ExamLearn.ie. Chemical Bonding

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1 ExamLearn.ie Chemical Bonding

2 Chemical Bonding A molecule is a group of atoms joined together. It is the smallest particle of an element or compound that can exist independently. Eg: Molecule of water consists of two hydrogen atoms joined to an oxygen atom (H2O). Forces of attraction called chemical bonds hold the atoms in a molecule together. For your examination, you must be able to describe the bonding in the hydrogen, oxygen, water and methane molecules. Stability of noble gases octet rule Noble/inert gases are in group 0 of the periodic table. All of the noble gases are very unreactive. They form practically no compounds and consist of single atoms. If you look at the electron configuration of some noble gases, you notice they all have a full outer orbit of electrons. Elements that have eight electrons in their outer orbit are very unreactive. The eight electrons in the outer orbit are often referred to as stable octet. When bonding occurs, atoms try to have eight electrons in the outer orbit. When elements react together to form compounds, it is found that two main types of chemical bonds are formed the covalent bond and the ionic bond. Covalent Bonding A covalent bond is a bond that consists of shared electrons. In this type of bonding, atoms try to get eight electrons in the outer orbit by sharing electrons with one or more atoms. There are four examples of molecules containing covalent bonds on the course:

3 1. **The hydrogen molecule (H2)** a hydrogen molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms joined together. The electron configuration for it is H=1. Two atoms of hydrogen approach close enough so their outer orbits overlap. Each atom shares the electron of the other atom. This gives each atom the stable electron configuration each hydrogen now has two electrons in its outer orbit. 2. **The methane molecule** consists of one atom of carbon joined to four atoms of hydrogen. The electron configuration of the CH4 molecule: C=2,4 and H=1. Carbon needs four more electrons in its outer orbit to get noble gas configuration. So, it shares each of its four outer electrons with a hydrogen atom.

4 3. **The water molecule** consists of one atom of oxygen joined to two atoms of hydrogen. The electron configuration of the H2O molecule: O=2,6 and H=1. Oxygen has six electrons in its outer orbit. It needs two more electrons in its outer orbit. So, the oxygen atom shares two of its six electrons with two hydrogen atoms. In all chemical bonds we have met so far, just one pair of electrons has been shared. These bonds are called single bonds, eg. the bond in the H2 molecule is a single bond. A single bond is formed when one pair of electrons is shared A double bond is formed when two pairs of electrons are shared, eg. the O2 molecule. 4. The oxygen molecule (O2) consists of two oxygen atoms joined together. The electron configuration is O=2,6. Oxygen has six electrons in its outer orbit. It needs two more electrons in its outer orbit to get noble gas configuration. Each oxygen atom has its own six electrons in the outer orbit. Also, each oxygen atom obtains a share of two electrons from the other oxygen atom.

5 Ionic Bonding An ion is a charged atom or group of atoms. An ionic bond is the force of attraction between positive and negative ions in a compound. The two examples of ionic compounds are sodium chloride and magnesium oxide. 1. Sodium chloride (NaCl) The electron configuration: Na = 2,8,1 (becomes 2,8) and Cl = 2,8,7 (becomes 2,8,8). The sodium ion could be left with eight electrons in its outer orbit by losing an electron. Chlorine could accept this ion and now have eight electrons in its outer orbit. The reaction to form sodium chloride involves the transfer of electron from atom of sodium to atom of chlorine. 2. Magnesium oxide (MgO) Magnesium oxide consists of ions of magnesium and oxygen. The electron configuration: Mg= 2,8,2 (becomes 2,8) and O= 2,6 (becomes 2,8). Each Mg atom loses its two outer electrons to oxygen atom. As the Mg atom loses two electrons, it is written as Mg2+. This is called a magnesium ion. Since the oxygen atom has gained two electrons it is written as O2-. This is called an oxide ion. Properties of ionic and covalent substances Properties of ionic compounds: Ionic compounds are usually solid at room temperature due to the strong attraction between millions of oppositely charged ions in the substance. Ionic compounds usually have high melting and boiling points as there is a strong attraction

6 between the ions, so a lot of energy is needed to separate them from each other. Ionic compounds usually dissolve in water. Water molecules are attracted to ions and cause ions to be pulled away from ionic substance and go into solution. Ionic compounds usually conduct electricity when melted/dissolved in water as the ions are free to move and carry an electric current. Properties of covalent compounds: Covalent compounds are usually liquid/gas at room temperature. The atoms in each molecule are held together by covalent bonds, but there are no strong forces of attraction between the separate molecules. Covalent compounds usually have low melting and boiling points as the attractive forces between covalent molecules are not strong. Many covalent compounds do not dissolve in water, as they do not contain ions. Covalent compounds do not conduct electricity, as there are no ions present.

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