-Bronikowska, W., Ziajda, J., Kinetics of Aqueous SO 2 oxidation. In Presence of Calcium-World Congres III of Chemical Engineering, Tokio 1986, vol. IV. [6] J. Zhao, S. Su, N. Ai, X. Zhu, Modelling Advances in Environment. Technologies, Agriculture, Food and Animal Science ISBN: References: [1] Borgwardt, R.H., Bruce K.R., Effect of Specific Surface Aria on the Reactivity of CaO with SO 2. X1. AIchE Journal, Vol. 32, nr. 2, Feb ISBN:

Lecture (9) Reactor Sizing. Figure (1). Information needed to predict what a reactor can do.

Lecture (9) Reactor Sizing. Figure (1). Information needed to predict what a reactor can do. Lecture (9) Reactor Sizing 1.Introduction Chemical kinetics is the study of chemical reaction rates and reaction mechanisms. The study of chemical reaction engineering (CRE) combines the study of chemical

More information

Outline. Definition and mechanism Theory of diffusion Molecular diffusion in gases Molecular diffusion in liquid Mass transfer

Outline. Definition and mechanism Theory of diffusion Molecular diffusion in gases Molecular diffusion in liquid Mass transfer Diffusion 051333 Unit operation in gro-industry III Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of gro-industry Kasetsart University Lecturer: Kittipong Rattanaporn 1 Outline Definition and mechanism Theory of

More information

COMPARTMENTAL MODELLING OF AN INDUSTRIAL BUBBLE COLUMN

COMPARTMENTAL MODELLING OF AN INDUSTRIAL BUBBLE COLUMN COMPARTMENTAL MODELLING OF AN INDUSTRIAL BUBBLE COLUMN Christophe Wylock 1, Aurélie Larcy 1, Thierry Cartage 2, Benoît Haut 1 1 Transfers, Interfaces and Processes (TIPs) Chemical Engineering Unit, Université

More information

Convective Mass Transfer

Convective Mass Transfer Convective Mass Transfer Definition of convective mass transfer: The transport of material between a boundary surface and a moving fluid or between two immiscible moving fluids separated by a mobile interface

More information

Steady-State Molecular Diffusion

Steady-State Molecular Diffusion Steady-State Molecular Diffusion This part is an application to the general differential equation of mass transfer. The objective is to solve the differential equation of mass transfer under steady state

More information

Shell Balances in Fluid Mechanics

Shell Balances in Fluid Mechanics Shell Balances in Fluid Mechanics R. Shankar Subramanian Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Clarkson University When fluid flow occurs in a single direction everywhere in a system, shell

More information

BAE 820 Physical Principles of Environmental Systems

BAE 820 Physical Principles of Environmental Systems BAE 820 Physical Principles of Environmental Systems Inter phase mass transfer Dr. Zifei Liu Mass transfer between two phases For a two phase system not at equilibrium (concentrations in the two phases

More information

Chemical Reaction Engineering - Part 16 - more reactors Richard K. Herz,

Chemical Reaction Engineering - Part 16 - more reactors Richard K. Herz, Chemical Reaction Engineering - Part 16 - more reactors Richard K. Herz, rherz@ucsd.edu, www.reactorlab.net More reactors So far we have learned about the three basic types of reactors: Batch, PFR, CSTR.

More information

HEAT TRANSFER 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS 5 2 CONDUCTION

HEAT TRANSFER 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS 5 2 CONDUCTION HEAT TRANSFER 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS 5 2 CONDUCTION 11 Fourier s Law of Heat Conduction, General Conduction Equation Based on Cartesian Coordinates, Heat Transfer Through a Wall, Composite Wall

More information

CFD Modelling of the Fluid Flow Characteristics in an External-Loop Air-Lift Reactor

CFD Modelling of the Fluid Flow Characteristics in an External-Loop Air-Lift Reactor A publication of 145 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS VOL. 2, 21 Chief Editors: Sauro Pierucci, Jiří J. Klemeš Copyright 21, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l., ISBN 978-88-958-2-5; ISSN 1974-9791 The Italian Association

More information

Chapter 5. Chemistry for Changing Times, Chemical Accounting. Lecture Outlines. John Singer, Jackson Community College. Thirteenth Edition

Chapter 5. Chemistry for Changing Times, Chemical Accounting. Lecture Outlines. John Singer, Jackson Community College. Thirteenth Edition Chemistry for Changing Times, Thirteenth Edition Lecture Outlines Chemical Accounting John Singer, Jackson Community College Chemical Sentences: Equations Chemical equations represent the sentences in

More information

Well Stirred Reactor Stabilization of flames

Well Stirred Reactor Stabilization of flames Well Stirred Reactor Stabilization of flames Well Stirred Reactor (see books on Combustion ) Stabilization of flames in high speed flows (see books on Combustion ) Stabilization of flames Although the

More information

Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Engineering

Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Engineering Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Engineering MIDTERM EXAMINATION II Friday, April 9, 2010 The exam is 100 points total and 20% of the course grade. Please read through the questions carefully before giving

More information

MSWI Flue Gas Two-Stage Dry Treatment: Modeling and Simulation

MSWI Flue Gas Two-Stage Dry Treatment: Modeling and Simulation A publication of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS VOL. 26, 2012 Guest Editors: Valerio Cozzani, Eddy De Rademaeker Copyright 2012, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l., ISBN 978-88-95608-17-4; ISSN 1974-9791 The Italian

More information

Figure 11.1: A fluid jet extruded where we define the dimensionless groups

Figure 11.1: A fluid jet extruded where we define the dimensionless groups 11. Fluid Jets 11.1 The shape of a falling fluid jet Consider a circular orifice of a radius a ejecting a flux Q of fluid density ρ and kinematic viscosity ν (see Fig. 11.1). The resulting jet accelerates

More information

Mass Transfer Operations

Mass Transfer Operations College of Engineering Tutorial # 1 Chemical Engineering Dept. 14/9/1428 1. Methane and helium gas mixture is contained in a tube at 101.32 k Pa pressure and 298 K. At one point the partial pressure methane

More information

Summary of Dimensionless Numbers of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer

Summary of Dimensionless Numbers of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer 1. Nusselt number Summary of Dimensionless Numbers of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer Average Nusselt number: convective heat transfer Nu L = conductive heat transfer = hl where L is the characteristic

More information

Introduction to Mass Transfer

Introduction to Mass Transfer Introduction to Mass Transfer Introduction Three fundamental transfer processes: i) Momentum transfer ii) iii) Heat transfer Mass transfer Mass transfer may occur in a gas mixture, a liquid solution or

More information

ATTENUATION OF THE ACOUSTIC SCREENS IN CLOSED SPACES

ATTENUATION OF THE ACOUSTIC SCREENS IN CLOSED SPACES U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series D, Vol. 69, No. 3, 007 ISSN 15-358 ATTENUATION OF THE ACOUSTIC SCREENS IN CLOSED SPACES Ioan MAGHEŢI 1, Mariana SAVU Lucrarea prezintă calculul atenuării acustice a unui ecran

More information

Reactors. Reaction Classifications

Reactors. Reaction Classifications Reactors Reactions are usually the heart of the chemical processes in which relatively cheap raw materials are converted to more economically favorable products. In other cases, reactions play essential

More information

Chem 101 Review. Fall 2012

Chem 101 Review. Fall 2012 Chem 101 Review Fall 2012 Elements, Atoms, Ions Elements in nature symbols Constant composition chemical formula Dalton s atomic theory Atomic structure what makes up the atom ions isotopes Periodic table

More information

Part I.

Part I. Part I bblee@unimp . Introduction to Mass Transfer and Diffusion 2. Molecular Diffusion in Gasses 3. Molecular Diffusion in Liquids Part I 4. Molecular Diffusion in Biological Solutions and Gels 5. Molecular

More information

Worksheet 1.1. Chapter 1: Quantitative chemistry glossary

Worksheet 1.1. Chapter 1: Quantitative chemistry glossary Worksheet 1.1 Chapter 1: Quantitative chemistry glossary Amount The number of moles of a substance present in a sample. Aqueous solution A solution with water as the solvent. Atmosphere The unit atmosphere

More information

Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Solutions Chapter 4 and Solution Stoichiometry AP Chemistry 2014-15 North Nova Education Centre

More information

PhD Thesis RESEARCH ON CAPACITIVE MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLES FOR LIQUID LEVELS. Abstract

PhD Thesis RESEARCH ON CAPACITIVE MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLES FOR LIQUID LEVELS. Abstract Investeşte în oameni! FONDUL SOCIAL EUROPEAN Programul Operaţional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007 2013 Axa prioritară: 1 Educaţia şi formarea profesională în sprijinul creşterii economice

More information

Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 4 and Solution Stoichiometry John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville,

More information

CHM112 Lab Determination of an Equilibrium Constant Grading Rubric

CHM112 Lab Determination of an Equilibrium Constant Grading Rubric Name Team Name CHM112 Lab Determination of an Equilibrium Constant Grading Rubric Criteria Points possible Points earned Lab Performance Printed lab handout and rubric was brought to lab 3 Initial concentrations

More information

Chapter 3 NATURAL CONVECTION

Chapter 3 NATURAL CONVECTION Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid Sciences, 3rd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, Robert H. Turner, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2008 Chapter 3 NATURAL CONVECTION Mehmet Kanoglu Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

Heat Transfer Convection

Heat Transfer Convection Heat ransfer Convection Previous lectures conduction: heat transfer without fluid motion oday (textbook nearly 00 pages) Convection: heat transfer with fluid motion Research methods different Natural Convection

More information

Some Recent Developments in Headspace Gas Chromatography

Some Recent Developments in Headspace Gas Chromatography Current Analytical Chemistry, 2005, 1, 79-83 79 Some Recent Developments in Headspace Gas Chromatography J. Y. Zhu*,1 and X.-S. Chai 2 1 USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, One Gifford Pinchot

More information

Physics 2B Chapter 17 Notes - Conduction Spring 2018

Physics 2B Chapter 17 Notes - Conduction Spring 2018 Heat as a Fluid Scientists in the 1700 s had no idea what was going on. They were figuring things out for the first time and they didn t have much to work with because the scientific method was still relatively

More information

Sampling. Information is helpful in implementing control measures for reducing pollutant concentration to acceptable levels

Sampling. Information is helpful in implementing control measures for reducing pollutant concentration to acceptable levels Types of pollutant sampling and measurement: Air quality monitoring: Sampling and measurement of air pollutants generally known, as air quality monitoring. It is an integral component of any air pollution

More information

Chapter 2 Mass Transfer Coefficient

Chapter 2 Mass Transfer Coefficient Chapter 2 Mass Transfer Coefficient 2.1 Introduction The analysis reported in the previous chapter allows to describe the concentration profile and the mass fluxes of components in a mixture by solving

More information

Chemistry Semester One Exam Review

Chemistry Semester One Exam Review Chemistry Semester One Exam Review Name: 1. Compare physical and chemical changes in matter. 2. State the law on conservation of mass. 3. On which type of mixture(s) does the Tyndall Effect scatter light?

More information

Heat and Mass Transfer over Cooled Horizontal Tubes 333 x-component of the velocity: y2 u = g sin x y : (4) r 2 The y-component of the velocity eld is

Heat and Mass Transfer over Cooled Horizontal Tubes 333 x-component of the velocity: y2 u = g sin x y : (4) r 2 The y-component of the velocity eld is Scientia Iranica, Vol., No. 4, pp 332{338 c Sharif University of Technology, October 2004 Vapor Absorption into Liquid Films Flowing over a Column of Cooled Horizontal Tubes B. Farhanieh and F. Babadi

More information

W 18e Heat Capacity Ratio γ

W 18e Heat Capacity Ratio γ Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften Physikalisches Grundpraktikum W 8e Heat Capacity Ratio γ Tasks Determine the heat capacity ratio γ of air and carbon dioxide using the method of Clément and Desormes.

More information

The Chemical Reactions

The Chemical Reactions What are Chemical Reactions? The Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are concerned with breaking of old bonds to create new bonds. It is the interaction of two or more substances, resulting in chemical

More information

Hydrogen addition to the Andrussow process for HCN synthesis

Hydrogen addition to the Andrussow process for HCN synthesis Applied Catalysis A: General 201 (2000) 13 22 Hydrogen addition to the Andrussow process for HCN synthesis A.S. Bodke, D.A. Olschki, L.D. Schmidt Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science,

More information

HIGH-EFFICIENCY CERAMIC RECUPERATORS TO GLASS FURNACES

HIGH-EFFICIENCY CERAMIC RECUPERATORS TO GLASS FURNACES METALLURGY AND FOUNDRY ENGINEERING Vol. 3, 006, No. 1 Krzysztof Karczewski * HIGH-EFFICIENCY CERAMIC RECUPERATORS TO GLASS FURNACES Notation: α convection heat-transfer coefficient to air, W/(m K) α g

More information

VOCABULARY Define. 1. stoichiometry. 2. composition stoichiometry. 3. reaction stoichiometry. 4. unknown. 5. mole ratio

VOCABULARY Define. 1. stoichiometry. 2. composition stoichiometry. 3. reaction stoichiometry. 4. unknown. 5. mole ratio CHAPTER 9 HOMEWORK 9-1 (pp. 275 279) Define. 1. stoichiometry 2. composition stoichiometry 3. reaction stoichiometry 4. unknown 5. mole ratio SKILL BUILDER On a separate sheet of paper, write five possible

More information

Limestone-Gypsum Flue Gas Desulfurization Process: Modeling of Catalyzed Bisulfite Oxidation

Limestone-Gypsum Flue Gas Desulfurization Process: Modeling of Catalyzed Bisulfite Oxidation 781 A publication of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS VOL. 32, 2013 Chief Editors: Sauro Pierucci, Jiří J. Klemeš Copyright 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l., ISBN 978-88-95608-23-5; ISSN 1974-9791 The Italian

More information

SIMULATION OF FLOW IN A RADIAL FLOW FIXED BED REACTOR (RFBR)

SIMULATION OF FLOW IN A RADIAL FLOW FIXED BED REACTOR (RFBR) SIMULATION OF FLOW IN A RADIAL FLOW FIXED BED REACTOR (RFBR) Aqeel A. KAREERI, Habib H. ZUGHBI, *, and Habib H. AL-ALI * Ras Tanura Refinery, SAUDI ARAMCO, Saudi Arabia * Department of Chemical Engineering,

More information

Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions

Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions Solutions Homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances Composition is uniform throughout the sample No chemical reaction between the components of the mixture Solvents

More information

Quickly design CO 2 amine absorber

Quickly design CO 2 amine absorber Indian Journal of Chemical Technology Vol. 13, January 006, pp. 47-5 Quickly design CO amine absorber Prakash D Vaidya & Vijaykumar V Mahajani* Chemical Engineering Division, Institute of Chemical Technology,

More information

Thermal Systems. What and How? Physical Mechanisms and Rate Equations Conservation of Energy Requirement Control Volume Surface Energy Balance

Thermal Systems. What and How? Physical Mechanisms and Rate Equations Conservation of Energy Requirement Control Volume Surface Energy Balance Introduction to Heat Transfer What and How? Physical Mechanisms and Rate Equations Conservation of Energy Requirement Control Volume Surface Energy Balance Thermal Resistance Thermal Capacitance Thermal

More information

Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid

Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid Your Name: Date: Partner(s): Objectives: React magnesium metal with hydrochloric acid, collecting the hydrogen over water. Calculate the grams of hydrogen produced

More information

Fundamentals of Combustion

Fundamentals of Combustion Fundamentals of Combustion Lec 3: Chemical Thermodynamics Dr. Zayed Al-Hamamre Content Process Heat Transfer 1-3 Process Heat Transfer 1-4 Process Heat Transfer 1-5 Theoretical and Excess Air Combustion

More information

ESO201A: Thermodynamics

ESO201A: Thermodynamics ESO201A: Thermodynamics First Semester 2015-2016 Mid-Semester Examination Instructor: Sameer Khandekar Time: 120 mins Marks: 250 Solve sub-parts of a question serially. Question #1 (60 marks): One kmol

More information

TOPIC 3 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES QUESTIONSHEET 1 MOLAR SOLUTIONS (1)

TOPIC 3 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES QUESTIONSHEET 1 MOLAR SOLUTIONS (1) QUESTIONSHEET 1 MOLAR SOLUTIONS a) Molar concentration The number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 dm 3 of solution Molar solution One which contains 1 mol of solute in 1 dm 3 of solution b) (i) (HCl)

More information

NE 418 Exam # 2 Spring 2013

NE 418 Exam # 2 Spring 2013 NE 418 Exam # Spring 13 1 (4% The piping system shown below is equipped with pressure and temperature measuring sensors. Temperature is measured by thermocouples and pressure is measured by strain gauges.

More information

CP Physical Science Chemistry: Bell Work, Notes, Study Guides

CP Physical Science Chemistry: Bell Work, Notes, Study Guides CP Physical Science Chemistry: Bell Work, Notes, Study Guides Mr. Banker Fall 2014 ian_banker@charleston.k12.sc.us http://wandohigh.ccsdschools.com/directory/science/banker_ian/physical_science/ Remind101.com

More information

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Sixth Edition by Charles H. Corwin Chemical Reactions by Christopher Hamaker 1 Chemical and Physical Changes In a physical change, the chemical composition

More information

Chapter 7. Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 7. Chemical Equations and Reactions Chemical Equations and Reactions Chemical and Physical Changes In a physical change, the chemical composition of the substance remains constant. Examples of physical changes are the melting of ice or the

More information

Form 4 Chapter 7: Acid and Bases

Form 4 Chapter 7: Acid and Bases Form 4 Chapter 7: Acid and Bases The ph Scale Properties Acids Alkalis Physical. Substances that ionized in water to produce hydrogen ions.. Sour taste.. Turn blue litmus paper red. 4. Give a ph value

More information

A group of students investigated the volume of gas produced.

A group of students investigated the volume of gas produced. Q1.Lithium carbonate reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid. A group of students investigated the volume of gas produced. This is the method used. 1. Place a known mass of lithium carbonate in a conical

More information

Physicochemical Processes

Physicochemical Processes Lecture 3 Physicochemical Processes Physicochemical Processes Air stripping Carbon adsorption Steam stripping Chemical oxidation Supercritical fluids Membrane processes 1 1. Air Stripping A mass transfer

More information

Study of a mass transfer-reaction model for SO 2 absorption process using LAS/H 2 SO 4 solution

Study of a mass transfer-reaction model for SO 2 absorption process using LAS/H 2 SO 4 solution Pet.Sci.()7:97- DOI.7/s8--8-y 97 Study of a mass transfer-reaction model for SO absorption process using LAS/ SO solution Yue Changtao, Li Shuyuan, Chen Weihong, Guo Shaohui, Yang Yuhua and Sha Yingxun

More information

COMBUSTION OF FUEL 12:57:42

COMBUSTION OF FUEL 12:57:42 COMBUSTION OF FUEL The burning of fuel in presence of air is known as combustion. It is a chemical reaction taking place between fuel and oxygen at temperature above ignition temperature. Heat is released

More information

1º ESO UNIT 4: Chemical and physical changes. Susana Morales Bernal

1º ESO UNIT 4: Chemical and physical changes. Susana Morales Bernal 1º ESO UNIT 4: Chemical and physical changes Objectives 1. To know the basic characteristics of chemical reactions. 2. To know the differences between physical changes and chemical changes. 3. To know

More information

EFFECT OF DISTRIBUTION OF VOLUMETRIC HEAT GENERATION ON MODERATOR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION

EFFECT OF DISTRIBUTION OF VOLUMETRIC HEAT GENERATION ON MODERATOR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION EFFECT OF DISTRIBUTION OF VOLUMETRIC HEAT GENERATION ON MODERATOR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION A. K. Kansal, P. Suryanarayana, N. K. Maheshwari Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,

More information

CFD study of gas mixing efficiency and comparisons with experimental data

CFD study of gas mixing efficiency and comparisons with experimental data 17 th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering ESCAPE17 V. Plesu and P.S. Agachi (Editors) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1 CFD study of gas mixing efficiency and comparisons with

More information

Principles of Food and Bioprocess Engineering (FS 231) Problems on Heat Transfer

Principles of Food and Bioprocess Engineering (FS 231) Problems on Heat Transfer Principles of Food and Bioprocess Engineering (FS 1) Problems on Heat Transfer 1. What is the thermal conductivity of a material 8 cm thick if the temperature at one end of the product is 0 C and the temperature

More information

CARBONATION CONVERSION OF Na 2. s TO H 2

CARBONATION CONVERSION OF Na 2. s TO H 2 CARBONATION CONVERSION OF Na s TO H s Dedicated to my sister, for her encouragement and support. KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF CARBONATION CONVERSION OF AQUEOUS SODIUM SULFIDE TO HYDROGEN SULFIDE By STEVEN

More information

Chemistry I Notes Unit 6: Chemical Reactions

Chemistry I Notes Unit 6: Chemical Reactions Chemistry I Notes Unit 6: Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction process by which substances are changed into different substances. Reactants substances present at the beginning of a chemical reaction

More information

Elements and Their Oxides

Elements and Their Oxides Elements and Their Oxides An oxide is a. Oxides can form when an element reacts with oxygen, often in air. This reaction can be rapid with the release of a great deal of energy, as in the combustion of

More information

Wet FGD Chemistry and Performance Factors

Wet FGD Chemistry and Performance Factors Wet FGD Chemistry and Performance Factors Gordon Maller URS Corporation Presented at: 2008 Power Gen Conference December 1, 2008 Presentation Outline FGD Chemistry Overview Effect of Key Process Variables

More information

Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy

Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy Name: Science Teacher: Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy Atoms 8.5A Fill in the missing information to summarize what you know about atomic structure. Name of Subatomic Particle Location within the

More information

EXPERIMENT 22 SOLUBILITY OF A SLIGHTLY SOLUBLE ELECTROLYTE

EXPERIMENT 22 SOLUBILITY OF A SLIGHTLY SOLUBLE ELECTROLYTE EXPERIMENT 22 SOLUBILITY OF A SLIGHTLY SOLUBLE ELECTROLYTE INTRODUCTION Electrolytes are compounds that are present in solution as ions. They are more likely to be soluble in water than in most other liquids

More information

SPECIMEN. Candidate Number

SPECIMEN. Candidate Number Advanced Subsidiary GCE CHEMISTRY A F321 QP Unit F321: Atoms, Bonds and Groups Specimen Paper Candidates answer on the question paper. Additional Materials: Data Sheet for Chemistry (Inserted) Scientific

More information

CFD ANALYSIS OF TURBULENCE EFFECT ON REACTION IN STIRRED TANK REACTORS

CFD ANALYSIS OF TURBULENCE EFFECT ON REACTION IN STIRRED TANK REACTORS CFD ANALYSIS OF TURBULENCE EFFECT ON REACTION IN STIRRED TANK REACTORS Udaya Bhaskar Reddy R*, Gopalakrishnan S, Ramasamy E Department of Chemical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore-

More information

Classifying Chemical Reactions

Classifying Chemical Reactions Chem 101 Classifying Chemical Reactions Lectures 17 and 18 Classifying Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions can be divided into five categories: I. Combination or Synthesis Reactions II. Decomposition

More information

Therefore, the control volume in this case can be treated as a solid body, with a net force or thrust of. bm # V

Therefore, the control volume in this case can be treated as a solid body, with a net force or thrust of. bm # V When the mass m of the control volume remains nearly constant, the first term of the Eq. 6 8 simply becomes mass times acceleration since 39 CHAPTER 6 d(mv ) CV m dv CV CV (ma ) CV Therefore, the control

More information

2nd- Here's another example of a reversible reaction - dissolving salt in a beaker of water, described by the following reaction: NaCl (s)

2nd- Here's another example of a reversible reaction - dissolving salt in a beaker of water, described by the following reaction: NaCl (s) CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM AP Chemistry (Notes) Most chemical processes are reversible. Reactants react to form products, but those products can also react to form reactants. Examples of reversible reactions:

More information

CHAPTER No. 1 CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS HOTS: (High Order Thinking Skill) Questions with Answers: 1 A compound `X` is used for drinking, has ph =7.Its acidified solution undergoes decomposition

More information

Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations. Chemistry is concerned with the properties and the interchange of matter by reaction i.e. structure and change.

Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations. Chemistry is concerned with the properties and the interchange of matter by reaction i.e. structure and change. Chemistry is concerned with the properties and the interchange of matter by reaction i.e. structure and change. In order to do this, we need to be able to talk about numbers of atoms. The key concept is

More information

1 Chemical Reactions and Equations

1 Chemical Reactions and Equations 1 Intext Questions On Page 6 Question 1. Why should a magnesium ribbon be cleaned before burning in air? Magnesium ribbon reacts with CO present in air to form a protective and inert layer of magnesium

More information

Introduction to the course ``Theory and Development of Reactive Systems'' (Chemical Reaction Engineering - I)

Introduction to the course ``Theory and Development of Reactive Systems'' (Chemical Reaction Engineering - I) Introduction to the course ``Theory and Development of Reactive Systems'' (Chemical Reaction Engineering - I) Prof. Gabriele Pannocchia Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering (DICI) University

More information

CHEMISTRY. Section II (Total time 95 minutes) Part A Time 55 minutes YOU MAY USE YOUR CALCULATOR FOR PART A.

CHEMISTRY. Section II (Total time 95 minutes) Part A Time 55 minutes YOU MAY USE YOUR CALCULATOR FOR PART A. CHEMISTRY Section II (Total time 95 minutes) Part A Time 55 minutes YOU MAY USE YOUR CALCULATOR FOR PART A. CLEARLY SHOW THE METHOD USED AND THE STEPS INVOLVED IN ARRIVING AT YOUR ANSWERS. It is to your

More information

Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution

Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution Homework Chapter 4 11, 15, 21, 23, 27, 29, 35, 41, 45, 47, 51, 55, 57, 61, 63, 73, 75, 81, 85 1 2 Chapter Objectives Solution To understand the nature of ionic substances

More information

Chemistry Assessment. Eligible Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills

Chemistry Assessment. Eligible Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Chemistry Assessment Eligible Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills STAAR Chemistry Assessment Reporting Category 1: Matter and the Periodic Table The student will demonstrate an understanding of the properties

More information

Unit 8 Chemical Reactions- Funsheets

Unit 8 Chemical Reactions- Funsheets Part A- Balancing Equations and Types of Reactions Balance AND identify the following reactions: Unit 8 Chemical Reactions- Funsheets 1) Mg + Zn(NO 3) 2 Zn Mg(NO 3) 2 2) Ba + AgNO 3 Ag + Ba(NO 3) 2 3)

More information

Classifying Chemical Reactions

Classifying Chemical Reactions 1 Classifying Chemical Reactions Analyzing and Predicting Products Introduction The power of chemical reactions to transform our lives is visible all around us-in our cars, even in our bodies. Chemists

More information

Matter and Change. Chapter 1

Matter and Change. Chapter 1 Matter and Change Chapter 1 Anything that bites or scratches is biology. Anything that snaps or bubbles is chemistry. Anything that doesn t work is physics. Chemistry is the study of composition, structure

More information

Stoichiometry. Introduction. Rx between Hydrogen and Oxygen can be described as: Balanced equation: Or Avogadros Number: (number of Molecules)

Stoichiometry. Introduction. Rx between Hydrogen and Oxygen can be described as: Balanced equation: Or Avogadros Number: (number of Molecules) Stoichiometry Introduction Rx between Hydrogen and Oxygen can be described as: Balanced equation: Or Or Avogadros Number: (number of Molecules) Or Moles (amount of a substance containing avogadros number

More information

Chemical Reactions and Equations

Chemical Reactions and Equations Chemical Reactions and Equations Question 1: Why should a magnesium ribbon be cleaned before burning in air? Magnesium is very reactive metal. When stored it reacts with oxygen to form a layer magnesium

More information

Honors text: Ch 10 & 12 Unit 06 Notes: Balancing Chemical Equations

Honors text: Ch 10 & 12 Unit 06 Notes: Balancing Chemical Equations Notes: Balancing Chemical Equations Effects of chemical reactions: Chemical reactions rearrange atoms in the reactants to form new products. The identities and properties of the products are completely

More information

ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES AND HOW THEY ARE REPRESENTED. Jan 12-13, 2014

ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES AND HOW THEY ARE REPRESENTED. Jan 12-13, 2014 ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES AND HOW THEY ARE REPRESENTED Jan 12-13, 2014 WHAT ARE ELEMENTS? Elements are pure substances Made of only one kind of material Has definite properties, and Is the same

More information

ABSORPTION OF CARBONYL SULPHIDE IN AQUEOUS PIPERAZINE

ABSORPTION OF CARBONYL SULPHIDE IN AQUEOUS PIPERAZINE ABSORPION OF CARBONYL SULPHIDE IN AQUEOUS PIPERAZINE P.J.G. Huttenhuis 1,3, A. Mohan 1, S. van Loo 1, G.F. Versteeg 2 1 Procede Group B.V. P.O. Box 328, 7500 AH, Enschede, he Netherlands (E-mail: Patrick.huttenhuis@procede.nl)

More information

Chapter 14. Lecture 1 Fluid Mechanics. Dr. Armen Kocharian

Chapter 14. Lecture 1 Fluid Mechanics. Dr. Armen Kocharian Chapter 14 Lecture 1 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Armen Kocharian States of Matter Solid Has a definite volume and shape Liquid Has a definite volume but not a definite shape Gas unconfined Has neither a definite

More information

Model Simulation of High Power Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Pollutants

Model Simulation of High Power Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Pollutants Model Simulation of High Power Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Pollutants NICOLAE BUZBUCHI, LIVIU CONSTANTIN STAN Department OF Marine Engineering Constanta Maritime University 104 Mircea cel Batran Str., 900663

More information

Fluids, Continuity, and Bernouli

Fluids, Continuity, and Bernouli Fluids, Continuity, and Bernouli Announcements: Exam Tomorrow at 7:30pm in same rooms as before. Web page: http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys1110/phys1110_sp12/ Clicker question 1 A satellite, mass m,

More information

Mass transfer study using an electrochemical method

Mass transfer study using an electrochemical method Mass transfer study using an electrochemical method Proceedings of European Congress of Chemical Engineering (ECCE-6) Copenhagen, 16-0 September 007 Mass transfer study using an electrochemical method

More information

1. INTRODUCTION TO CFD SPRING 2018

1. INTRODUCTION TO CFD SPRING 2018 1. INTRODUCTION TO CFD SPRING 018 1.1 What is computational fluid dynamics? 1. Basic principles of CFD 1.3 Stages in a CFD simulation 1.4 Fluid-flow equations 1.5 The main discretisation methods Appendices

More information

Boat Reactor for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

Boat Reactor for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Boat Reactor for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Introduction Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is an important step in the process of manufacturing microchips. A common application is the deposition

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS & EQUATIONS

CHEMICAL REACTIONS & EQUATIONS CHEMICAL REACTIONS & EQUATIONS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE In our daily life many processes occur around us. Some of them do not lead to formation of any new substance, while others may lead to formation

More information

AQA Chemistry (Combined Science) Specification Checklists. Name: Teacher:

AQA Chemistry (Combined Science) Specification Checklists. Name: Teacher: AQA Chemistry (Combined Science) Specification Checklists Name: Teacher: Paper 1-4.1 Atomic structure and the periodic table 4.1.1 A simple model of the atom, symbols, relative atomic mass, electronic

More information

Science. Reactions and compounds. Chemical reactions

Science. Reactions and compounds. Chemical reactions Science Chemical reactions When elements react, their atoms join with other atoms to form compounds [compound: A compound is a substance formed by the chemical union (involving bond formation) of two or

More information

5.1.2 How Far? Equilibrium

5.1.2 How Far? Equilibrium 5.1.2 How Far? Equilibrium Equilibrium constant Kc Kc = equilibrium constant For a generalised reaction ma + nb pc + qd [ C] p [D] q m,n,p,q are the stoichiometric balancing [ A] m [B] n numbers A,B,C,D

More information

GETTING THE END POINT TO APPROXIMATE. Two hours

GETTING THE END POINT TO APPROXIMATE. Two hours Chem 1312 Handout Experiment ONE Laboratory Time Required Special Equipment and Supplies Objective Safety First Aid GETTING THE END POINT TO APPROXIMATE THE EQUIVALENCE POINT Two hours Balance Potassium

More information

AMRITA VISHWA VIDYAPEETHAM DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS SCIENCE. PhD Entrance Examination - Syllabus

AMRITA VISHWA VIDYAPEETHAM DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS SCIENCE. PhD Entrance Examination - Syllabus AMRITA VISHWA VIDYAPEETHAM DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS SCIENCE PhD Entrance Examination - Syllabus The research being carried out in the department of Chemical Engineering & Materials

More information