# Chapter 2 Lecture Notes: Atoms

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Educational Goals Chapter 2 Lecture Notes: Atoms 1. Describe the subatomic structure of an atom. 2. Define the terms element and atomic symbol. 3. Understand how elements are arranged in the periodic table based on the number of protons they contain. 4. Understand how atomic number and mass number are used to indicate details of an atom s nucleus. 5. Know how isotopes of an element differ from one another. 6. Define the term mole and describe the relationship between moles and molar mass. 7. Given the molar mass of an element, convert between number of atoms, number of moles, and mass (grams). An Introduction to Atoms Matter (stuff) is made of. Model of the Atom Check your current model: Draw a carbon atom. Atoms are made of particles. There are three types of subatomic particles that will make up our atomic model: Protons and neutrons are compacted together in what we call the of an atom. Electrons are distributed in space around the nucleus. They are moving very fast in a volume surrounding the nucleus. Atoms are mostly empty space. 1

2 Electrical Charge There are a few fundamental properties of nature. Examples: Gravity, magnetism, and mass. Another fundamental property in nature is. Particles may or may not have electrical charge. There are two types of electrical charge; we arbitrarily call one type and the other type. Every thing we discuss in this course ultimately occurs because of the interaction of these two types of charges. Particles with opposite charges attract each other. The natural attraction is called force. Oppositely charged particles will accelerate toward one another if not held apart. Particles with like charges repel each other. The natural repulsion is called force. Like charged particles will accelerate away from one another if not held together. Subatomic Particles 1) Protons Protons are charged particles located in the of an atom. The number of protons a particular atom contains determines that atom s identity. For example, any atom that contains just one proton is called hydrogen. An atom with two protons is called helium. An atom with six protons is called carbon. Historically, matter with different numbers of protons, such as hydrogen, helium, and carbon were called the. There are 92 elements that occur in nature. About 25 others have been man-made by slamming two atoms together causing their nuclei to combine, however these new atoms do not last long (fractions of a second up to one year), they break apart into smaller atoms. A modern periodic table of the elements is shown on the next page. You can download a copy of this periodic table at: 2

3 3 I Alkali Metals Periodic Table of the Elements VIII Noble Gases 1 H Hydrogen II Alkaline Earth Metals III IV V VI VII Halogens 2 He Helium Li Lithium Be Beryllium B Boron C Carbon N Nitrogen O Oxygen F Fluorine Ne Neon Na Sodium Mg Magnesium Al Aluminum Si Silicon P Phosphorus S Sulfur Cl Chlorine Ar Argon K Potassium Ca Calcium Sc Scandium Ti Titanium V Vanadium Cr Chromium Mn Manganese Fe Iron Co Cobalt Ni Nickel Cu Copper Zn Zinc Ga Gallium Ge Germanium As Arsenic Se Selenium Br Bromine Kr Krypton Rb Rubidium Sr Strontium Y Yttrium Zr Zirconium Nb Niobium Mo Molybdenum Tc Technetium (98) 44 Ru Ruthenium Rh Rhodium Pd Palladium Ag Silver Cd Cadmium In Indium Sn Tin Sb Antimony Te Tellurium I Iodine Xe Xenon Cs Cesium Ba Barium La Lanthanum Hf Hafnium Ta Tantalum W Tungsten Re Rhenium Os Osmium Ir Iridium Pt Platinum Au Gold Hg Mercury Tl Thallium Pb Lead Bi Bismuth Po Polonium (209) 85 At Astatine (210) 86 Rn Radon (222) 87 Fr Francium (223) 88 Ra Radium (226) 89 Ac Actinium (227) 104 Rf Rutherfordium (261) 105 Db Dubnium (262) 106 Sg Seaborgium (263) 107 Bh Bohrium (262) 108 Hs Hassium (265) 109 Mt Meitnerium (266) 58 Ce Cerium Pr Praseodymium Nd Neodymium Pm Promethium (145) 62 Sm Samarium Eu Europium Gd Gadolinium Tb Terbium Dy Dysprosium Ho Holmium Er Erbium Tm Thulium Yb Ytterbium Lu Lutetium Th Thorium Pa Protactinium U Uranium Np Neptunium (237) 94 Pu Plutonium (244) 95 Am Americium (243) 96 Cm Curium (247) 97 Bk Berkelium (247) 98 Cf Californium (251) 99 Es Einsteinium (252) 100 Fm Fermium (257) 101 Md Mendelevium (258) 102 No Nobelium (259) 103 Lr Lawrencium (262)

4 Note that each element is represented by its atomic (a one- or two-letter name abbreviation) and occupies a box in the table. Above each element s symbol is the. The atomic number tells us the of in an atom of that particular element. Example: Look at carbon, symbol C, atomic number 6. Carbon has an atomic number of six because an atom with six protons is called carbon. If it had seven protons, it would not be carbon - it would be nitrogen and have an atomic number of 7. Atomic number can be abbreviated using "Z." o For example, with carbon, Z = 6, with hydrogen, Z = 1. Elements are ordered in the periodic table by increasing atomic number. 2) Electrons Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles. They are light-weight particles that move extremely fast. For the remainder of chapter 2 we can visualize the electrons as bees flying around a beehive (the bee hive represents the nucleus). In chapter 3 you will learn more details about the regions around the nucleus that the electrons can occupy. Electrons are very light compared to protons and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are about 2000 times heavier than electrons and therefore compose most of an atom s mass. 3) Neutrons Neutrons are located in the (with the protons). Neutrons do not have electrical charge; we say they are electrically. The names, charges, and symbols for the three types of subatomic particles are shown below: How many neutrons are in an atom? We cannot determine the number of neutrons in an atom based on the number of protons. This is because atoms of a particular element do not all have the same number of neutrons. Example: Some carbon atoms have six neutrons, some have seven neutrons, and some have eight neutrons. These three different forms of carbon are called of carbon. Isotopes are defined as atoms with the same number of protons (same element), but a different number of neutrons. 4

5 You learned that an atom s atomic number (Z) is the number of protons it contains. When considering the number of neutrons in an isotope of a particular atom, it is useful to learn a new term called mass number. The of an atom is defined as the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. Mass number can be abbreviated using A. mass number = number of protons + number of neutrons Example: How many neutrons are in a sodium (Na) atom that has a mass number of 23? Take notes here: Understanding Check: How many neutrons are in a carbon (C) atom that has a mass number of 14? You will often see one of two shorthand notation methods used to differentiate the various isotopes: Method 1: Write the element symbol, a dash, then the mass number (A) Let s use our three isotopes of carbon for examples: Method 2: Write the element symbol, we superscript the mass number (A) to the left of the symbol. Although redundant, sometimes the atomic number (Z) is also subscripted to the left of the symbol. For example: 5

6 Understanding Check: Fill in the blanks for the following isotopes: a. 14 N number of protons number of neutrons atomic number mass number b. 15 N number of protons number of neutrons atomic number mass number c. 42 Ca number of protons number of neutrons atomic number mass number d. 1 H number of protons number of neutrons atomic number mass number Atoms are electrically neutral; their total charge is equal to zero. They have the same number of electrons (-) as protons (+), so the positive and negative charges add up to zero (cancel). The Mole Atoms are so tiny and small in mass that it is more convenient to do calculations with a large number of atoms Just like bakers and chefs use eggs by the dozen, chemists use atoms and molecules by the mole. A is a counting unit used for atoms and molecules. A is any term that refers to a specific number of things. a couple = 2 items (e.g. people) a dozen = 12 items (e.g. eggs, donuts) a mole = x (e.g. atoms, molecules) The Chemist s Mole One mole of anything represents x of the things. This is referred to as Avogadro s number. 1 mole = x Understanding Check: How many atoms are in 1 mole of helium (He)? Because the mole is the standard counting unit used to indicate the number of atoms present in a sample, it is useful to convert back and forth from moles to atoms. Use our conversion factor method. The relationship between # of atoms and moles is: 1 mole = x

7 Example: How many carbon atoms are there in mole of carbon? Take notes here: You try one: How many moles are 2.9 x F atoms? The Mole and Mass The of an element is equivalent to the mass (in grams) of one mole of the element. Molar mass is given in the periodic table the symbol of the element. Molar mass units: Example: Carbon molar mass is Another example: 1 mole of argon (Ar) = g Molar mass of argon is g/mole Understanding Check: 1 mole of C = grams of carbon (C) = atoms of C 1 mole of Al = grams of aluminum (Al) = atoms of Al Because the molar mass gives us the between the number of moles and the mass of an element, it can be used to back and forth between moles and mass (in grams). - Use our conversion factor method 7

8 Example: Carbon The relationship between # of moles of carbon and grams of carbon is: 1 mole Carbon = g This can be written as conversion factors: Example Problem: What is the mass of moles of carbon? Take notes here: You try one: How many moles are there in 50.0 g of lead? 8

9 Converting Between the Number of Atoms and Grams Example: (atoms to grams) What is the mass of 2.50 x Lead (Pb) atoms? Take notes here: You try one: (grams to atoms) Compute the number atoms in 10.0 g of Aluminum (Al)? 9

10 The Periodic Table As we continue to build our model of atoms and matter in later chapters, we will gain more understanding of why the elements are arranged as they are in the periodic table and how the periodic table can be very useful in predicting the chemical and physical properties of matter. Classification of Elements Based on Electrical and Heat Conduction 1 H 3 Li 11 Na 19 K 37 Rb 55 Cs 87 Fr 4 Be 12 Mg 20 Ca 38 Sr 56 Ba 88 Ra 21 Sc 39 Y 57 La 89 Ac Metals (Green) 22 Ti 40 Zr 72 Hf 104 Rf 23 V 41 Nb 73 Ta 105 Db 24 Cr 42 Mo 74 W 106 Sg Nonmetals (Blue) 25 Mn 43 Tc 75 Re 107 Bh 26 Fe 44 Ru 76 Os 108 Hs 27 Co 45 Rh 77 Ir 109 Mt Metalloids (Red) 28 Ni 46 Pd 78 Pt 29 Cu 47 Ag 79 Au 30 Zn 48 Cd 80 Hg 5 B 13 Al 31 Ga 49 In 81 Tl 6 C 14 Si 32 Ge 50 Sn 82 Pb 7 N 15 P 33 As 51 Sb 83 Bi 8 O 16 S 34 Se 52 Te 84 Po 9 F 17 Cl 35 Br 53 I 85 At 2 He 10 Ne 18 Ar 36 Kr 54 Xe 86 Rn 58 Ce 90 Th 59 Pr 91 Pa 60 Nd 92 U 61 Pm 93 Np 62 Sm 94 Pu 63 Eu 95 Am 64 Gd 96 Cm 65 Tb 97 Bk 66 Dy 98 Cf 67 Ho 99 Es 68 Er 100 Fm 69 Tm 101 Md 70 Yb 102 No 71 Lu 103 Lr 10

11 Elements in the periodic table are arranged in columns called (sometimes, but much less often, called Families). Sometimes these groups are shown with group numbers in Roman numerals above the column I 1 H 3 Li 11 Na 19 K 37 Rb 55 Cs 87 Fr II 4 Be 12 Mg 20 Ca 38 Sr 56 Ba 88 Ra 21 Sc 39 Y 57 La 89 Ac s-block p-block III IV V VI VII d-block f-block B C N O F Transition Metals Al Si P S Cl Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt (Inner) Transition Metals VIII 2 He 10 Ne 18 Ar 36 Kr 54 Xe 86 Rn 6 Lanthanides 58 Ce Actinides 90 7 Th 59 Pr 91 Pa 60 Nd 92 U 61 Pm 93 Np 62 Sm 94 Pu 63 Eu 95 Am 64 Gd 96 Cm 65 Tb 97 Bk 66 Dy 98 Cf 67 Ho 99 Es 68 Er 100 Fm 69 Tm 101 Md 70 Yb 102 No 71 Lu 103 Lr The elements in Group I (also called Group 1A) are called the metals. Although it is not a metal, note that hydrogen is in this group for reasons that I will discuss in chapter 3. The elements in Group II (also called group 2A) are called the earth metals. The elements in Group VII (also called group 7A) are called the. The elements in Group VIII (also called group 8A) are called the. The elements in Group I and Group II are in what is called the -Block. The elements in Groups III - VIII are in the -Block. The, located between the s- and p-blocks, are in the -Block. The Inner Transition Metals, located in the bottom two rows of the periodic table are in the -Block. They are called lanthanides (top row of the f-block) and actinides (bottom row of the f-block). The rows in the periodic table are called. The periods are often numbered to the left of each row. 11

### An Introduction to Atoms

An Introduction to Atoms Matter (stuff) is made of atoms. John Dalton (1776-1884) Check your current model: Draw a carbon atom Model of the Atom Atoms are made of subatomic particles. There are three types

### Title: Dec 5 8:12 AM (1 of 29)

Title: Dec 5 8:12 AM (1 of 29) Title: Dec 5 8:12 AM (2 of 29) Section 5.5, pages 184 187 Metals and Nonmetals Two major groups of elements are the metals and the nonmetals. Look at the examples below.

### Using the Periodic Table

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET Using the Periodic Table 6 Use with Chapter 6, Section 6.2 1. Identify the number of valence electrons in each of the following elements. a. Ne e. O b. K f. Cl c. B g.

### Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2 1 Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table Solutions to In-Chapter Problems 2.1 Each element is identified by a one- or two-letter symbol. Use the periodic table to find the symbol for each element.

### Full file at

16 Chapter 2: Atoms and the Periodic Table Solutions to In-Chapter Problems 2.1 Each element is identified by a one- or two-letter symbol. Use the periodic table to find the symbol for each element. a.

### Writing Chemical formula with polyatomic groups

Writing Chemical formula with polyatomic groups 1. Use the Periodic table to determine the combining powers of single elements. Eg. Magnesium is in Group 2 and has a combining power of 2. 2. Use Table

### The Periodic Table of the Elements

The Periodic Table of the Elements All matter is composed of elements. All of the elements are composed of atoms. An atom is the smallest part of an element which still retains the properties of that element.

### Thank you for choosing AIMS!

TM Thank you for choosing AIMS! Please use this free activity in your classroom, and watch your students begin to experience the "Aha!" moments of real learning. We like hearing from you. Like us and share

### Matter and Atomic Structure

Matter and Atomic Structure Chemistry is the study of matter and reactions between types of matter. What, exactly, is matter? Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. The world contains lots

### 6.3 Classifying Elements with the Periodic Table

6.3 Classifying Elements with the Periodic Table The Periodic Table was developed by scientists to organize elements in such a way as to make sense of the growing information about their properties. The

### This book makes learning easier through the following features:

PREFACE You will find this book interesting: Chemistry concepts presented in a diagrammatic form. Specially written to ease learning and to stimulate interest in Chemistry, this book will help students

### B Gross properties of atoms and solids. B.1 The periodic table of elements

Introduction to Cluster Dynamics Paul-Gerhard Reinhard, Eric Suraud 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. B Gross properties of atoms and solids Some basic properties and characteristics of atoms and bulk have

### Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 2e (Tro) Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements

Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 2e (Tro) Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements 1) Which of the following is an example of the law of multiple proportions? A) A sample of chlorine is found to contain

### Chapter 2: Atoms. 2.1 (a) NaClO 3 (b) AlF (a) The mass number is = 31. (b) The mass number is = 222.

2.1 (a) NaClO 3 (b) AlF 3 2.2 (a) The mass number is 15 + 16 = 31. (b) The mass number is 86 + 136 = 222. 2.3 (a) The element has 15 protons, making it phosphorus (P); its symbol is 31 P 15. (b) The element

### Essential Chemistry for Biology

1 Chapter 2 Essential Chemistry for Biology Biology and Society: More Precious than Gold A drought is a period of abnormally dry weather that changes the environment and one of the most devastating disasters.

### ICP/MS Multi-Element Standards

Standards Ultra Pure Matrix Special Packaging Traceability to National Reference Materials AccuStandard s ICP/MS Standards are formulated to meet the needs of this very special instrument. As matrix effect

### Electron Configurations

Section 3 Electron Configurations Key Terms electron configuration Pauli exclusion principle noble gas Aufbau principle Hund s rule noble-gas configuration Main Ideas Electrons fill in the lowest-energy

### Chapter 2: Atoms. 2.1 (a) NaClO3 (b) AlF (a) The mass number is = 31. (b) The mass number is = 222.

2.1 (a) NaClO3 (b) AlF3 2.2 (a) The mass number is 15 + 16 = 31. (b) The mass number is 86 + 136 = 222. 2.3 (a) The element has 15 protons, making it phosphorus (P); its symbol is 31 P 15. (b) The element

### Matter. Figure 3.1 In this representation of an atom, the fuzzy area surrounding the nucleus is referred to as an electron cloud.

Section 3.1 Objectives Describe an atom and its components. Relate energy levels of atoms to the chemical properties of elements. Define the concept of isotopes. Review Vocabulary atom: the smallest particle

### Made the FIRST periodic table

Made the FIRST periodic table 1869 Mendeleev organized the periodic table based on the similar properties and relativities of certain elements Later, Henri Moseley organized the elements by increasing

### Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 3e (Tro) Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements

Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 3e (Tro) Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements 1) Which of the following is an example of the law of multiple proportions? A) A sample of chlorine is found to contain

### Lesson 8: Analyzing Chemical Formulas

Science Learning Goal Determine the number of atoms of each element in chemical formulas. Engage Instruct students to copy Items 1 7 in Engage into their science notebooks, circle the one word that does

### Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating

Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Patterns What Patterns have you observed in your life? Where to Get Help If you don t understand concepts in chapter

### Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2e (Tro) Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements. Multiple Choice Questions

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2e (Tro) Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements Multiple Choice Questions 1) In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created or destroyed. Which law does this refer to? A) Law

### Atoms and the Periodic Table

Atoms and the Periodic Table Parts of the Atom Proton Found in the nucleus Number of protons defines the element Charge +1, mass 1 Parts of the Atom Neutron Found in the nucleus Stabilizes the nucleus

### PERIODIC TABLE Relative atomic mass to nearest whole number

King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Science - Chemistry Department Chem-110, Time: 90 minutes Name: Number: Section: Useful information Speed of light, c = 3.0 10 8 m/s Planck s const., h = 6.626 10 34

### Nucleus. Electron Cloud

Atomic Structure I. Picture of an Atom Nucleus Electron Cloud II. Subatomic particles Particle Symbol Charge Relative Mass (amu) protons p + +1 1.0073 neutrons n 0 1.0087 electrons e - -1 0.00054858 Compare

### INSTITUT D OPTIQUE GRADUATE SCHOOL. Examination of Atomic Physics Y. Sortais, V. Josse

INSTITUT D OPTIQUE GRADUATE SCHOOL Examination of Atomic Physics Y. Sortais, V. Josse Wednesday 5 March 7 Duration : h Authorized documents : One double-sided A4 sheet with personal notes Scientific calculators

### CHEM 130 Exp. 8: Molecular Models

CHEM 130 Exp. 8: Molecular Models In this lab, we will learn and practice predicting molecular structures from molecular formulas. The Periodic Table of the Elements IA 1 H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 3 5

### DO NOW: Retrieve your projects. We will be reviewing them again today. Textbook pg 23, answer questions 1-3. Use the section 1.2 to help you.

DO NOW: Retrieve your projects. We will be reviewing them again today. Textbook pg, answer questions. Use the section. to help you. Chapter test is FRIDAY. The Periodic Table of Elements 8 Uuo Uus Uuh

### 4-5. 2Cu + O 2 2CuO 2Na + Cl 2 2NaCl. sodium + chlorine = sodium + chlorine. copper + oxygen = copper + oxygen

Skill Development/Guided Practice 1 Name The Law of Conservation of Matter states that in a chemical reaction the number of atoms is conserved no matter how they are arranged. 1. Two copper (Cu) molecules

### Single-Element Standards for AAS

Single-Element Standards for AAS for AAS Flame Silver Ag in 2-5% HNO 3 Aluminium Al in 2-5% HCl Aluminium Al in 2-5% HNO 3 Arsenic As in 2-5% HCl Arsenic As in 2-5% HNO 3 Gold Au in 2-5% HCl Boron B in

### Advanced Chemistry. Mrs. Klingaman. Chapter 5: Name:

Advanced Chemistry Mrs. Klingaman Chapter 5: The Periodic Law Name: _ Mods: Chapter 5: The Periodic Law Reading Guide 5.1 History of the Periodic Table (pgs. 125-129) 1) What did Dimitri Mendeleev notice

### This book makes learning easier through the following features:

PREFACE You will find this book interesting: Chemistry concepts presented in a diagrammatic form. Specially written to ease learning and to stimulate interest in Chemistry, this book will help students

### Chemistry/Additional Science Unit C2: Discovering Chemistry

Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel GCSE Centre Number Candidate Number Chemistry/Additional Science Unit C2: iscovering Chemistry Higher Tier Thursday 13 June 2013 Morning Time: 1 hour You

### APPENDIX I ELEMENTS, THEIR ATOMIC NUMBER AND MOLAR MASS. Element Symbol Atomic Molar Number mass/ Element Symbol Atomic Molar Number mass/ (g mol 1 )

APPENDIX I ELEMENTS, THEIR ATOMIC NUMBER AND MOLAR MASS Element Symbol Atomic Molar Number mass/ (g mol 1 ) Actinium Ac 89 227.03 Aluminium Al 13 26.98 Americium Am 95 (243) Antimony Sb 51 121.75 Argon

### Chapter 12 The Atom & Periodic Table- part 2

Chapter 12 The Atom & Periodic Table- part 2 Electrons found outside the nucleus; negatively charged Protons found in the nucleus; positive charge equal in magnitude to the electron s negative charge Neutrons

### CHEM 10113, Quiz 5 October 26, 2011

CHEM 10113, Quiz 5 October 26, 2011 Name (please print) All equations must be balanced and show phases for full credit. Significant figures count, show charges as appropriate, and please box your answers!

### Note that the protons and neutrons are each almost 2,000 times more massive than an electron; What is the approximate diameter of an atom?

Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Evolution of Atomic Theory The ancient Greek scientist Democritus is often credited with developing the idea of the atom Democritus proposed that matter was, on

Write your name here Surname Other names Pearson Edexcel GCSE Centre Number Candidate Number Chemistry/Additional Science Unit C2: Discovering Chemistry Foundation Tier Wednesday 14 June 2017 Morning Time:

### 1 Arranging the Elements

CHAPTER 11 1 Arranging the Elements SECTION The Periodic Table BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How are elements arranged on the periodic table?

### Determination of First Ionization Energy without Using Shell`S Mechanism of Electrons of All Elements

International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 6, Issue 2, February 2016 93 Determination of First Ionization Energy without Using Shell`S Mechanism of Electrons of All Elements

### CHM 101 PRACTICE TEST 1 Page 1 of 4

CHM 101 PRACTICE TEST 1 Page 1 of 4 Please show calculations (stuffed equations) on all mathematical problems!! On the actual test, "naked answers, with no work shown, will receive no credit even if correct.

### The Periodic Table. Periodic Properties. Can you explain this graph? Valence Electrons. Valence Electrons. Paramagnetism

Periodic Properties Atomic & Ionic Radius Energy Electron Affinity We want to understand the variations in these properties in terms of electron configurations. The Periodic Table Elements in a column

### The Periodic Table of Elements

The Periodic Table of Elements 8 Uuo Uus Uuh (9) Uup (88) Uuq (89) Uut (8) Uub (8) Rg () 0 Ds (9) 09 Mt (8) 08 Hs (9) 0 h () 0 Sg () 0 Db () 0 Rf () 0 Lr () 88 Ra () 8 Fr () 8 Rn () 8 At (0) 8 Po (09)

### 1 Arranging the Elements

CHAPTER 12 1 Arranging the Elements SECTION The Periodic Table BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How are elements arranged on the periodic table?

### Chem Exam 1. September 26, Dr. Susan E. Bates. Name 9:00 OR 10:00

Chem 1711 Exam 1 September 26, 2013 Dr. Susan E. Bates Name 9:00 OR 10:00 N A = 6.022 x 10 23 mol 1 I A II A III B IV B V B VI B VII B VIII I B II B III A IV A V A VI A VII A inert gases 1 H 1.008 3 Li

### 8. Relax and do well.

CHEM 1314 3;30 pm Theory Exam III John III. Gelder November 13, 2002 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 8 different pages. The last page include a periodic

### K. 27 Co. 28 Ni. 29 Cu Rb. 46 Pd. 45 Rh. 47 Ag Cs Ir. 78 Pt.

1 IA 1 H Hydrogen 1.01 Atomic number Element symbol Element name Atomic mass VIIIA 1 H 1.01 IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 2 He 4.00 Metalloids 3 Li 6.94 4 Be 9.01 5 B 10.81 6 C 12.01 7 N 14.01 8 O 16.00 9 F

### Materials both natural and human made have unique properties.

16 Elements and the Periodic Table R EA D I N G Materials both natural and human made have unique properties. Some are made of one type of element, and some are made of combinations of elements. But what

### 9/20/2017. Elements are Pure Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical change (contain Only One Type of Atom)

CAPTER 6: TE PERIODIC TABLE Elements are Pure Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical change (contain Only One Type of Atom) The Periodic Table (Mendeleev) In 1872, Dmitri

Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel GCSE Centre Number Candidate Number Chemistry/Additional Science Unit C2: Discovering Chemistry Foundation Tier Monday 21 May 2012 Morning Time: 1 hour

### Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach (Tro) Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements

Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach (Tro) Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements 1) Which of the following is an example of the law of multiple proportions? A) A sample of chlorine is found to contain

### 1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A atomic mass C molar mass

1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A atomic mass C molar mass A Br, Ga, Hg C O, S, Se B atomic number D oxidation number 2. Which list includes elements with the

### Notes: Unit 5: Periodic Table

Name: Regents Chemistry: Notes: Unit 5: Periodic Table MIND BLOWN!!!! www.chempride.weebly.com 1 Name: Key Ideas: The placement or location of elements on the Periodic Table gives an indication of physical

### A little history. When and How? Sir William Ramsey. ü 12/5/13. ü 1. Who put together the first useable Periodic Table?

ü // A little history Johahann Dobereiner (80-89) o Triads John Newlands (8-898) o Law of Octaves Who put together the first useable ic Table? Mendeleev you remember him right? When and How? You know it

### 1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A atomic mass C molar mass

1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A atomic mass C molar mass A Br, Ga, Hg C O, S, Se B atomic number D oxidation number 2. Which list includes elements with the

### Lab Day and Time: Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start.

Name: Lab Day and Time: Instructions 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. 2. This exam is closed note and closed book. You are not allowed to use any outside material while taking this

### CHM4. General Certificate of Education January 2006 Advanced Level Examination. Unit 4 Further Physical and Organic Chemistry

Surname Other Names Leave blank Centre Number Candidate Number Candidate Signature General Certificate of Education January 2006 Advanced Level Examination CHEMISTRY Unit 4 Further Physical and Organic

### UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS

UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS 2.1 Elements An element is a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances. Each element is represented by an abbreviation called

### Pearson Edexcel GCSE Chemistry/Additional Science Unit C2: Discovering Chemistry

Write your name here Surname Other names Pearson Edexcel GCSE Centre Number Candidate Number Chemistry/Additional Science Unit C2: Discovering Chemistry Higher Tier Wednesday 15 June 2016 Afternoon Time:

### CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 4: Matter and materials 1

CLASS TEST GRADE PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 4: Matter and materials MARKS: 45 TIME: hour INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION. Answer ALL the questions. 2. You may use non-programmable calculators. 3. You

### What is the periodic table?

The periodic table of the elements represents one of the greatest discoveries in the history of science that certain elements, the basic chemical substances from which all matter is made, resemble each

### Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start.

Name: Lab Day and Time: Instructions 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. 2. This exam is closed note and closed book. You are not allowed to use any outside material while taking this

### GCE AS/A level 1091/01 CHEMISTRY CH1

Surname Centre Number Candidate Number Other Names 2 GCE AS/A level 1091/01 CHEMISTRY CH1 A.M. FRIDAY, 23 May 2014 1 hour 30 minutes For s use Question Maximum Mark Mark Awarded Section A 1. to 7. 10 Section

### TOPIC 1. ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES.

TOPIC 1. ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES. What is chemistry? Chemistry is the study of matter and the interconversion of matter. Matter is anything which has mass and occupies a volume. Sciences often

### PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

Useful Constants and equations: K = o C + 273 Avogadro's number = 6.022 x 10 23 d = density = mass/volume R H = 2.178 x 10-18 J c = E = h = hc/ h = 6.626 x 10-34 J s c = 2.998 x 10 8 m/s E n = -R H Z 2

### Chemistry. Chemistry is the study of the interactions between atoms and molecules. Atoms and Molecules

Chemistry Chemistry is the study of the interactions between atoms and molecules. Atoms and Molecules An atom is a particle of matter that cannot be further divided without changing the chemical identity

Radiometric Dating (tap anywhere) Protons Neutrons Electrons Elements on the periodic table are STABLE Elements can have radioactive versions of itself called ISOTOPES!! Page 1 in your ESRT has your list!

### 8/30/2010. The Components of Matter Chapter 2. Element, Atom, Compound, and Molecule. Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

The Components of Matter Chapter 2 Element, Atom, Compound, and Molecule CHEMICAL ELEMENTS - pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. An ATOM is the smallest particle

### 8. Relax and do well.

CHEM 1314.03 Exam I John I. Gelder September 25, 1997 Name TA's Name Lab Section Please sign your name below to give permission to post, by the last 4 digits of your student I.D. number, your course scores

### INSTRUCTIONS: CHEM Exam I. September 13, 1994 Lab Section

CHEM 1314.05 Exam I John I. Gelder September 13, 1994 Name TA's Name Lab Section Please sign your name below to give permission to post, by the last 4 digits of your student I.D. number, your course scores

### Ch. 3 Answer Key. O can be broken down to form two atoms of H and 1 atom of O. Hydrogen and oxygen are elements.

Ch. 3 Answer Key 1. The Greeks believed that all matter is made of elements. We currently believe the same thing. However, the Greeks believed that there were 4 elements: earth, water, air and fire. Instead,

### 1. The arrangement of the elements from left to right in Period 4 on the Periodic Table is based on

1. The arrangement of the elements from left to right in Period 4 on the Periodic Table is based on A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) the number of electron shells D) the number of oxidation states 2.

### Grams, Moles, Molecules: Self-Study Assignment

Grams, Moles, Molecules: Self-Study Assignment You will have a QUIZ on the attached pages on. Your assignment is: READ the pages attached. WORK the examples in the lesson. Complete the pages as homework.

### Atomic weight: This is a decimal number, but for radioactive elements it is replaced with a number in parenthesis.

47 Blocks on the periodic table 11 Sodium 22.99 Atomic number: This is always a whole number. The periodic table is arranged by atomic number! Element symbol: A one or two letter abbreviation for the name

### Secondary Support Pack. be introduced to some of the different elements within the periodic table;

Secondary Support Pack INTRODUCTION The periodic table of the elements is central to chemistry as we know it today and the study of it is a key part of every student s chemical education. By playing the

### Atomic weight: This is a decimal number, but for radioactive elements it is replaced with a number in parenthesis.

47 Blocks on the periodic table 11 Sodium 22.99 Atomic number: This is always a whole number. The periodic table is arranged by atomic number! Element symbol: A one or two letter abbreviation for the name

### Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table Practice Problems C 2.1 (i) 14 N, (ii) 21 Na, (iii) 15 O 2.2 (i) 2.9177 g (ii) 3.4679 g (iii) 3.4988 g 2.3 (i) 0.5000 dozen, 4.167 10 2 gross; (ii) 1.500 dozen, 0.1250

### NUCLEAR MODEL. Electron cloud. Electron cloud. Nucleus. Nucleus

37 NUCLEAR MODEL - Atoms are mostly empty space - NUCLEUS, at the center of the atom, contains protons and neutrons. This accounts for almost all the mass of an atom - Electrons are located in a diffuse

### SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 2 CHEMISTRY. September 2017 November 2017

SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 2 CHEMISTRY September 2017 November 2017 UNIT OUTLINE 1. Review of Grade 9 Terms & the Periodic Table Bohr diagrams Evidence for chemical reactions Chemical Tests 2. Naming & writing

### Solutions and Ions. Pure Substances

Class #4 Solutions and Ions CHEM 107 L.S. Brown Texas A&M University Pure Substances Pure substance: described completely by a single chemical formula Fixed composition 1 Mixtures Combination of 2 or more

### CHEM 171 EXAMINATION 1. October 9, Dr. Kimberly M. Broekemeier. NAME: Key

CHEM 171 EXAMINATION 1 October 9, 008 Dr. Kimberly M. Broekemeier NAME: Key I A II A III B IV B V B VI B VII B VIII I B II B III A IV A V A VI A VII A inert gase s 1 H 1.008 Li.941 11 Na.98 19 K 9.10 7

### Part 2. Multiple choice (use answer card). 90 pts. total. 3 pts. each.

1 Exam I CHEM 1303.001 Name (print legibly) Seat no. On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this exam. Signed Date Part 1. Nomenclature. 10 pts. total. 2 pts. each. Fill in

### Dear PAP Chemistry Students,

Dear PAP Chemistry Students, Welcome to Pre-AP Chemistry. We hope you are as excited to take this course as we are excited to teach this course. You have chosen to study one of the building blocks of science.

### Example: Helium has an atomic number of 2. Every helium atom has two protons in its nucleus.

59 Atomic terms - ATOMIC NUMBER: The number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Each ELEMENT has the SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS in every nucleus. In neutral atoms, the number of ELECTRONS is also equal to the

### 8. Relax and do well.

CHEM 1014 Exam I John I. Gelder September 16, 1999 Name TA's Name Lab Section Please sign your name below to give permission to post your course scores on homework, laboratories and exams. If you do not

### INSTRUCTIONS: Exam III. November 10, 1999 Lab Section

CHEM 1215 Exam III John III. Gelder November 10, 1999 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 7 different pages. The last page includes a periodic table and

### Chemistry *P41941A0120* Edexcel GCSE. P41941A 2013 Pearson Education Ltd. Unit C3: Chemistry in Action. Higher Tier

Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel GCSE Centre Number Chemistry Unit C3: Chemistry in Action Candidate Number Higher Tier Thursday 23 May 2013 Morning Time: 1 hour You must have: Calculator,

### 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding

CHAPTER 13 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding SECTION Chemical Bonding BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is chemical bonding? What are valence

### ERRATUM NOTICE. Further Physical and Organic Chemistry. General Certificate of Education January 2009 Advanced Level Examination

ERRATUM NOTICE General Certificate of Education January 2009 Advanced Level Examination CHEMISTRY CHM4 Unit 4 Further Physical and Organic Chemistry Tuesday 20 January 2009 9.00 am to 10.30 am Instructions

### Modified from: Larry Scheffler Lincoln High School IB Chemistry 1-2.1

Modified from: Larry Scheffler Lincoln High School IB Chemistry 1-2.1 The development of the periodic table brought a system of order to what was otherwise an collection of thousands of pieces of information.

### In addition to the information at the end of the exam, you will be given a periodic table.

In addition to the information at the end of the exam, you will be given a periodic table. 1. Express 3143 in scientific notation. a. 3.143 x 10-3 b. 3143 x 10 +3 c. 3.143 x 10 +3 d. 3.143 x 10 +4 2. Express

### HANDOUT SET GENERAL CHEMISTRY I

HANDOUT SET GENERAL CHEMISTRY I Periodic Table of the Elements 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 IA VIIIA 1 2 H He 1.00794 IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 4.00262 3 Li 6.941 11 Na 22.9898

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### Homework Chapter 03 Chemistry 51 Los Angeles Mission College Answer the following questions: a. What electron sublevel starts to fill after

3.93 Give the period and group number for each of the following elements: a. bromine b. argon c. potassium d. radium 3.94 Give the period and group number for each of the following elements: a. radon b.

### MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

C10 04/19/2013 13:34:14 Page 114 CHAPTER 10 MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Wavelength is defined as the distance between consecutive peaks in a wave. It is

### MANY ELECTRON ATOMS Chapter 15

MANY ELECTRON ATOMS Chapter 15 Electron-Electron Repulsions (15.5-15.9) The hydrogen atom Schrödinger equation is exactly solvable yielding the wavefunctions and orbitals of chemistry. Howev er, the Schrödinger

### Lab Day and Time: Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start.

Name: Lab Day and Time: Instructions 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. 2. This exam is closed note and closed book. You are not allowed to use any outside material while taking this

### Chapter 6: The Periodic Table

Chapter 6: The Periodic Table Name: Per: Test date: In-Class Quiz: Moodle Quiz: preap Learning Objectives Trace the historical development of the periodic table Identify the major groups and key features