Acids & Bases Strong & weak. Thursday, October 20, 2011

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Acids & Bases Strong & weak. Thursday, October 20, 2011"

Transcription

1 Acids & Bases Strong & weak 1

2 Acid Base Dissociation Acid-base reactions are equilibrium processes. The relationship between the relative concentrations of the reactants and products is a constant for a given temperature. It is known as the Acid or Base Dissociation Constant (Ka or Kb). The stronger the acid or base, the larger the value of the dissociation constant Write the K for this equation: 2

3 Generally... 3

4 Acid Strength Acid strength depends on how much an acid dissociates (breaks up into ions). The more it dissociates (turns into H3O + ), the stronger it is The larger the Ka, the stronger the acid 4

5 Concentration vs. Strength Concentrations refers to how many moles are in a volume Strength refers to how much of the substance has ionized 5

6 Acid Strength Strong Acids - Transfers all of its protons to water; - Completely ionized; - Strong electrolyte; - The conjugate base is weaker and has a negligible tendency to be protonated. - K is so large it is often not written Identify the conjugate acid-base pairs. Examples of Strong Acids Hydrochloric Acid Perchloric Acid Nitric Acid Sulfuric Acid 6

7 Weak acids Transfers only a fraction of its protons to water; - Partly ionized; - Weak electrolyte; - The conjugate base is stronger, readily accepting protons from water 7

8 As acid strength decreases, base strength increases. The stronger the acid, the weaker its conjugate base The weaker the acid, the stronger its conjugate base 8

9 Base Strength Strong Base - all molecules accept a proton; Sodium Hydroxide - completely ionizes; Potassium Hydroxide - strong electrolyte; *Barium Hydroxide - conjugate acid is very weak, negligible *Calcium Hydroxide tendency to donate protons. Weak Base - fraction of molecules accept proton; - partly ionized; - weak electrolyte; - the conjugate acid is stronger. It more readily donates protons. As base strength decreases, acid strength increases. The stronger the base, the weaker its conjugate acid. The weaker the base the stronger its conjugate acid. 9

10 Try it! You want to know which is the stronger acid: HCl or CH3COOH. Here is your data. Write the equation for each acid in water Write the Ka for both acids Explain which is stronger, using your data 10

11 Try it! 11

12 Acids & Bases ph Scale 12

13 [H + ] ph M NaOH Acid 7 ph Scale Base The ph scale is a logarithmic scale used to assess acidity based on the equilibrium concentration of hydrogen or hydronium ion 14 Acidic Neutral Basic Ammonia (household cleaner) Blood Pure water Milk Vinegar Lemon juice Stomach acid 1 M HCl

14 ph and acidity The ph values of several common substances are shown at the right. Many common foods are weak acids Some medicines and many household cleaners are bases. 14

15 ph of Common Substance ph [H 3 O + ] [OH - ] poh More basic More acidic NaOH, 0.1 M Household bleach Household ammonia Lime water Milk of magnesia Borax Baking soda Egg white, seawater Human blood, tears Milk Saliva Rain Black coffee Banana Tomatoes Wine Cola, vinegar Lemon juice Gastric juice 14 1 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

16 Calculating the ph The ph system is a logarithmic representation of the Hydrogen Ion concentration as a means of avoiding using large numbers and powers. ph = - log [H 3 O + ] Example 1: If [H 3 O + ] = 1 X ph = - log 1 X ph = 10 Example 2: If [H 3 O + ] = 1.8 X 10-5 ph = - log 1.8 X 10-5 ph = - (- 4.74) ph =

17 ph and Water Kw = [H 3 O + ] [OH - ] = 1.0 x10-14 In pure water [H 3 O + ] = 1 x 10-7 mol / L (at 20 o C) ph = - log(1 x 10-7) = - (0-7) = 7 ph < 7 (Acidic) [H 3 O + ] > 1 x 10-7 M ph > 7 (Basic) [H 3 O + ] < 1 x 10-7 M 17

18 poh and basicity The poh system is a logarithmic representation of the Hydroxide Ion concentration as a means of avoiding using large numbers and powers. poh = - log [OH - ] The relationship between ph and poh: ph + poh = 14 18

19 ph Calculations ph ph = -log[h 3 O + ] [H 3 O + ] = 10 -ph [H 3 O + ] ph + poh = 14 [H 3 O + ] [OH - ] = 1.0 x10-14 poh poh = -log[oh - ] [OH - ] = 10 -poh [OH - ]

20 ph = - log [H 3 O + ] Given: ph = 4.6 ph = - log [H 3 O + ] 4.6 = - log [H 3 O + ] = log [H 3 O + ] determine the [hydronium ion] choose proper equation substitute ph value in equation multiply both sides by -1 2 nd log 10 x antilog = log [H 3 O + ] take antilog of both sides [H + ] = 2.51x10-5 M Recall, [H 3 O + ] = [H + ] You can check your answer by working backwards. ph = - log [H + ] ph = - log [2.51x10-5 M] ph = 4.6

21 Indicators 21

22 Hydrangeas 22

23 Try it! 1. A certain solution has [H3O + ] = 2 x Calculate the concentration of [OH - ] and the ph of the solution 2. A certain solution has [H3O + ] = 5 x Calculate the concentration of [OH - ] and the ph of the solution 3. A certain solution has [OH - ] = 4 x Calculate the concentration of [H3O + ] and the ph of the solution 4. A certain solution has [OH - ] = 3 x Calculate the concentration of [H3O + ] and the ph of the solution 5. A certain solution has ph = 3.0. Calculate the poh, the concentration of [H3O + ] and the [OH - ] of the solution 6. A certain solution has ph = 2.5. Calculate the poh, the concentration of [H3O + ] and the [OH - ] of the solution 7. A certain solution has poh = 2.0. Calculate the ph, the concentration of [H3O + ] and the [OH - ] of the solution 8. A certain solution has poh = 9.3. Calculate the ph, the concentration of [H3O + ] and the [OH - ] of the solution 23

24 24

25 Neutralization An acid will neutralize a base, giving a salt and water as products Examples HCl + NaOH NaCl + H 2 O H 2 SO NaOH Na 2 SO H 2 O H 3 PO KOH K 3 PO H 2 O 2 HCl + Ca(OH) 2 CaCl H 2 O 25

26 Neutralization Calculations Recall: n = v x c Where: n represents the number of moles in mol v represents volume in dm 3 c represents concentration in mol/ dm 3 or mol dm -3 26

27 Neutralization Problems If an acid and a base combine in a 1 to 1 ratio, the moles of acid will equal the moles of base nacid = nbase Therefore the volume of the acid multiplied by the concentration of the acid is equal to the volume of the base multiplied by the concentration of the base V acid C acid = V base C base If any three of the variables are known it is possible to determine the fourth 27

28 Neutralization Problems Example 1: Hydrochloric acid reacts with potassium hydroxide according to the following reaction: HCl + KOH KCl + H 2 O If cm 3 of M HCl exactly neutralizes cm 3 of KOH solution, what is the concentration of the KOH solution? Solution: V acid C acid = V base C base (15.00 cm 3 )(0.500 M) = (24.00 cm 3 ) C base C base = (15.00 cm 3 )(0.500 M) (24.00 cm 3 ) C base = M 28

29 Neutralization Problems Whenever an acid and a base do not combine in a 1 to 1 ratio, a mole factor must be added to the neutralization equation n V acid C acid = V base C base The mole factor (n) is the number of times the moles the acid side of the above equation must be multiplied so as to equal the base side. (or vice versa) Example H 2 SO NaOH Na 2 SO H 2 O The mole factor is 2 and goes on the acid side of the equation. The number of moles of H 2 SO 4 is one half that of NaOH. Therefore the moles of H 2 SO 4 are multiplied by 2 to equal the moles of NaOH. 29

30 Neutralization Problems Example 2: Sulfuric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide according to the following reaction: H 2 SO NaOH Na 2 SO H 2 O If cm 3 of M H 2 SO 4 exactly neutralizes cm 3 of NaOH solution, what is the concentration of the NaOH solution? Solution: In this case the mole factor is 2 and it goes on the acid side, since the mole ratio of acid to base is 1 to 2. Therefore 2 V acid C acid = V base C base 2 (20.00 cm 3 )(0.400 M) = (32.00 cm 3 ) C base C base = (2) (20.00 cm 3 )(0.400 M) C base (32.00 cm 3 ) = M 30

31 Neutralization Problems Example 3: Phosphoric acid reacts with potassium hydroxide according to the following reaction: H 3 PO KOH K 3 PO H 2 O If cm 3 of M KOH exactly neutralizes cm 3 of H 3 PO 4 solution, what is the concentration of the H 3 PO 4 solution? Solution: In this case the mole factor is 3 and it goes on the acid side, since the mole ratio of acid to base is 1 to 3. Therefore 3 V acid C acid = V base C base 3 (15.00 cm 3 )(C acid ) = (30.00 cm 3 ) (0.300 M) C acid = (30.00 cm 3 )(0.300 M) C acid (3) (15.00 cm 3 ) = M 31

32 Neutralization Problems Example 4: Hydrochloric acid reacts with calcium hydroxide according to the following reaction: 2 HCl + Ca(OH) 2 CaCl H 2 O If cm 3 of M HCl exactly neutralizes cm 3 of Ca (OH) 2 solution, what is the concentration of the Ca(OH) 2 solution? Solution: In this case the mole factor is 2 and it goes on the base side, since the mole ratio of acid to base is 2 to 1. Therefore V acid C acid = 2 V base C base (25.00 cm 3 ) (0.400) = (2) (20.00 cm 3 ) (C base ) C base = (25.00 cm 3 ) (0.400 M) C base (2) (20.00 cm 3 ) = M 32

Acids & Bases. Tuesday, April 23, MHR Chemistry 11, ch. 10

Acids & Bases. Tuesday, April 23, MHR Chemistry 11, ch. 10 Acids & Bases 1 MHR Chemistry 11, ch. 10 Acid or base? 2 Make a chart like this: Strong v. Weak oncentrated v. Diluted 3 Acid Strength Acid strength depends on how much an acid dissociates. The more it

More information

Chemistry HP Unit 8 Acids and Bases. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 8 will assess the following:) 8.

Chemistry HP Unit 8 Acids and Bases. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 8 will assess the following:) 8. Chemistry HP Unit 8 Acids and Bases Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 8 will assess the following:) 8. Acids and Bases 8-1. Define and give examples of acids and bases. 8-2. Give the common

More information

Strong and Weak. Acids and Bases

Strong and Weak. Acids and Bases Strong and Weak Acids and Bases Strength of Acids H2SO4 HSO4 - + H + HNO3 NO3 - + H + Strong Acids HCl Cl - + H + H3PO4 H2PO4 - + H + Phosphoric acid Moderate Acid CH3COOH CH3COO - + H + Acetic acid HF

More information

Grace King High School Chemistry Test Review

Grace King High School Chemistry Test Review CHAPTER 19 Acids, Bases & Salts 1. ACIDS Grace King High School Chemistry Test Review UNITS 7 SOLUTIONS &ACIDS & BASES Arrhenius definition of Acid: Contain Hydrogen and produce Hydrogen ion (aka proton),

More information

Unit 4a Acids, Bases, and Salts Theory

Unit 4a Acids, Bases, and Salts Theory Unit 4a Acids, Bases, and Salts Theory Chemistry 12 Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases The first theory that was proposed to explain the actions of acids and bases was by Svante Arrhenius. It is still

More information

Acids and Bases. Two important classification of compounds - Acids and Bases. Properties of BASES

Acids and Bases. Two important classification of compounds - Acids and Bases. Properties of BASES ACIDS AND BASES Acids and Bases Two important classification of compounds - Acids and Bases Properties of ACIDS Taste Sour/Tart Stings and burns the skin Reacts with bases Turns blue litmus paper red Reacts

More information

ACIDS & BASES PROPERTIES OF ACIDS ACIDS PROPERTIES OF ACIDS PROPERTIES OF ACIDS 11/1/2016

ACIDS & BASES PROPERTIES OF ACIDS ACIDS PROPERTIES OF ACIDS PROPERTIES OF ACIDS 11/1/2016 SC STANDARD COVERED ACIDS & BASES Standard PS-3.7 Classify various solutions as acids or bases according to their physical properties, chemical properties (including neutralization and reaction with metals),

More information

Acids - Bases in Water

Acids - Bases in Water more equilibrium Dr. Fred Omega Garces Chemistry, Miramar College 1 Acids-Bases Characteristics Acids (Properties) Taste Sour Dehydrate Substances Neutralizes bases Dissolves metals Examples: Juices: TJ,

More information

8.2. The Equilibrium of Weak Acids and Bases. The Ion Product Constant for Water. 388 MHR Unit 4 Chemical Systems and Equilibrium

8.2. The Equilibrium of Weak Acids and Bases. The Ion Product Constant for Water. 388 MHR Unit 4 Chemical Systems and Equilibrium In this section, you will 8.2 Section Preview/ Specific Expectations define and perform calculations that involve the ion product constant for water, K w, and the acid dissociation constant, K a compare

More information

CALCULATIONS INVOLVING STRONG ACIDS & BASES. Write the ionization equation (strong acid) or dissociation equation (strong base)

CALCULATIONS INVOLVING STRONG ACIDS & BASES. Write the ionization equation (strong acid) or dissociation equation (strong base) 1 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING STRONG ACIDS & BASES 1. Finding H 3 O + (aq) ) from strong acid concentrations and OH - (aq) from strong base concentrations 2. Finding H 3 O + (aq) and OH - (aq) using K w. 3.

More information

Chapter 16 - Acids and Bases

Chapter 16 - Acids and Bases Chapter 16 - Acids and Bases 16.1 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted Lowry Model 16.2 ph and the Autoionization of Water 16.3 Calculations Involving ph, K a and K b 16.4 Polyprotic Acids 16.1 Acids and Bases:

More information

CHEMISTRY. Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

CHEMISTRY. Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria CHEMISTRY The Central Science 8 th Edition Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Kozet YAPSAKLI Why study acids bases? bases are common in the everyday world as well as in the lab. Some common acidic products

More information

CHEMFILE MINI-GUIDE TO PROBLEM SOLVING CHAPTER 17. Name Date Class. 1 of 12

CHEMFILE MINI-GUIDE TO PROBLEM SOLVING CHAPTER 17. Name Date Class. 1 of 12 CHAPTER 17 In 1909, Danish biochemist S. P. L Sørensen introduced a system in which acidity was expressed as the negative logarithm of the H concentration. In this way, the acidity of a solution having

More information

Acids and Bases. Properties, Reactions, ph, and Titration

Acids and Bases. Properties, Reactions, ph, and Titration Acids and Bases Properties, Reactions, ph, and Titration C-19 2017 Properties of acids 1. Taste Sour (don t try this except with foods). 2. Are electrolytes (conduct electricity). Some are strong, some

More information

Chapter 15 - Acids and Bases Fundamental Concepts

Chapter 15 - Acids and Bases Fundamental Concepts Chapter 15 - Acids and Bases Fundamental Concepts Acids and Bases: Basic Definitions Properties of Acids Sour Taste React with active metals (Al, Zn, Fe) to yield H 2 gas: Corrosive React with carbonates

More information

Water, the SPECIAL Equilibrium

Water, the SPECIAL Equilibrium THE ACID TEST Water, the SPECIAL Equilibrium I. Characteristics of Water A. Water are highly. B. They are in continuous. C. Always. D. Water is dense in the solid phase than in the phase. i.e. ice floats

More information

-log [H+][OH-] = - log [1 x ] Left hand side ( log H + ) + ( log OH - ) = ph + poh Right hand side = ( log 1) + ( log ) = 14 ph + poh = 14

-log [H+][OH-] = - log [1 x ] Left hand side ( log H + ) + ( log OH - ) = ph + poh Right hand side = ( log 1) + ( log ) = 14 ph + poh = 14 Autoionization of Water H 2 O H + + OH - K = [H + ][OH - ]/[H 2 O] = 1.802 x 10-16 Concentration of [H 2 O] is so HIGH autoionization is just a drop in the bucket, so [H 2 O] stays constant at 55.5 M,

More information

Problem Solving. ] Substitute this value into the equation for poh.

Problem Solving. ] Substitute this value into the equation for poh. Skills Worksheet Problem Solving In 1909, Danish biochemist S. P. L Sørensen introduced a system in which acidity was expressed as the negative logarithm of the H concentration. In this way, the acidity

More information

Name. Academic Chemistry. Acid Base. Notes. Unit #14 Test Date: cincochem.pbworks.com

Name. Academic Chemistry. Acid Base. Notes. Unit #14 Test Date: cincochem.pbworks.com Periodic Table Name Academic Chemistry Acids & Bases Notes Unit #14 Test Date: 20 cincochem.pbworks.com Acid Base cincochem.pbworks.com Notes Find ph To go from [H 3 O + ] to ph EXAMPLE: [H 3 O + ] = 3.23

More information

CHAPTER Acid & Base

CHAPTER Acid & Base CHAPTER 19 19.1 Acid & Base Common Reactions with Acids Dilute: small amount of solute 1-M Concentrated: large amount of solute Indicator: changes color to show the presence of acids or bases : eat or

More information

Families of Chemical Compounds. Chapter 9

Families of Chemical Compounds. Chapter 9 Families of Chemical Compounds Chapter 9 Groups of Compounds Compounds are grouped based on physical and chemical properties Types: Organic, Acids, Bases, and Salts Acids and Bases Examples of Acids Aspirin

More information

Unit 10: Acids and Bases

Unit 10: Acids and Bases Unit 10: Acids and Bases PROPERTIES OF ACIDS & BASES Properties of an Acid: a Tastes sour substance which dissociates (ionizes, breaks apart in solution) in water to form hydrogen ions Turns blue litmus

More information

Definition of Acid. HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl

Definition of Acid. HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl Acids Definition of Acid Acids are substances that contain H + ions that ionize when dissolved in water. Arrhenius acid: a compound that increases the concentration of H + ions that are present when added

More information

Acids and Bases. Dr. Diala Abu-Hassan, DDS, PhD Lecture 2 Nursing First Semester 014. Dr. Diala Abu-Hassan 1

Acids and Bases. Dr. Diala Abu-Hassan, DDS, PhD Lecture 2 Nursing First Semester 014. Dr. Diala Abu-Hassan 1 science.lotsoflessons.com Acids and Bases, DDS, PhD Dr.abuhassand@gmail.com Lecture 2 Nursing First Semester 014 1 Outline Definitions of acids and bases Acid and base strength The dissociation constant

More information

Acids and Bases Unit 11

Acids and Bases Unit 11 Mr. B s Chemistry Acids and Bases Unit 11 Name Block Let s start our discussion of acids and bases by defining some terms that are essential to the topics that follow. Arrhenius acids and bases are: acid

More information

What are Acids and Bases? What are some common acids you know? What are some common bases you know? Where is it common to hear about ph balanced

What are Acids and Bases? What are some common acids you know? What are some common bases you know? Where is it common to hear about ph balanced What are Acids and Bases? What are some common acids you know? What are some common bases you know? Where is it common to hear about ph balanced materials? Historically, classified by their observable

More information

Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of ph

Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of ph Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of ph Key Terms self-ionization of water ph poh Section 1 10I, 10J Main Ideas Self-ionization of water forms hydronium and hydroxide ions. The concentrations of hydronium

More information

Chapter 2. The Chemical Basis of Life. Lecture by Richard L. Myers

Chapter 2. The Chemical Basis of Life. Lecture by Richard L. Myers Chapter 2 The Chemical Basis of Life PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Lecture by Richard L. Myers 2.7 Ionic bonds are attractions

More information

Lecture 20 Chapter 17, Sections 4-5 More weak acids and bases. Identifying acids and bases Conjugate acids and bases Salts of weak acids and bases

Lecture 20 Chapter 17, Sections 4-5 More weak acids and bases. Identifying acids and bases Conjugate acids and bases Salts of weak acids and bases Lecture 20 Chapter 17, Sections 4-5 More weak acids and bases Identifying acids and bases Conjugate acids and bases Salts of weak acids and bases Acids and Bases Strong vs. Weak K a vs. K b ph = -log([h])

More information

CHAPTER 19. Acids, Bases, and Salts Acid Base Theories

CHAPTER 19. Acids, Bases, and Salts Acid Base Theories CHAPTER 19 Acids, Bases, and Salts 19.1 Acid Base Theories ACIDS tart or sour taste Electrolytes Strong acids are corrosive Acid Facts... indicators will change color Blue litmus paper turns pink react

More information

Chapter 10. Acids, Bases, and Salts

Chapter 10. Acids, Bases, and Salts Chapter 10 Acids, Bases, and Salts Topics we ll be looking at in this chapter Arrhenius theory of acids and bases Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theory Mono-, di- and tri-protic acids Strengths of acids and

More information

Unit 13 Acids and Bases E.Q. What are the differences between acids and bases?

Unit 13 Acids and Bases E.Q. What are the differences between acids and bases? Unit 13 Acids and Bases E.Q. What are the differences between acids and bases? What are Properties of Acids? They taste sour (don t try this in lab). They can conduct electricity. Can be strong or weak

More information

Chemistry Monday, May 22 Tuesday, May 23, 2017

Chemistry Monday, May 22 Tuesday, May 23, 2017 Chemistry Monday, May 22 Tuesday, May 23, 2017 Do-Now: Ch. 19 Notes: ph 1. Write down today s FLT 2. List two properties of acids. 3. List two properties of bases. 4. How do the defini(ons of Arrhenius

More information

Equilibrium constant

Equilibrium constant Equilibrium constant Equilibrium constant Many reactions that occur in nature are reversible and do not proceed to completion. They come to an equilibrium where the net velocity = 0 The velocity of forward

More information

HA(s) + H 2 O(l) = H 3 O + (aq) + A (aq) b) NH 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) = NH 4 + (aq) + OH (aq) Acid no. H + type base no. OH type

HA(s) + H 2 O(l) = H 3 O + (aq) + A (aq) b) NH 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) = NH 4 + (aq) + OH (aq) Acid no. H + type base no. OH type You are already familiar with some acid and base chemistry. According to the Arrhenius model, acids are substances that when dissolved in water ionize to yield hydrogen ion (H + ) and a negative ion. e.g.

More information

H 2 O (l) H + (aq) + OH (aq)

H 2 O (l) H + (aq) + OH (aq) What is ph? Water not only serves as the solvent in solutions of acids and bases, it also plays a role in the formation of the ions. In aqueous solutions of acids and bases, water sometimes acts as an

More information

Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms

Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms Acids and Bases Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms A hydrogen atom in a hydrogen bond between two water molecules can shift from one to the other: The hydrogen atom leaves its electron

More information

Bio 105 Lab 3: Chemistry: ph and solutions

Bio 105 Lab 3: Chemistry: ph and solutions 1 Bio 105 Lab 3: Chemistry: ph and solutions Part 1. Acid and Base Chemistry A. Introduction BIO 105 Summer 2013 Name One of the most important concepts in biology is acid/base chemistry. We are familiar

More information

Acids and Bases Review Worksheet II Date / / Period. Molarity. moles L. Normality [H 3 O +1 ] [OH -1 ] ph poh

Acids and Bases Review Worksheet II Date / / Period. Molarity. moles L. Normality [H 3 O +1 ] [OH -1 ] ph poh Honors Chemistry Name Acids and Bases Review Worksheet II Date / / Period Solute Name of Solute Molar Mass grams mole Molarity moles L Normality [H 3 O +1 ] [OH ] ph poh Acidic or Basic 1. HCl Hydrochloric

More information

Chapter 7 Acids and Bases

Chapter 7 Acids and Bases Chapter 7 Acids and Bases 7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 7.2 Acid Strength 7.3 The ph Scale 7.4 Calculating the ph of Strong Acid Solutions 7.5 Calculating the ph of Weak Acid Solutions 7.6 Bases 7.7

More information

Which substance would most neutralize an acidic food? A. dairy (ph 5 7) B. water (ph 6 7) C. citrus fruit (ph 2 3) D. baking soda (ph 8 9)

Which substance would most neutralize an acidic food? A. dairy (ph 5 7) B. water (ph 6 7) C. citrus fruit (ph 2 3) D. baking soda (ph 8 9) Which substance would most neutralize an acidic food? A. dairy (ph 5 7) B. water (ph 6 7) C. citrus fruit (ph 2 3) D. baking soda (ph 8 9) The table below shows the ph and reaction to litmus of four body

More information

Lesson Five: Acids, Bases, ph, and Buffers

Lesson Five: Acids, Bases, ph, and Buffers Lesson Five: Acids, Bases, ph, and Buffers Arrhenius Acids and Bases Acids and bases can be defined a number of ways. One of the oldest and most common ways is the definition according to Arrhenius, named

More information

Hashem Al-Dujaily. Hala Al Suqi. Mamoun + Diala. Tamer Barakat + Hashem Al-Dujaily

Hashem Al-Dujaily. Hala Al Suqi. Mamoun + Diala. Tamer Barakat + Hashem Al-Dujaily 3 Hashem Al-Dujaily Tamer Barakat + Hashem Al-Dujaily Hala Al Suqi Mamoun + Diala Last time we talked about the Ionization of water and then started talking about kw (ion product for water) which is a

More information

Introduction to Acids & Bases. Packet #26

Introduction to Acids & Bases. Packet #26 Introduction to Acids & Bases Packet #26 Review I Svante Arrhenius was the first person to recognize the essential nature of acids and bases. Review II Arrhenius postulated that: Acids produce hydrogen

More information

Chapter 14 Acids and Bases

Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Chapter 14 Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids 1. An acid tastes sour - acidus = Latin, sour; acetum= Latin, vinegar 2. An acid turns indicator dye litmus from blue to red. 3. An acid reacts with

More information

battery acid the most widely used industrial chemical Hydrochloric acid, HCl muriatic acid stomach acid Nitric acid, HNO 3

battery acid the most widely used industrial chemical Hydrochloric acid, HCl muriatic acid stomach acid Nitric acid, HNO 3 BRCC CHM 101 Chapter 9 Notes (Chapter 8 in older text versions) Page 1 of 9 Chapter 9: Acids and Bases Arrhenius Definitions more than 100 years old Acid a substance that produces H + in water (H + is

More information

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMME PHYSICAL SCIENCES GRADE 11 SESSION 20 (LEARNER NOTES)

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMME PHYSICAL SCIENCES GRADE 11 SESSION 20 (LEARNER NOTES) CHEMICAL CHANGE: ACIDS AND BASES Learner Note: The different models are important in this chapter. General equations of acids reacting are important, these are often asked again in Grade 12, especially

More information

UNIT #11: Acids and Bases ph and poh Neutralization Reactions Oxidation and Reduction

UNIT #11: Acids and Bases ph and poh Neutralization Reactions Oxidation and Reduction NAME: UNIT #11: Acids and Bases ph and poh Neutralization Reactions Oxidation and Reduction 1. SELF-IONIZATION OF WATER a) Water molecules collide, causing a very small number to ionize in a reversible

More information

Chemistry (Refresher)

Chemistry (Refresher) Chemistry (Refresher) Chemistry Principles: Atomic structure of elements Elements found in living cells: free elements, and elements in organic molecules Chemical bonds: ionic, covalent polar, covalent

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Page 1 of 20 Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria 16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids: taste sour and cause certain dyes to change color. Bases: taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius concept o acids

More information

The Determination of ph of some Common Acids & Bases

The Determination of ph of some Common Acids & Bases The Determination of ph of some Common Acids & Bases Introduction: An acid is a substance that when dissolved in water produces hydrogen ions, H +. Inorganic acids do not contain carbon but organic acids

More information

Molecular Definitions of Acids and Bases: H 2 O (l)

Molecular Definitions of Acids and Bases: H 2 O (l) Molecular Definitions of Acids and Bases: Arrhenius Definition: An acid produces hydrogen ions (H + ) in an aqueous solution. For example: Consider hydrochloric acid, HCl, which when dissolved in water

More information

ACIDS AND BASES. for it cannot be But I am pigeon-liver d and lack gall To make oppression bitter Hamlet

ACIDS AND BASES. for it cannot be But I am pigeon-liver d and lack gall To make oppression bitter Hamlet ACIDS AND BASES for it cannot be But I am pigeon-liver d and lack gall To make oppression bitter Hamlet Learning objectives Name and write formulae for common acids and bases Describe acids and bases according

More information

Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases. Acids, Bases and Arrhenius

Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases. Acids, Bases and Arrhenius Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases **a lot of calculations in this chapter will be done on the chalkboard Do not rely on these notes for all the material** Acids, Bases and Arrhenius

More information

INTRODUCTION TO ACIDS AND BASES

INTRODUCTION TO ACIDS AND BASES INTRODUCTION TO ACIDS AND BASES ALIGNED STANDARDS S.C. 912.P.8.11 Relate acidity and basicity to hydronium and hydroxide concentration and ph. S.C.912.N.1.2 Describe and explain what characterizes science

More information

Acids and Bases. Acid. Acid Base 2016 OTHS. Acid Properties. A compound that produces H + ions when dissolved in water. Examples!

Acids and Bases. Acid. Acid Base 2016 OTHS. Acid Properties. A compound that produces H + ions when dissolved in water. Examples! Acids and Bases Acid A compound that produces H + ions when dissolved in water. Examples! Vinegar Acetic acid Lemon Juice Citric acid Sour Candy Malic acid (and others) Milk Lactic acid HCl(aq) Acid Properties

More information

Acids and Bases. Chapter 11

Acids and Bases. Chapter 11 Acids and Bases Chapter 11 Acids and Bases in our Lives Acids and bases are important substance in health, industry, and the environment. One of the most common characteristics of acids is their sour taste.

More information

10.1 Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution

10.1 Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution 10.1 Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases An acid is a substance that gives hydrogen ions, H +, when dissolved in water. In fact, H + reacts with water and produces

More information

Page 1. Acids, Bases and Salts. Activity series of metals. HA Acids and bases H + + A - A very important class of chemicals.

Page 1. Acids, Bases and Salts. Activity series of metals. HA Acids and bases H + + A - A very important class of chemicals. Acids, Bases and Salts Acids and bases Acid-Base Theory A very important class of chemicals. Self-Ionization of Water Properties of Acids and Bases The ph Concept Strengths of Acids and Bases Analysis

More information

ph = -log[h+], [H+] = 10-pH ph + poh = 14

ph = -log[h+], [H+] = 10-pH ph + poh = 14 You may remove this page. ph = -log[h+], [H+] = 10-pH McVc = MdVd ph + poh = 14 NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1 JBA 2017 Chemistry Exam 3 Name: Score: /100 = /80 Multiple choice questions are worth two points each.

More information

2.1-2 Chemistry and Water

2.1-2 Chemistry and Water Prepared by Kim Foglia. Adapted and modified by Nhan Pham. 2.1-2 Chemistry and Water Objectives Discuss why we study chemistry in biology Review structure of an atom Explain the role of valence electrons

More information

CHAPTER 14: ACIDS AND BASES

CHAPTER 14: ACIDS AND BASES CHAPTER 14: ACIDS AND BASES Arrhenius Acids and Bases There are a few definitions of acids and bases, some are somewhat narrow and others are much broader. Arrhenius Acids dissociate when dissolved in

More information

Aqueous solutions of acids have a sour Aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter

Aqueous solutions of acids have a sour Aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter Acid and Bases Exam Review Honors Chemistry 3 April 2012 Chapter 14- Acids and Bases Section 14.1- Acid and Base Properties List five general properties of aqueous acids and bases Properties of Acids Properties

More information

ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM

ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM Part one: Acid/Base Theories Learning Goals: to identify acids and bases and their conjugates according to Arrhenius and Bronstead Lowry Theories. to be able to identify amphoteric

More information

Section 32 Acids and Bases. Copyright (c) 2011 by Michael A. Janusa, PhD. All rights reserved.

Section 32 Acids and Bases. Copyright (c) 2011 by Michael A. Janusa, PhD. All rights reserved. Section 32 Acids and Bases 1 Copyright (c) 2011 by Michael A. Janusa, PhD. All rights reserved. Acid-Base Concepts Acids and bases are among the most familiar and important of all chemical compounds. You

More information

Chem 105 Tuesday March 8, Chapter 17. Acids and Bases

Chem 105 Tuesday March 8, Chapter 17. Acids and Bases Chem 105 Tuesday March 8, 2011 Chapter 17. Acids and Bases 1) Define Brønsted Acid and Brønsted Base 2) Proton (H + ) transfer reactions: conjugate acid-base pairs 3) Water and other amphiprotic substances

More information

Definitions. Acids give off Hydrogen ions (protons) Bases give off hydroxide ions

Definitions. Acids give off Hydrogen ions (protons) Bases give off hydroxide ions Acids and Bases Arrhenius- Definitions Acids give off Hydrogen ions (protons) Bases give off hydroxide ions This definition did not include enough acids but does explain many. Brønsted-Lowry Acids are

More information

Chapter 9 Acid-base reactions

Chapter 9 Acid-base reactions CHEM, 2nd edition Cengage Learning Chapter 9 Acid-base reactions Acids and bases are chemical compounds that occur regularly in 'everyday life'. These two types of substances have opposite properties.

More information

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Chemistry 12 Ch 1 4 : Acids and Bases Page 1 Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Check MasteringChemistry Deadlines Acids and Bases: The sour taste of lemons and lime, the bite of sourdough bread, and the tang

More information

CHEMISTRY - BROWN 13E CH.16 - ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA - PART 2.

CHEMISTRY - BROWN 13E CH.16 - ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA - PART 2. !! www.clutchprep.com CONCEPT: ph and poh To deal with incredibly small concentration values of [H + ] and [OH - ] we can use the ph scale. Under normal conditions, the ph scale operates within the range

More information

Acids, Bases, and ph. ACIDS, BASES, & ph

Acids, Bases, and ph. ACIDS, BASES, & ph I. Arrhenius Acids and Bases ACIDS, BASES, & ph Acid any substance which delivers hydrogen ion (H + ) _ to the solution. Base any substance which delivers hydroxide ion (OH ) to the solution. II ph ph

More information

Examples of Strong Acids: Strong Acid Formula Common Source Hydrochloric Acid HCl Stomach Acid

Examples of Strong Acids: Strong Acid Formula Common Source Hydrochloric Acid HCl Stomach Acid ACIDS AND BASES: PH AND BUFFERS PURPOSE: To determine the ph of common acids and bases using a ph meter, ph paper, and red cabbage indicator. To test the effect of adding an acid or base to a buffer solution.

More information

Chapter 14 Properties of Acids and Bases

Chapter 14 Properties of Acids and Bases Section 14.1 Defining Acids and Bases Properties of acids and bases Chapter 14 Properties of Acids and Bases taste sour Acids taste bitter Bases conduct electricity no characteristic feel react with metals

More information

Student Notes Acids and Bases

Student Notes Acids and Bases Name: Class: Date: Student Notes Acids and Bases Many foods that we eat contain acids, such as lemons, oranges, apples, vinegar, grapes, and soda pop. Lemons and oranges contain citric acid, while apples

More information

Chemistry 12 UNIT 4 ACIDS AND BASES

Chemistry 12 UNIT 4 ACIDS AND BASES Chemistry 12 UNIT 4 ACIDS AND BASES CHAPTER 9 and 10 Recall the definitions from Unit 3: Strong electrolyte Strong electrolytic solution Weak electrolyte Weak electrolytic solution Non - electrolyte Acids

More information

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Seventh Edition by Charles H. Corwin

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Seventh Edition by Charles H. Corwin Lecture INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Seventh Edition by Charles H. Corwin Acids and Bases Properties of Acids An acid is any substance that releases hydrogen ions, H +, into water.

More information

Mr. Storie 40S Chemistry Student Acid and bases Unit. Acids and Bases

Mr. Storie 40S Chemistry Student Acid and bases Unit. Acids and Bases Acids and Bases 1 UNIT 4: ACIDS & BASES OUTCOMES All important vocabulary is in Italics and bold. Outline the historical development of acid base theories. Include: Arrhenius, BronstedLowry, Lewis. Write

More information

Acids, Bases and ph. Biology Honors. Acidic, Basic or Neutral (indicate if strong or weak acid or base) Substance ph More H + More OH - Vitamin C

Acids, Bases and ph. Biology Honors. Acidic, Basic or Neutral (indicate if strong or weak acid or base) Substance ph More H + More OH - Vitamin C Biology Honors Name Acids, Bases and ph Substance ph More H + More OH - Acidic, Basic or Neutral (indicate if strong or weak acid or base) Vitamin C Tap water Hydrochloric acid (HCl) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)

More information

Acid and Bases. Physical Properties. Chemical Properties. Indicators. Corrosive when concentrated. Corrosive when concentrated.

Acid and Bases. Physical Properties. Chemical Properties. Indicators. Corrosive when concentrated. Corrosive when concentrated. Physical Properties Acid and Bases Chemistry 30 Acids Corrosive when concentrated Have a sour taste Bases Corrosive when concentrated Have a bitter taste Often have a sharp odour Chemical Properties Indicators

More information

Recall, that water is amphoteric. That is, it can act as both an acid and a base.

Recall, that water is amphoteric. That is, it can act as both an acid and a base. C4S: ACID BASE EQULIBRIUM LESSON 2 NOTES: WATER Ionization of Water Recall, that water is amphoteric. That is, it can act as both an acid and a base. HA + H2O(l) H3O + (aq) + A (aq) or B + H2O(l) BH +

More information

Week 6 AB Strength, ph, Kw, Acids

Week 6 AB Strength, ph, Kw, Acids Week 6 AB Strength, ph, Kw, Acids Q UEST IO N 1 A 0.1 M solution of an electrolyte has a ph of 4.0. What is the electrolyte? A. a strong acid B. a strong base C. a weak acid D. a weak base E. a salt of

More information

School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban. CHEM191 Tutorial 1: Buffers

School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban. CHEM191 Tutorial 1: Buffers School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban CHEM191 Tutorial 1: Buffers Preparing a Buffer 1. How many moles of NH 4 Cl must be added to 1.0 L of 0.05 M NH 3 to form

More information

Electrolytes, Acids and Bases ) 3

Electrolytes, Acids and Bases ) 3 Chapter 15 Acid (Latin acidus - sour): sour taste; turns plant dye litmus red; dissolves metals producing H 2 gas. Substances that are neither acids nor bases were called neutral substances. Electrolytes,

More information

-a base contains an OH group and ionizes in solutions to produce OH - ions: Neutralization: Hydrogen ions (H + ) in solution form

-a base contains an OH group and ionizes in solutions to produce OH - ions: Neutralization: Hydrogen ions (H + ) in solution form NOTES Acids, Bases & Salts Arrhenius Theory of Acids & Bases: an acid contains hydrogen and ionizes in solutions to produce H+ ions: a base contains an OH group and ionizes in solutions to produce OH ions:

More information

Overview: The Molecule That Supports All of Life

Overview: The Molecule That Supports All of Life Overview: The Molecule That Supports All of Life Water is the biological medium on Earth All living organisms require water more than any other substance Most cells are surrounded by water, and cells themselves

More information

Unit Nine Notes N C U9

Unit Nine Notes N C U9 Unit Nine Notes N C U9 I. AcidBase Theories A. Arrhenius Acids and Bases 1. Acids contain hydronium ions (H O ) commonly referred to as hydrogen ions (H ) that dissociate in water a. Different acids release

More information

Why are we studying chemistry?

Why are we studying chemistry? The Chemistry of Life Why are we studying chemistry? Chemistry is the foundation of Biology 1 Everything is made of matter Matter is made of atoms Hydrogen 1 proton 1 electron Oxygen 8 protons 8 neutrons

More information

Acids and Bases. Acids and Bases in. our Lives. Acids and Bases in our Lives. Acids and Bases in our Lives. Chapter 11

Acids and Bases. Acids and Bases in. our Lives. Acids and Bases in our Lives. Acids and Bases in our Lives. Chapter 11 Acids and Bases Chapter 11 Acids and Bases in our Lives We produce lactic acid in our muscles when we exercise. Acid from bacteria turns milks sour in the products of yogurt and cottage cheese. We have

More information

Understanding the shapes of acid-base titration curves AP Chemistry

Understanding the shapes of acid-base titration curves AP Chemistry Understanding the shapes of acidbase titration curves AP Chemistry Neutralization Reactions go to Completion Every acidbase reaction produces another acid and another base. A neutralization reaction is

More information

Chapter 8. Table of Contents. Section 1 Acids, Bases, and ph. Section 2 Reactions of Acids with Bases. Section 3 Acids, Bases, and Salts in the Home

Chapter 8. Table of Contents. Section 1 Acids, Bases, and ph. Section 2 Reactions of Acids with Bases. Section 3 Acids, Bases, and Salts in the Home Acids, Bases, and Salts Table of Contents Section 2 Reactions of Acids with Bases Section 3 Acids, Bases, and Salts in the Home What Are Acids? An acid is a compound that dissolves in water to increase

More information

The Chemistry of Acids and Bases

The Chemistry of Acids and Bases The Chemistry of Acids and Bases 1 Acid and Bases 4 Acid and Bases 2 Acids Have a sour taste. Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid. Citrus fruits contain citric acid. React with certain metals to produce

More information

Acids and Bases. Feb 28 4:40 PM

Acids and Bases. Feb 28 4:40 PM Acids and Bases H O s O Cl H O O H H N H Na O H H Feb 28 4:40 PM Properties of Acids 1. Taste sour 2. Conduct electrical current 3. Liberate H 2 gas when reacted with a metal. 4. Cause certain dyes to

More information

Chapter 3. Water and the Fitness of the Environment

Chapter 3. Water and the Fitness of the Environment Chapter 3 Water and the Fitness of the Environment 1 Importance of water Overview: The Molecule That Supports All of Life Water is the biological medium here on Earth All living organisms require water

More information

Chapter 2: Chemical Basis of Life

Chapter 2: Chemical Basis of Life Chapter 2: Chemical Basis of Life Honors Biology 2011 1 Chemistry of Life Living organisms are composed of about 25 chemical elements Matter - anything that occupies space and has mass Matter is composed

More information

minocha (am56888) Topic 08 - ph Calculations brakke (2012SL) 1 1. an acid. correct 2. a solvent. 3. a base. 4. a salt. 1. hydrogen.

minocha (am56888) Topic 08 - ph Calculations brakke (2012SL) 1 1. an acid. correct 2. a solvent. 3. a base. 4. a salt. 1. hydrogen. minocha (am56888) Topic 08 - ph Calculations brakke (2012SL) 1 This print-out should have 26 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before answering.

More information

What is an acid? What is a base?

What is an acid? What is a base? What is an acid? What is a base? Properties of an acid Sour taste Turns litmus paper red Conducts electric current Some acids are strong and some are weak Properties of a base Bitter taste Slippery to

More information

Acids and Bases. A strong base is a substance that completely ionizes in aqueous solutions to give a cation and a hydroxide ion.

Acids and Bases. A strong base is a substance that completely ionizes in aqueous solutions to give a cation and a hydroxide ion. Acid-Base Theories Arrhenius Acids and Bases (1884) Acids and Bases An acid is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions. A base is a substance that, when

More information