1 THE PERIODIC TABLE & PERIODIC LAW! Development of the Modern Periodic Table!
2 Development of the Periodic Table! Main Idea: The periodic table evolved over time as scientists discovered more useful ways to compare and organize the elements.! Organizing things according to their is useful.! Scientists organize the many different of chemical in the.!
3 Development of the Periodic Table! compiled list of elements at the time (late )! Contained elements organized into categories.!
4 Development of the Periodic Table! Antoine Lavoisier compiled list of known elements at the time (late 1700s)! Contained 33 elements organized into four categories.! Increased to over elements by! Advent of.! Development of.!
5 Development of the Periodic Table! New = new scientific! Chemists needed to organize the many associated with the elements.! Agreed upon method for determining of elements.! Finding a way to the elements made it possible for scientists to determine elements they were looking for.!
6 Development of the Periodic Table! English chemist ( )! Organized elements by atomic.! Saw repeat every elements.! Called! Named relationship law of! work for every element.!
7 Development of the Periodic Table! Meyer & Mendeleev (1869)! Demonstrated connection between and elemental.! Organized elements into periodic table in order by in columns with similar.!
8 Development of the Periodic Table! Meyer & Mendeleev (1869)! Demonstrated connection between atomic mass and elemental properties.! Widely accepted b/c he predicted the existence and properties of properties that were later discovered. (left spaces in table)!
9 Development of the Periodic Table! English chemist determined that elements in Mendeleev s table were not in.! Arranging by resulted in groups of elements with properties.! Solved problem by putting elements in increasing atomic.! Resulted in clear periodic pattern of!
10 Development of the Periodic Table! English chemist Henry Moseley determined that elements in Mendeleev s table were not in correct order.! There are rows, or, in the table.! Each period corresponds to a.!
11 Development of the Periodic Table! The of the elements within a period as you move a period from left to right.! The of properties within a period as you move from one period to the next.!
12 Development of the Periodic Table! Periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of the elements when arranged by atomic number is called the.! Elements that have chemical and physical properties end up in the in the periodic table.!
13 Modern Periodic Table! Elements classified as,, and.! Metals are, at room temp, and good of heat & electricity.! - can be drawn into.! - can be pounded into thin.!
14 Modern Periodic Table! Elements classified as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.! Nonmetals! Occupy side of periodic table.! There is a in properties among nonmetals than among metals.! Generally or, dull solids.! conductors of heat & electricity.!
15 Modern Periodic Table! Elements classified as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.! Nonmetals! The variation among nonmetals makes it to describe one set of general that will apply to all nonmetals.!
16 Modern Periodic Table! Elements classified as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.! Metalloids ( )! Border line on periodic table.! Have & properties of both and.! Under some conditions, metalloids may behave like. Under other conditions, they may behave like.!
17 Classification! of the Elements! Main Idea: Elements are organized in different in the periodic table according to their.! Chemical are identified according to about the of their.!
18 Classification! of the Elements! Main Idea: Elements are organized in different blocks in the periodic table according to their electron configurations.! What can you learn about each element from the periodic table?!
19 Modern Periodic Table! What information can be displayed in a periodic table?! The periodic table usually displays the and of the elements, along with information about the of their atoms.!
20 Modern Periodic Table! In the center is the for aluminum (Al).! The for aluminum ( ) is the symbol.! The element and atomic are the symbol.! 2, 8, and 3 indicate the number of in each occupied.!
21 Modern Periodic Table! Periodic Table is according to of at room temperature.! Black =! Red =! Blue =! Gray =!
22 Modern Periodic Table! Some groups of elements have names! 1A=! 2A=! Very ; usually exist as (ie~ ).! Highly (not as much as Group ).!
23 Modern Periodic Table! Some groups of elements have special names! 7A=! that are very ; usually exist as compounds (ie~ NaCl).! 8A= Noble gases! Nonmetals that are.!
24 Modern Periodic Table! Representative Elements! Groups! Display a wide range of and properties.! Most are ; few ; one.!
25 Modern Periodic Table! Transition Elements! Group elements are transition elements.! types that are based on their configurations.!! Usually displayed in of Periodic Table.! Characterized by the presence of electrons in orbitals.!
26 Modern Periodic Table! Transition Elements! Group B elements are transition elements.! Two types that are based on their electron configurations.!! Appear the main body of the periodic table.! Characterized by the presence of electrons in orbitals.!
27 Organizing Elements by Electron Configuration! determines the properties of an element.! play a key role in determining the of elements.!.! are electrons in the of an atom.! Elements can be sorted into, elements, metals, or metals based on their configurations.!
28 Organizing Elements by Electron Configuration! Valence electrons are electrons in the highest energy level of an atom.! of valence electrons of an atom = number in which the atom is located!
29 Organizing Elements by Electron Configuration! Valence electrons are electrons in the highest energy level of an atom.! Noble gas electron configurations.! The and sublevels are completely filled with electrons electrons in the s sublevel and electrons in the p sublevel.! Helium (He) 1s 2 Neon (Ne) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Argon (Ar) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 Krypton (Kr) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 2d 10 4s 2 4p 6
30 Organizing Elements by Electron Configuration! Valence electrons are electrons in the highest energy level of an atom.! Representative elements configurations.! The and sublevels of the highest occupied energy level are.!
31 Organizing Elements by Electron Configuration! Valence electrons are electrons in the highest energy level of an atom.! Representative elements configurations.! In atoms of these Group elements, there is only electron in the highest occupied energy level.! Have chemical properties b/c all have the number of valence electrons.! Lithium (Li) 1s 2 2s 1 Sodium (Na) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 Potassium (K) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1
32 Organizing Elements by Electron Configuration! Valence electrons are electrons in the highest energy level of an atom.! Representative elements configurations.! In atoms of the Group elements, there are electrons in the highest occupied energy level.! For any representative element, its equals the of in the highest occupied energy level.! Carbon (C) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 Silicon (Si) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 2 Germanium (Ge) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 2
33 Valence Electrons & Period! of an element s electrons indicates the on the periodic table in which it is found.! Lithium (Li) = 2s 1 =! Gallium (Ga) = [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 1 =!
34 s-, p-, d-, & f-block Elements! Periodic table is divided into ( ) representing the atom s energy being filled with valence electrons! different energy sublevels (,,, & ), so periodic table divided into distinct blocks.! Reason for the table s odd shape!
35 s-, p-, d-, & f-block Elements! Periodic table is divided into sections (blocks) representing the atom s energy sublevel being filled with valence electrons!
36 s-block Elements! Consists of Groups &.! Group elements have filled s orbitals.! Contain valence electron & configuration ends in! Group elements have filled s orbitals.! Contain valence electron & configuration ends in!
37 p-block Elements! Comprised of Groups! Contain elements with filled or partially filled _ orbitals.! Spans groups b/c three p orbitals can hold a maximum of electrons.! Group elements are unique members of p-block! Atoms so they don t undergo chemical.!
38 Contains metals & is block.! Usually characterized by a outermost s orbital and filled or partially-filled orbital.! d-block Elements! d orbital = orbital - 1! ie~! d orbitals can hold a total of electrons, so d- block spans groups on periodic table.!
39 f-block Elements! Contains metals! Characterized by a filled / partially-filled outermost s orbital and filled or partially-filled & orbitals.! f orbitals can hold a total of electrons, so f- block spans columns on periodic table.!
40 Each on the periodic table corresponds to a.! Blocks of Elements!
41 Review Time! What does the period an element is located in tell you about that element s electron configuration? What does the group tell you?!
42 Periodic Trends! Main Idea: among elements in the periodic table include their and their ability to or electrons.! of periodic table tells about the of many of the.! Much like patterns of a calendar.!
43 Atomic Radius! What are the trends among the elements for atomic size?! Atomic size is a periodic trend influenced by.! Size is defined by how an atom lies to a atom.! This size is expressed as an.! The atomic radius is of the distance between the of two atoms of the same element.!
44 Atomic Radius! What are the trends among the elements for atomic size?! The atomic radius is one-half of the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element.!
45 Atomic Radius! Trends in Atomic Radius! In general, atomic size from top to bottom within a, and from left to right across a.!
46 Trends in Atomic Radius! Atomic Radius! Atomic size increases from top to bottom within a group, and decreases from left to right across a period.! Atomic radius (pm) Atomic number
47 Trends within Groups! Atomic radii as you move down a group.! Atomic Radius! on the nucleus.! Number of occupied.! Variables affect atomic size in ways.!
48 Trends within Groups! Atomic radii increase as you move down a group.! The in the number of occupied orbitals electrons in the highest occupied energy level from the of protons in the nucleus.! The is than the effect of the increase in nuclear charge, so the atomic size.! Atomic Radius!
49 Trends within Periods! in atomic radii as you move left to right across period.! Caused by positive charge in.! Shielding effect is for all elements in a period.! Increasing nuclear charge pulls the electrons to the nucleus! Atomic size.! Atomic Radius!
50 Practice with Atomic Radius! Which alkali metal has an atomic radius of 238 pm?! Atomic Radius! Based on the data for alkali metals and noble gases, how does atomic size change within a group?! Is an atom of barium, atomic number 56, smaller or larger than an atom of cesium, Cs?!
51 Formation of Ions! An atom is electrically because it has numbers of and.! Atoms or electrons to form and acquire.! Positive and negative ions form when electrons are between atoms.!
52 Formation of Ions! Atoms gain or lose electrons to form ions and acquire charges.! Atoms that electrons and form charged ions.! An ion with a positive charge is called a.! The charge for a is written as a number followed by a sign.!
53 Formation of Ions! Atoms gain or lose electrons to form ions and acquire charges.! Atoms that electrons and form charged ions.! An ion with a negative charge is called an.! The charge for an is written as a number followed by a sign.!
54 Ionization Energy! Forming an ion requires.! Energy is needed to overcome b/t positive charge of and negative charge of.! energy is defined as the energy required to an from a gaseous atom.! The energy required to remove the electron from an atom is called the ionization energy.!
55 Ionization Energy! Ionization energy tends to from top to bottom within a and from left to right across a.!
56 Ionizing Energy! Indication of how an atom s nucleus holds onto its electrons.! ionization energy = hold.! likely to form ions.!
57 Ionization Energy! Group Trends in Ionization Energy! First ionization energy generally from top to bottom within a group.! Size of atom = nuclear charge on electrons.! Less to remove electrons.! First ionization energy (kj/ mol) Atomic number
58 Ionization Energy! Period Trends in Ionization Energy! First ionization energy generally from left to right across a period.! Nuclear charge ; shielding effect remains.! Increased between nucleus and electrons = to remove electrons.! First ionization energy (kj/ mol) Atomic number
59 Ionizing Energy! The graph reveals group and period trends for ionization energy.! Which element in period 2 has the lowest first ionization energy? In period 3?! What are the group and period trends for first ionization for noble gases and alkali metals?!
60 Ionizing Energy! It is possible to remove e - s from an atom.! Amount of energy = ionization energies! What are the values for the first, second and third ionization energies for sodium and aluminum?!
61 Ionizing Energy! It is possible to remove multiple e - s from an atom.! Amount of energy = ionization energies! Is it easier to remove an electron from an sodium or aluminum atom? From Na + or Al +? From Na 2+ or Al 2+?! Which ion is most common - Na 3+ or Al 3+?!
62 Ionic Radius! Atoms gain or lose electrons to form ions and acquire charges.! Atoms that lose electrons and form positively charged cations ALWAYS become.! Atoms that gain electrons and form negatively charged anions ALWAYS become.!
63 Ionic Radius! What are the trends among the elements for ionic size?! Ionic size tends to from top to bottom within a.! Size of cations and anions from left to right across a.!
64 Ionic Radius! Trends within Groups: from Top to Bottom.!
65 Ionic Radius! Trends within Periods: from Left to Right!
66 Octet Rule! Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of valence electrons.! Useful for determining what type of ions an atom might form.! Elements on side form ions & electrons.! Elements on side form ions & electrons.!
67 Electronegativity! There is a property that can be used to predict the type of that will form during a reaction.! = ability of an atom of an element to electrons when the atom is in a compound.! H 2.1 Li 1.0 Na 0.9 K 0.8 Rb 0.8 Cs 0.7 Electronegativity Values for Selected Elements Be 1.5 Mg 1.2 Ca 1.0 Sr 1.0 Ba 0.9 B 2.0 Al 1.5 Ga 1.6 In 1.7 Tl 1.8 C 2.5 Si 1.8 Ge 1.8 Sn 1.8 Pb 1.9 N 3.0 P 2.1 As 2.0 Sb 1.9 Bi 1.9 O 3.5 S 2.5 Se 2.4 Te 2.1 F 4.0 Cl 3.0 Br 2.8 I 2.5
68 Electronegativity! Trends in Electronegativity! as you move top to bottom within a.! as you move left to right across a.!
69 Electronegativity! Trends in Electronegativity! Least electronegative element in the table is.! tendency to electrons.! electrons and forms.!
70 Electronegativity! Trends in Electronegativity! electronegative element in the table is.! tendency to electrons.! electrons and forms.!
Searching for an Organizing Principle Searching for an Organizing Principle How did chemists begin to organize the known elements? Searching for an Organizing Principle A few elements, including copper,
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