# UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Level and Advanced Level CHEMISTRY 9701/04

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2 2 Answer all the questions in the spaces provided. 1 Magnesium is used extensively in the form of alloys as a constructional material due to its low density (1.7 g cm 3, compared to 7.8 g cm 3 for iron). It is usually prepared by the electrolysis of magnesium chloride, MgCl 2, at a temperature a little above its melting point of 715 C. (a) Suggest the half-equation that represents the production of magnesium at the cathode during the electrolysis....[1] (b) What will be the product at the other electrode?...[1] (c) Suggest two properties of its atoms that could explain why magnesium is less dense than iron [2] One of the reasons the melting point of magnesium chloride is quite high is because it has a fairly high lattice energy. (d) (i) Explain the term lattice energy. Write a balanced equation including state symbols to represent the lattice energy of magnesium chloride....[4] (e) Suggest, with an explanation in each case, how the lattice energy of magnesium chloride might compare with that of (i) sodium chloride, NaCl, calcium chloride, CaCl 2....[4]

3 (f) 3 the following data to calculate a value for the lattice energy of sodium chloride. H f (NaCl) = 411kJ mol 1 H at (Na) = 107 kj mol 1 H at (Cl) = 122kJmol 1 first ionisation energy of Na = 494 kj mol 1 electron affinity of Cl = 349kJmol 1 lattice energy of NaCl =... kj mol 1 [3] [Total: 15] [Turn over

4 2 All the Group IV elements form chlorides with the formula MCl 4. 4 (a) Describe the bonding in, and the shape of, these chlorides. (i) bonding... shape...[2] The boiling point of lead(iv) chloride cannot be measured directly because it decomposes on heating. The following table lists the boiling points of three Group IV chlorides. chloride b.p. / C SiCl 4 58 GeCl 4 83 SnCl (b) (i) Plot these data on the following axes and extrapolate your graph to predict what the boiling point of PbCl 4 would be if it did not decompose. 150 C 100 C 50 C Si Ge Sn Pb Suggest why the boiling points vary in this way....[4]

5 (c) SiCl 4 reacts vigorously with water whereas CCl 4 is inert. 5 (i) Suggest a reason for this difference in reactivity. Write an equation for the reaction between SiCl 4 and water. (iii) Suggest, with a reason, whether you would expect GeCl 4 to react with water. [3] (d) SiCl 4 is used to make high-purity silicon for the semiconductor industry. After it has been purified by several fractional distillations, it is reduced to silicon by heating with pure zinc. (i) Suggest an equation for the reduction of SiCl 4 by zinc. your equation to calculate what mass of zinc is needed to produce 250 g of pure silicon by this method. mass of zinc =... g [3] [Total: 12] [Turn over

6 3 By using iron and its compounds as examples, outline the different modes of action of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Choose two examples, and for each example you should state what the catalyst is, and whether it is acting as a homogeneous or a heterogeneous catalyst, write a balanced equation for the reaction [8] [Total: 8]

7 4 This question is about the reactions of some functional groups. 7 (a) (i) Draw the structural formula of an amide of your choice containing four carbon atoms. What reagents and conditions are needed to hydrolyse this amide? (iii) Write a balanced equation showing the hydrolysis of the amide whose structural formula you drew in part (i)....[4] (b) (i) Draw the structural formula of an acyl chloride containing three carbon atoms. What starting material and reagent are needed to form this acyl chloride? (iii) Write a balanced equation showing the formation of an ester containing five carbon atoms from the acyl chloride you drew in part (i)....[3] [Total: 7] [Turn over

8 5 (a) State the reagents and conditions needed to convert benzene into 8 (i) chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, (iii) nitrobenzene. [4] (b) The nitration of benzene is a two-step reaction that can be represented as follows. + A + NO 2 + H + B (i) Identify the cation A Draw the structure of the intermediate B in the box. [2]

9 (c) 9 The position of substitution during the electrophilic substitution of arenes is determined by the nature of the group already attached to the ring. Electron-withdrawing groups such as CO 2 H or NO 2 direct the incoming group to the 3-position. CO 2 H CO 2 H nitration NO 2 On the other hand, electron-donating groups such as CH 3 or NH 2 direct the incoming group to the 2- or 4- positions. CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 bromination + Br Br this information to suggest a likely structure for the organic product of each of the following reactions. (i) NO 2 bromination NH 2 chlorination CO 2 H [2] [Total: 8] [Turn over

10 6 Much research has been carried out in recent years investigating the exact structure of silk. The silk of a spider s web is at least five times as strong as steel, and twice as elastic as nylon. A silk fibre is composed of many identical protein chains, which are mainly made from the amino acids glycine, alanine and serine, with smaller amounts of four other amino acids. 10 NH 2 CH 2 CO 2 H NH 2 CH CO 2 H NH 2 CH CO 2 H CH 3 CH 2 OH glycine alanine serine (a) Amino acids can exist as zwitterions. Draw the zwitterionic structure for glycine. [1] (b) Amino acids can act as acids or bases. Write equations to show: (i) the reaction between alanine and HCl(aq), the reaction between serine and NaOH(aq). [2] (c) Draw the structural formula of a portion of the silk protein, showing three amino acid residues. Label a peptide bond on your structure. [3] (d) What type of polymer is silk protein?...[1]

11 (e) 11 The M r of a silk protein molecule is about 600,000. Assuming it is made from equal amounts of the above three amino acids, calculate the average number of amino acid residues in the protein chain. [M r (glycine) = 75; M r (alanine) = 89; M r (serine) = 105] number of residues =... [3] [Total: 10]

12 12 BLANK PAGE University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

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