Effect of acidic promoters on the titania nanotubes supported V2O5 catalysts for the selective oxidation of methanol to dimethoxymethane

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Effect of acidic promoters on the titania nanotubes supported V2O5 catalysts for the selective oxidation of methanol to dimethoxymethane"

Transcription

1 Chinese Journal of Catalysis 34 (213) 催化学报 213 年第 34 卷第 11 期 available at journal homepage: Article (Dedicated to Professor Yi Chen on the occasion of his 8th birthday) Effect of acidic promoters on the titania nanotubes supported V2O5 catalysts for the selective oxidation of methanol to dimethoxymethane Jingxuan Cai, Yuchuan Fu #, Qing Sun, Minhui Jia, Jianyi Shen * Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 2193, Jiangsu, China A R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Received 7 July 213 Accepted 16 August 213 Published 2 November 213 Keywords: Selective oxidation of methanol Dimethoxymethane Acidic additive Surface acidity Surface redox property A B S T R A C T The effect of acidic promoters on the titania nanotubes (TNT) supported V2O5 catalysts () was investigated. The structure of TNT was quite stable after the treatment with sulfuric, phosphoric, and phosphotungstic acids, respectively. The acid modified catalysts were tested for the selective oxidation of methanol to dimethoxymethane (DMM). It was found that only the modified with sulfuric acid followed by calcination at 673 K exhibited the significantly enhanced selectivity to DMM with high methanol conversions. The calcination created some sulfate groups strongly interacted with vanadium species, which enhanced the strengths of surface acidity without weakening the redox ability of vanadium sites. The addition of phosphoric and phosphotungstic acids might enhance the surface acidity of V2O5/TiO2, but weakened its redox ability, and therefore had the negative effect for the target reaction. 213, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Titania nanotubes (TNT) possess high surface areas, thermal stability, and photoactivity, and are used in many applications such as environmental protection [1], chemical synthesis [2], catalyst supports [3] and dye sensitized solar cell fabrications [4,5]. Among these applications, TNT was intensively studied as catalyst supports. For example, TNT has been used to support noble metals for some reactions such as double bond migration [6,7], water gas shift reaction [8], and CO2 adsorption and hydrogenation [1]. Recently, we found that TNT supported V2O5 catalysts (shorted as ) exhibited high conversion of methanol (64%) with high selectivity to dimethoxymethane (DMM) (9%) at a relatively low reaction temperature (43 K) for the selective oxidation of methanol [3]. This exellent performance of at low reaction temperature was ascribed to the high surface area of TNT, which was stable during the catalyst preparation and catalytic reaction. The prepared must be properly modified by an acidic component in order to enhance the surface acidity to achieve a high selectivity to DMM at high conversion of methanol. As reported previously [3,9 11], sulfates (SO4 2 ) have been used as effective acidic promoters for. However, the sulfates decomposed during the calcination of catalysts, leading to the loss of some sulfates, so that it was difficult to control accurately the amount of remaining sulfates in the catalysts. In the present work, we tried other acidic components to modify the to see their effects on * Corresponding author. Tel: ; Fax: ; E mail: # Corresponding author. Tel: ; Fax: ; E mail: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (217388), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education ( ), the National Basic Research Program of China (25CB2214), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities. DOI: 1.116/S (12) Chin. J. Catal., Vol. 34, No. 11, November 213

2 Jingxuan Cai et al. / Chinese Journal of Catalysis 34 (213) the selective oxidation of methanol to DMM as well as on the structure and surface areas of. Specifically, phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O4, PTA) were added respectively into in order to compare with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) for the modification of. The acidity of phosphoric acid is weaker than sulfuric acid while that of PTA is stronger than sulfuric acid [12]. Moreover, PTA is of strong redox property besides the strong acidity. The modification with PTA might enhance both the surface acidity and redox ability of catalysts. 2. Experimental 2.1. Preparation of samples TNT were prepared via a hydrothermal method from a commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25, SBET = 52 m 2 g 1 ) and concentrated NaOH according to the previous work [3]. A catalyst with 2 wt% of V2O5 was prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method by using an aqueous solution of vanadium oxalate as the vanadium precursor [13]. The obtained sample was divided into four shares. One was impregnated with diluted H2SO4 solution and dried at room temperature and then at 393 K for 12 h (denoted as S 393). Then, part of S 393 was calcined at 673 K for 1 h, and a sample S 673 was obtained. In a similar way, samples P 393, P 673, W 393, and W 673 were prepared by using the aqueous solutions containing H3PO4 (for P) and PTA (for W), respectively. The amount of an acid added was 5% by weight of Characterization Powder X ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were collected on a Philips X Pert Pro diffractometer using Ni filtered Cu Kα radiation (λ = nm), operated at 4 kv and 4 ma at a scanning rate of.417 per second. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on a JEOL JEM 21 microscope with an accelerating voltage of 2 kv. The samples were dispersed in ethanol under ultrasonic conditions and deposited onto copper grids coated with ultrathin carbon films. Nitrogen adsorption desorption isotherms were measured at the liquid nitrogen temperature using a Micromeritics ASAP 22 analyzer. Prior to a measurement, the sample was degassed to Torr at 473 K. Pore size distribution and pore volume were determined by the Barrett Joyner Halenda (BJH) method according to the desorption branch of an isotherm. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra were recorded with a Bruker Vector 22 Fourier transform spectrometer in the range of 4 4 cm 1, with a resolution of 2 cm 1 and 2 acquisition scans. Laser Raman spectra (LRS) were acquired on a Renishaw invia Raman microscope with the nm line of an Ar ion laser as the excitation source (2 mw). Spectra were recorded with 1 cm 1 resolution and 1 scans. Elemental analysis was performed with an X ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer (ARL98XP+, ARL Co., Switzerland) operated at 5 kv and 5 ma. Hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (TPR) measurements were carried out in a continuous mode using a quartz microreactor (3.5 mm in diameter). A sample of about 5 mg was contacted with a 5.13% H2/N2 mixture at a total flow rate of 4 ml min 1. The sample was heated at a rate of 1 K min 1 from room temperature to 117 K. Hydrogen consumption was monitored by using a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The reducing gas first passed through the reference arm of the TCD before entering the reactor. The flow out of the reactor was directed through a trap filled with Mg(ClO4)2 (to remove water from the reduction) and then to the second arm of the TCD. Microcalorimetric adsorption of ammonia was performed at 423 K by using a Tian Calvet type heat flux Setaram C8 calorimeter. The calorimeter was connected to a volumetric system equipped with a Baratron capacitance manometer for the pressure measurement and gas handling. About.1 g sample (, S 673, P 673, or W 673) was pretreated in 5 Torr O2 at 573 K for 1 h, followed by evacuation at the same temperature for 1 h. Similarly, the S 393, P 393 and W 393 were pretreated at 473 K. Ammonia as a probe molecule was purified with the successive freeze pump thaw cycles Catalytic tests The reaction of selective oxidation of methanol was carried out at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed microreactor (glass) with an inner diameter of 6 mm. Methanol was introduced into the reaction zone by bubbling O2/N2 (1/5) through a glass saturator filled with methanol (99.9%) maintained at 278 K. In each test,.2 g of a catalyst was loaded, and the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) was 114 ml g 1 h 1. The feed composition was maintained as methanol:o2:n2 = 1:3:15 (v/v). Methanol, DMM, formaldehyde and other organic compounds were analyzed by using a GC equipped with FID and TCD detectors connected to Porapak N columns. CO and CO2 were detected by using another GC with a TCD connected to a TDX 1 column. The gas lines were kept at 373 K to prevent condensation of reactants and products. The, S 673, P 673, and W 673 were pretreated by heating in air at 673 K for 1 h and then cooled in the same flow to the reaction temperature. The S 393, P 393, and W 393 were pretreated at 473 K. 3. Results and discussion 3.1. Structural characterizations Table 1 shows the composition, BET surface area, average pore diameter, and pore volume of the catalysts modified by different acids. It is seen that the possessed a quite high surface area (192 m 2 g 1 ) and pore volume (.8 cm 3 g 1 ), which were decreased upon the addition of acids. The surface area and pore volume were further decreased after calcination

3 2112 Jingxuan Cai et al. / Chinese Journal of Catalysis 34 (213) Table 1 Composition, BET surface area, average pore diameter, and pore volume of the catalysts modified by different acids. Catalyst Composition a (wt%) SBET Pore size Pore volume V2O5 SO3 P2O5 WO3 (m 2 g 1 ) (nm) (cm 3 g 1 ) S S P P W W a Measured by XRF. at 673 K. This effect was more pronounced for the sulfuric acid modified catalyst. However, the pore sizes were slightly increased for the catalysts after the calcination, probably owing to the increase of interspaces among catalyst particles rather than the increase of pore sizes of the TNT support. After calcination at 673 K, the sulfur content (based on the amount of SO3 remained) in the sulfuric acid modified catalyst decreased from 4.5 to 1.5 wt%, indicating that only small amount of SO4 2 could be strongly bonded on the catalyst surface. On the other hand, the contents of other two acids added were not decreased upon the calcination at 673 K. Figure 1 shows the TEM images of TNT and TNT supported V2O5 catalysts. It is seen that the TNT had the homogeneous diameter of about 5 nm (Fig. 1 ). After loading V2O5 by impregnation, the morphology of TNT did not seem to be changed significantly (only a few TNT were ruptured, Fig. 1 (b)). More TNT seemed to be ruptured upon the addition of sulfuric acid (Fig. 1 and (d)), but the tubular morphology of TNT was mostly remained. Similar changes were observed for the catalysts upon the addition of phosphoric acid and PTA (Fig. 1 (e h)). Figure 2 shows the nitrogen adsorption desorption isotherms and corresponding BJH pore size distributions for the and H2SO4 modified samples before and after the calcination. These isotherms belong to the type IV with an H3 hysteresis loop, characteristic of slit shaped mesoporous structure. Thus, the mesoporous structure of TNT remained after the addition of vanadia and sulfuric acid followed by calcination at 673 K. The catalysts modified by phosphoric acid and PTA displayed the similar adsorption desorption isotherms and corresponding BJH pore size distributions (not shown). Figure 3 shows the XRD patterns for the unmodified and modified with sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and PTA. No crystalline V2O5 was observed in the XRD profiles, indicating (b) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Fig. 1. TEM images of TNT and TNT supported V2O5 catalysts. TNT; (b) ; S 393; (d) S 673; (e) P 393; (f) P 673; (g) W 393; (h) W 673. Volume adsorbed (cm 3 g 1, STP) Pore Volume ( cm 3 g -1 nm -1 ) Pore width (nm) Relative pressure (p/p ) Volume adsorbed (cm 3 g 1, STP) Pore Volume ( cm 3 g -1 nm -1 ) Pore width (nm) (b) Relative pressure (p/p) Volume adsorbed (cm 3 g 1, STP) Pore Volume ( cm 3 g -1 nm -1 ) Pore width (nm) Relative pressure (p/p) Fig. 2. Nitrogen adsorption desorption isotherms and corresponding BJH pore size distributions for, S 393 (b), and S 673.

4 Jingxuan Cai et al. / Chinese Journal of Catalysis 34 (213) Intensity (a. u.) Anatase TiO 2 -B ( d') (Degree) the high dispersion of V2O5 in the catalysts even after the calcination at 673 K. Figure 4 shows the skeletal FTIR spectra of the catalysts. Two IR bands around 98 and 82 cm 1 were observed for (Fig. 4 ), which could be assigned to monovanadate and polyvanadate species bonded to the surface of TiO2, respectively [14]. Addition of sulfuric acid did not have any effect on the two bands, indicating that no strong interaction occurred between vanadium species and sulfuric acid in the S 393 dried at 393 K. The intensities of the two bands increased for the sample (S 673) after calcination at 673 K, indicating the increased interaction between the surface vanadium species and sulfates. For comparison, the IR spectra for TNT supported sulfuric acid were obtained. Three bands around 125, 113, and 155 cm 1 were observed for the sample prepared upon the addition of sulfuric acid onto TNT (STNT) followed by drying at 393 K (STNT 393). These bands were characteristic features of sulfate groups on the surface of TiO2 [15]. After calcination at 673 K, the band around 125 cm 1 decreased its intensity, while the two bands around 113 (d) ( c') ( b') Fig. 3. XRD patterns of, S 393 (b), S 673 (b ), P 393, P 673 (c ), W 393 (d), and W 673 (d ). (b) and 155 cm 1 merged into a broad band around 112 cm 1. These results indicated that most sulfate groups were decomposed while the remaining ones strengthened their interactions with the surface of TNT upon the calcination at 673 K. The FTIR bands for sulfate groups in the S 393 were around 12, 112, and 155 cm 1 with some blue shifts as compared to those of STNT (125 and 113 cm 1 ), indicating the interactions of sulfate groups with vanadium species in the catalyst. After calcination at 673 K, the two bands around 12 and 155 cm 1 disappeared due to the decomposition of sulfate groups while the one around 112 cm 1 remained. Thus the band around 112 cm 1 might belong to the sulfate groups interacted strongly with surface vanadium species. Addition of phosphoric acid onto TNT resulted in an IR band around 14 cm 1 (for PTNT 393) as shown in Fig. 4(b). This band remained (for PTNT 673) after the calcination at 673 K. It is typical of phosphate groups and was significantly broadened due to the reduced symmetry upon the dispersion on the support [16]. This band shifted to 11 cm 1 when phosphate groups were added into, indicating the interaction of phosphate groups with surface vanadium species [17]. After calcination at 673 K, the band around 11 cm 1 remained, while the bands around 98 and 82 cm 1 for V=O and V O V vibrations were weakened, which might be due to the interaction of vanadium species with phosphate groups or the coverage of some vanadium species by phosphate groups [17], leading to the decrease of oxidation ability of the catalyst. Addition of PTA onto TNT resulted in two IR bands around 98 and 82 cm 1 (for WTNT 393), as shown in Fig. 4, which could be assigned to phosphotungstate anions [18]. After the calcination at 673 K, these bands remained (for WTNT 673) with decreased intensities, indicating the decomposition of some Keggin structures of phosphotungstate anions. Since these bands overlapped with those of surface vanadium species, the addition of PTA into resulted in the increased intensities of the two bands. According to the IR result of WTNT 673, it was expected that some Keggin structures of phosphotungstate anions remained in the W 673 even after it was calcined at 673 K. Figure 5 shows the Raman spectra of the catalysts from 9 to 11 cm 1. The band around 13 cm 1 might be assigned to the terminal vibrations of V=O in, while the band around S-673 (b) P S-393 P TNT 98 TNT PTNT-393 STNT STNT-673 PTNT Wavenumber (cm -1 ) Wavenumber (cm -1 ) Transmittance (a.u.) Transmittance (a.u.) Transmittance (a.u.) W-673 W TNT WTNT-393 WTNT Wavenumber (cm -1 ) Fig. 4. Skeletal FT IR spectra of catalysts modified by H2SO4, H3PO4 (b), and H3PW12O4.

5 2114 Jingxuan Cai et al. / Chinese Journal of Catalysis 34 (213) Intensity (a. u.) Ramanshift (cm -1 ) 945 cm 1 for V O V vibrations could not be clearly observed [19]. Upon the addition of sulfuric acid, the intensity of band around 13 cm 1 increased [2], indicating more V=O sites appeared on the surface of S. In contrast, the intensity of band around 13 cm 1 was weakened upon the addition of phosphoric acid, indicating the decreased number of surface V=O groups, probably due to the interaction of vanadium species with phosphate groups or the coverage of some vanadium species by phosphate groups [17], in consistence with the IR results presented above. The band around 13 cm 1 was significantly broadened for the W 673, suggesting the interactions of V=O with added phosphotungstate anions Surface redox and acidic properties ( d') Figure 6 shows the TPR profiles of catalysts modified by sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and PTA. For comparison, the TPR profiles of different acids supported on TNT were also presented. TNT itself did not have a peak [5]. After loading vanadia, the exhibited an intensive TPR peak around 79 K (Fig. 6 ), corresponding to the reduction of highly dispersed vanadia from V 5+ to V 3+ [21]. There were two peaks higher than 79 K for sulfuric acid supported on TNT. However, these two (d) ( c') ( b') Fig. 5. Raman spectra of, S 393 (b), S 673 (b ), P 393, P 673 (c ), W 393 (d), and W 673 (d ). (b) peaks disappeared when sulfuric acid was supported on, indicating the interaction of sulfate groups with vanadium species. In fact, the TPR peak was broadened for S 393, as compared to that of, indicating the reduction of sulfate groups with vanadium species around 78 K. The TPR peak of S 673 was similar to that of, owing to the fact that most sulfate groups had been decomposed upon the calcination at 673 K. Although TPR peaks higher than 79 K were observed for phosphoric acid supported on TNT (Fig. 6 (b)), addition of phosphoric acid into did not seem to have any effect on the reduction of vanadium species in the P catalysts because similar TPR peaks were observed for P and. The TPR peaks were hardly seen for PTA supported on TNT (Fig. 6 ). However, addition of PTA into decreased the temperatures of TPR peaks for W catalysts, suggesting the enhanced redox ability of promoted by PTA. The surface acidities of modified by different acids were probed by the microcalorimetric adsorption of ammonia. Figure 7 presents the results. Figure 7 shows that the exhibited the high initial heat (2 kj mol 1 ) and coverage (4.9 μmol m 2 ) for the adsorption of ammonia. Addition of sulfuric acid followed by drying at 393 K decreased the initial heat to 174 kj mol 1 but increased the ammonia coverage to 6.97 μmol m 2. After calcination at 673 K, the initial heat increased to 23 kj mol 1, but the coverage decreased to 6 μmol m 2 for the S 673. Apparently, the calcination at 673 K decomposed most sulfate groups in the catalyst but created some sulfate groups that were strongly interacted with titania and vanadia species and were thus highly acidic [22,23]. Addition of phosphoric acid into greatly decreased the initial heat (11 kj mol 1 ) for the adsorption of ammonia on P 393 (Fig. 7 (b)). This might be due to the formation of some V P O compounds that possessed relatively low surface acidity [24]. However, the coverage of ammonia was significantly increased (6.63 μmol m 2 ), indicating the increased density of surface acid sites. The calcination at 673 K further decreased the initial heat, but the density of acid sites was not changed, as seen in Fig. 7 (b) for the adsorption of ammonia on P 673. Addition of PTA into decreased the initial heat a little (from 2 to 186 kj mol 1 ) as seen in Fig. 7 for the adsorption of ammonia on W 393. However, the calcination at 673 K significantly decreased the initial heat (to 133 kj mol 1 ), H2 consumption (a. u.) 78 S S-393 STNT-673 STNT Temperature (K) H2 consumption (a. u.) 788 (b) P P-393 PTNT-673 PTNT Temperature (K) H2 consumption (a. u.) 77 W W-393 WTNT-673 WTNT Temperature (K) Fig. 6. H2 TPR profiles of catalysts modified by H2SO4, H3PO4 (b), and H3PW12O4.

6 Jingxuan Cai et al. / Chinese Journal of Catalysis 34 (213) Differential heat (kj mol -1 ) S-393 S Coverage ( mol m -2 ) Differential heat (kj mol -1 ) (b) P-393 P Coverage ( mol m -2 ) Differential heat (kj mol -1 ) W-393 W Coverage ( mol m -2 ) Fig. 7. Microcalorimetric adsorption of ammonia on the and modified by different acids at 423 K. probably due to the decomposition of crystalline PTA. Addition of PTA did not seem to change the density of acid sites in the W catalysts Catalytic reactions Table 2 presents the results for the selective oxidation of methanol to DMM over catalysts modified with different acids. The possessed redox and acidic properties. The activity and selectivity of this reaction depend on the surface properties of catalysts as well as the reaction conditions (especially the reaction temperature). Generally, methanol was oxidized on redox sites to form adsorbed formaldehyde, which was then condensed with methanol to form DMM on acidic sites [25]. The intermediate product, formaldehyde, could also be further oxidized into methyl formate and COx [26]. The data in Table 2 shows that the exhibited high selectivity to DMM (93%) at 383 K. However, with the increase of reaction temperature, the selectivity to DMM on the decreased rapidly, indicating that the surface acidity of was not strong enough so that the high selectivity to DMM could not be maintained at the high methanol conversions. The modification of surface acidity was a way to enhance the yield of DMM [3]. Addition of sulfuric acid into greatly increased the surface acidity of S 393 but inhibited its redox property. Accordingly, the selectivity to DMM at the higher reaction temperatures was increased while the conversion of methanol was decreased on the S 393. As discussed above, the calcination at 673 K decomposed most surface sulfate groups, and only some of them were remained. Such sulfate groups were Table 2 Selective oxidation of methanol to dimethoxymethane over acid modified catalysts at 43 K. Catalyst Methanol Selectivity (%) conversion (%) DMM FA MF DME COx S S P P W W Feed conditions: methanol/o2/n2 = 1/3/15, GHSV = 114 ml g 1 h 1. DMM: dimethoxymethane; FA: formaldehyde; MF: methyl formate; DME: dimethyl ether; COx: CO2 and/or CO. those interacted strongly with vanadia and enhanced the surface acidity of S 673 without weakening its redox ability. Thus, the selectivity to DMM could be remained high (92%) with the high conversion of methanol (58%) over the S 673 at 43 K. Although the addition of phosphoric acid into increased the surface acidity of P, its redox ability was weakened, as revealed by the results of microcalorimetric adsorption of ammonia and FTIR. Thus, the selectivity to DMM was increased on P with decreased conversion of methanol. PTA is known to be a strong oxidative agent and a strong acid simultaneously. The TPR results in Fig. 6 show that the redox ability of was somewhat enhanced upon the addition of PTA. On the other hand, the addition of PTA into increased the acid catalyzed products on W 393. These results indicated that the addition of PTA enhanced the surface acidity more than redox ability for the probe reaction. However, most PTA might be decomposed, and the resulted compounds might cover the redox sites of vanadia species. Thus, the effect of addition of PTA was similar to that of phosphoric acid for the selective oxidation of methanol to DMM. Figure 8 shows the dependence of selectivity to DMM on the conversion of methanol for the modified with different acids. Apparently, only the S 673 exhibited the positive effect, i.e., the high selectivity to DMM could only be obtained on the S 673 with high conversion of methanol. Addition DMM selectivity (%) S-393 S-673 P-393 P-673 W-393 W Methanol conversion (%) Fig. 8. Selectivity to DMM vs conversion of methanol over the and modified by different acids catalysts. Feed conditions: methanol/o2/n2 = 1/3/15 (v/v), GHSV = 114 ml g 1 h 1. Data were collected at the temperatures K.

7 2116 Jingxuan Cai et al. / Chinese Journal of Catalysis 34 (213) Chin. J. Catal., 213, 34: Graphical Abstract doi: 1.116/S (12)669 1 Effect of acidic promoters on the titania nanotubes supported V2O5 catalysts for the selective oxidation of methanol to dimethoxymethane Jingxuan Cai, Yuchuan Fu *, Qing Sun, Minhui Jia, Jianyi Shen * Nanjing University Addition of sulfate groups followed by calcination at 673 K strengthened the surface acidity of V2O5/TiO2 and thus promoted the selectivity to dimethoxymethane at the high methanol conversions, while the addition of phosphoric and phosphotungstic acids in any case or the addition of sulfate groups without a high temperature calcination had the negative effect because they decreased either the surface acidity or redox ability of V2O5/TiO2. DMM selectivity (%) S2-393 S2-673 P2-393 P2-673 W2-393 W Methanol conversion (%) of phosphoric acid and PTA had only the negative effect. Without calcination at the high temperature, the addition of sulfuric acid also had the negative effect for the selective oxidation of methanol to DMM. Thus, the catalyst for the selective oxidation of methanol to DMM should be preferably modified by the small amount of sulfate groups interacted strongly with the redox sites of surface vanadium species formed during the calcination at 673 K. 4. Conclusions In order to enhance the surface acidity of titania nanotubes supported vanadia catalyst (2%V2O5/TNT) to increase the selectivity to dimethoxymethane (DMM) from the oxidation of methanol, the V2O5/TNT was modified with sulfuric, phosphoric, and phosphotungstic acids, respectively. Although the addition of these acids led to some ruptures of the TNT structure, the tubular morphology of TNT was mostly remained. The addition of these acids without calcination enhanced the surface acidity but weakened the redox ability of V2O5/TNT, leading to the decreased activity for the selective oxidation of methanol to DMM. After the calcination at 673 K, the strengths of surface acidity of the catalysts modified by phosphoric and phosphotungstic acids were decreased while that modified by sulfuric acid increased. In any case, the modification with phosphoric or phosphotungstic acids had the negative effect for the oxidation of methanol to DMM because they might cover some redox sites of vanadia species. In contrast, the sulfate groups strongly interacted with redox sites of vanadia species remained after the calcination enhanced the surface acidity without weakening the redox ability of vanadia species, and thus promoted the selectivity to DMM at the high methanol conversions. References [1] Yu K P, Yu W Y, Ku M C, Liou Y C, Chien S H. Appl Catal B, 28, 84: 112 [2] Vijayan B, Dimitrijevic N M, Rajh T, Gray K. J Phys Chem C, 21, 114: [3] Liu J W, Fu Y C, Sun Q, Shen J Y. Microporous Mesoporous Mater, 28, 116: 614 [4] Jiang G D, Lin Z F, Zhu L H, Ding Y B, Tang H Q. Carbon, 21, 48: 3369 [5] Cummings F R, Le Roux L J, Mathe M K, Knoesen D. Mater Chem Phys, 21, 124: 234 [6] Torrente Murciano L, Lapkin A A, Bavykin D V, Walsh F C, Wilson K. J Catal, 27, 245: 272 [7] Sato Y, Koizumi M, Miyao T, Naito S. Catal Today, 26, 111: 164 [8] Idakiev V, Yuan Z Y, Tabakova T, Su B L. Appl Catal A, 25, 281: 149 [9] Fu Y C, Shen J Y. Chem Commun, 27: 2172 [1] Zhao H Y, Bennici S, Shen J Y, Auroux A. J Catal, 21, 272: 176 [11] Guo H Q, Li D B, Jiang D, Li W H, Sun Y H. Catal Commun, 21, 11: 396 [12] Mizuno N, Misono M. Chem Rev, 1998, 98: 199 [13] Bond G C. Appl Catal A, 1997, 157: 91 [14] Sun Q, Fu Y C, Liu J W, Auroux A, Shen J Y. Appl Catal A, 28, 334: 26 [15] Chen J P, Yang R T. J Catal, 1993, 139: 277 [16] Samantaray S K, Parida K. J Mol Catal A, 21, 176: 151 [17] Blanco J, Avila P, Barthelemy C, Bahamonde A, Odriozola J A, De LaBanda J F G, Heinemann H. Appl Catal, 1989, 55: 151 [18] Stanger U L, Orel B, Regis A, Colomban P. J Sol Gel Sci Technol, 1997, 8: 965 [19] Deo G, Wachs I E, Haber J. Crit Rev Surf Chem, 1994, 4: 141 [2] Dunn J P, Jehng J M, Kim D S, Briand L E, Stenger H G, Wachs I E. J Phys Chem B, 1998, 12: 6212 [21] Besselmann S, Freitag C, Hinrichsen O, Muhler M. Phys Chem Chem Phys, 21, 3: 4633 [22] Lin C H, Chien S H, Chao J H, Sheu C Y, Cheng Y C, Huang Y J, Tsai C H. Catal Lett, 22, 8: 153 [23] Bavykin D V, Friedrich J M, Walsh F C. Adv Mater, 26, 18: 287 [24] Avila P, Blanco J, Bahamonde A, Palacios J M, Barthelemy C. J Mater Sci, 1993, 28: 4113 [25] Liu H C, Bayat N, Iglesia E. Angew Chem Int Ed, 23, 42: 572 [26] Tatibouet J M. Appl Catal A, 1997, 148: 213

8 Jingxuan Cai et al. / Chinese Journal of Catalysis 34 (213) 酸性助剂对 V 2 O 5 /TiO 2 催化剂甲醇选择氧化为甲缩醛的影响 蔡景轩, 傅玉川 # *, 孙清, 贾敏慧, 沈俭一南京大学化学化工学院介观化学教育部重点实验室, 江苏南京 2193 摘要 : 研究了酸性助剂对 TiO 2 纳米管 (TNT) 负载的 V 2 O 5 催化剂 (V 2 O 5 /TNT) 性能的影响, 发现经硫酸 磷酸或磷钨酸处理后, TNT 的结构稳定, 但表面酸性和氧化 - 还原性发生了变化, 从而改变了甲醇选择氧化为甲缩醛的催化性能. 实验结果表明, V 2 O 5 /TNT 催化剂经硫酸修饰和 673 K 焙烧, 其甲缩醛选择性显著提高, 且维持了较高的甲醇转化率. 催化剂表征表明, 高温焙烧促进了硫酸根与钒物种之间的强相互作用, 从而提高了催化剂的表面酸性而没有降低钒的氧化 - 还原性. 磷酸和磷钨酸修饰虽然也提高了 V 2 O 5 /TNT 催化剂的表面酸性, 但降低了其中钒氧化物的氧化 - 还原能力, 反而降低了催化剂的活性. 关键词 : 甲醇选择氧化 ; 甲缩醛 ; 酸性助剂 ; 表面酸性 ; 表面氧化 - 还原性 收稿日期 : 接受日期 : 出版日期 : * 通讯联系人. 电话 : (25) ; 传真 : (25) ; 电子信箱 : # 通讯联系人. 电话 : (25) ; 传真 : (25) ; 电子信箱 : 基金来源 : 国家自然科学基金 (217388); 高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金 ( ); 国家重点基础研究发展计划 (973 计划, 25CB2214); 中央高校基本科研业务费专项基金. 本文的英文电子版由 Elsevier 出版社在 ScienceDirect 上出版 (

Effect of lengthening alkyl spacer on hydroformylation performance of tethered phosphine modified Rh/SiO2 catalyst

Effect of lengthening alkyl spacer on hydroformylation performance of tethered phosphine modified Rh/SiO2 catalyst Chinese Journal of Catalysis 37 (216) 268 272 催化学报 216 年第 37 卷第 2 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Effect of lengthening alkyl

More information

Effect of promoters on the selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol over Pt/W containing catalysts

Effect of promoters on the selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol over Pt/W containing catalysts Chinese Journal of Catalysis 37 (2016) 1513 1520 催化学报 2016 年第 37 卷第 9 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Effect of promoters on

More information

Synthesis of anisole by vapor phase methylation of phenol with methanol over catalysts supported on activated alumina

Synthesis of anisole by vapor phase methylation of phenol with methanol over catalysts supported on activated alumina Chinese Journal of Catalysis 37 (216) 72 726 催化学报 216 年第 37 卷第 5 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Synthesis of anisole by vapor

More information

Resistance to SO2 poisoning of V2O5/TiO2 PILC catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3

Resistance to SO2 poisoning of V2O5/TiO2 PILC catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 Chinese Journal of Catalysis 37 (216) 888 897 催化学报 216 年第 37 卷第 6 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article (Special Issue on Environmental

More information

A mini review on carbon based metal free electrocatalysts for

A mini review on carbon based metal free electrocatalysts for Chinese Journal of Catalysis 34 (2013) 1986 1991 催化学报 2013 年第 34 卷第 11 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Review (Dedicated to Professor Yi

More information

In situ preparation of mesoporous Fe/TiO2 catalyst using Pluronic F127 assisted sol gel process for mid temperature NH3 selective

In situ preparation of mesoporous Fe/TiO2 catalyst using Pluronic F127 assisted sol gel process for mid temperature NH3 selective Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (17) 1831 1841 催化学报 17 年第 38 卷第 11 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article In situ preparation of mesoporous

More information

Effect of the degree of dispersion of Pt over MgAl2O4 on the catalytic hydrogenation of benzaldehyde

Effect of the degree of dispersion of Pt over MgAl2O4 on the catalytic hydrogenation of benzaldehyde Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 1613 1620 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 9 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article (Special Issue of the

More information

Growth of Cu/SSZ 13 on SiC for selective catalytic reduction of NO

Growth of Cu/SSZ 13 on SiC for selective catalytic reduction of NO Chinese Journal of Catalysis 39 (2018) 71 78 催化学报 2018 年第 39 卷第 1 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Growth of Cu/SSZ 13 on SiC

More information

Hydrothermal synthesis of nanosized ZSM 22 and their use in the catalytic conversion of methanol

Hydrothermal synthesis of nanosized ZSM 22 and their use in the catalytic conversion of methanol Chinese Journal of Catalysis 37 (2016) 1381 1388 催化学报 2016 年第 37 卷第 8 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Hydrothermal synthesis

More information

Catalytic combustion of methane over Pd/SnO2 catalysts

Catalytic combustion of methane over Pd/SnO2 catalysts Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 1322 1329 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 8 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Catalytic combustion of

More information

In situ DRIFTS study of the mechanism of low temperature selective catalytic reduction over manganese iron oxides

In situ DRIFTS study of the mechanism of low temperature selective catalytic reduction over manganese iron oxides Chinese Journal of Catalysis 35 (2014) 294 301 催化学报 2014 年第 35 卷第 3 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article In situ DRIFTS study of the

More information

Surface reactions of CuCl2 and HY zeolite during the preparation of CuY catalyst for the oxidative carbonylation of methanol

Surface reactions of CuCl2 and HY zeolite during the preparation of CuY catalyst for the oxidative carbonylation of methanol Chinese Journal of Catalysis 35 (14) 134 139 催化学报 14 年第 35 卷第 1 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Surface reactions of CuCl2 and HY

More information

Preparation of mesoporous Fe-Cu mixed metal oxide nanopowder as active and stable catalyst for low-temperature CO oxidation

Preparation of mesoporous Fe-Cu mixed metal oxide nanopowder as active and stable catalyst for low-temperature CO oxidation Chinese Journal of Catalysis 36 (215) 1711 1718 催化学报 215 年第 36 卷第 1 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Preparation of mesoporous Fe-Cu

More information

In plasma catalytic degradation of toluene over different MnO2 polymorphs and study of reaction mechanism

In plasma catalytic degradation of toluene over different MnO2 polymorphs and study of reaction mechanism Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (217) 793 84 催化学报 217 年第 38 卷第 5 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article In plasma catalytic degradation

More information

Promotional effects of Er incorporation in CeO2(ZrO2)/TiO2 for selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3

Promotional effects of Er incorporation in CeO2(ZrO2)/TiO2 for selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 Chinese Journal of Catalysis 37 (2016) 1521 1529 催化学报 2016 年第 37 卷第 9 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Promotional effects of

More information

La doped Pt/TiO2 as an efficient catalyst for room temperature oxidation of low concentration HCHO

La doped Pt/TiO2 as an efficient catalyst for room temperature oxidation of low concentration HCHO Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (217) 39 47 催化学报 217 年第 38 卷第 1 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article La doped Pt/TiO2 as an efficient

More information

Magnetic Co/Al2O3 catalyst derived from hydrotalcite for hydrogenation of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone

Magnetic Co/Al2O3 catalyst derived from hydrotalcite for hydrogenation of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone Chinese Journal of Catalysis 36 (2015) 1512 1518 催化学报 2015 年第 36 卷第 9 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Communication (Special Issue for Excellent

More information

SiO2 supported Au Ni bimetallic catalyst for the selective hydrogenation of acetylene

SiO2 supported Au Ni bimetallic catalyst for the selective hydrogenation of acetylene Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (217) 1338 1346 催化学报 217 年第 38 卷第 8 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article SiO2 supported Au Ni bimetallic

More information

available at journal homepage:

available at  journal homepage: Chinese Journal of Catalysis 39 (18) 988 996 催化学报 18 年第 39 卷第 5 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Layered double hydroxide like

More information

Visible light responsive carbon decorated p type semiconductor CaFe2O4 nanorod photocatalyst for efficient remediation of organic pollutants

Visible light responsive carbon decorated p type semiconductor CaFe2O4 nanorod photocatalyst for efficient remediation of organic pollutants Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (217) 177 1779 催化学报 217 年第 38 卷第 1 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Visible light responsive

More information

Preparation of LaMnO3 for catalytic combustion of vinyl chloride

Preparation of LaMnO3 for catalytic combustion of vinyl chloride Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 1406 1412 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 8 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Preparation of LaMnO3

More information

available at journal homepage:

available at  journal homepage: Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 1860 1869 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 11 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Solid base catalysts

More information

Highly photoreactive TiO2 hollow microspheres with super thermal stability for acetone oxidation

Highly photoreactive TiO2 hollow microspheres with super thermal stability for acetone oxidation Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 2085 2093 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 12 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article (Special Issue on Photocatalysis

More information

N doped ordered mesoporous carbon as a multifunctional support of ultrafine Pt nanoparticles for hydrogenation of nitroarenes

N doped ordered mesoporous carbon as a multifunctional support of ultrafine Pt nanoparticles for hydrogenation of nitroarenes Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 1252 1260 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 7 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article N doped ordered mesoporous

More information

A soft-templated method to synthesize sintering-resistant Au/mesoporous-silica core-shell nanocatalysts with sub-5 nm single-core

A soft-templated method to synthesize sintering-resistant Au/mesoporous-silica core-shell nanocatalysts with sub-5 nm single-core A soft-templated method to synthesize sintering-resistant Au/mesoporous-silica core-shell nanocatalysts with sub-5 nm single-core Chunzheng Wu, ab Zi-Yian Lim, a Chen Zhou, a Wei Guo Wang, a Shenghu Zhou,

More information

available at journal homepage:

available at  journal homepage: Chinese Journal of Catalysis 36 (2015) 15801586 催化学报 2015 年第 36 卷第 9 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article (Special Issue for Excellent

More information

Selective suppression of toluene formation in solvent free benzyl alcohol oxidation using supported Pd Ni bimetallic nanoparticles

Selective suppression of toluene formation in solvent free benzyl alcohol oxidation using supported Pd Ni bimetallic nanoparticles Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (217) 187 1879 催化学报 217 年第 38 卷第 11 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Selective suppression of

More information

Proton gradient transfer acid complexes and their catalytic performance for the synthesis of geranyl acetate

Proton gradient transfer acid complexes and their catalytic performance for the synthesis of geranyl acetate Chinese Journal of Catalysis 37 (216) 2114 2121 催化学报 216 年第 37 卷第 12 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Proton gradient transfer

More information

Homogeneous boron doping in a TiO2 shell supported on a TiB2 core for enhanced photocatalytic water oxidation

Homogeneous boron doping in a TiO2 shell supported on a TiB2 core for enhanced photocatalytic water oxidation Chinese Journal of Catalysis 39 (218) 431 437 催化学报 218 年第 39 卷第 3 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article (Special Issue of Photocatalysis

More information

Two dimensional materials confining single atoms for catalysis

Two dimensional materials confining single atoms for catalysis Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 1443 1453 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 9 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Perspective (Special Issue of

More information

Novel structured Mo Cu Fe O composite for catalytic air oxidation of dye containing wastewater under ambient temperature and pressure

Novel structured Mo Cu Fe O composite for catalytic air oxidation of dye containing wastewater under ambient temperature and pressure Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (217) 1719 1725 催化学报 217 年第 38 卷第 1 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Novel structured Mo Cu Fe

More information

Tuning the growth of Cu MOFs for efficient catalytic hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide

Tuning the growth of Cu MOFs for efficient catalytic hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (17) 1373 1381 催化学报 17 年第 38 卷第 8 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Tuning the growth of Cu MOFs

More information

Surface treatment effect on the photocatalytic hydrogen generation of CdS/ZnS core shell microstructures

Surface treatment effect on the photocatalytic hydrogen generation of CdS/ZnS core shell microstructures hinese Journal of atalysis 38 (217) 489 497 催化学报 217 年第 38 卷第 3 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc rticle Surface treatment effect on the

More information

Synthesis of Ag/AgCl/Fe S plasmonic catalyst for bisphenol A degradation in heterogeneous photo Fenton system under visible light irradiation

Synthesis of Ag/AgCl/Fe S plasmonic catalyst for bisphenol A degradation in heterogeneous photo Fenton system under visible light irradiation Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (217) 1726 1735 催化学报 217 年第 38 卷第 1 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Synthesis of Ag/AgCl/Fe

More information

Recent progress in Ag3PO4 based all solid state Z scheme photocatalytic systems

Recent progress in Ag3PO4 based all solid state Z scheme photocatalytic systems Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 1794 1803 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 11 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Minireview Recent progress in

More information

Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI)

Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Catalysis Science & Technology. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015 Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) Multi-scale promoting effects

More information

Selective reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide over Au/CeO2 catalyst and identification of reaction intermediate

Selective reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide over Au/CeO2 catalyst and identification of reaction intermediate Chese Journal of Catalysis 37 (216) 253 258 催化学报 216 年第 37 卷第 12 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Selective reduction of carbon

More information

Nanocoating of magnetic cores with sulfonic acid functionalized shells for the catalytic dehydration of fructose to 5 hydroxymethylfurfural

Nanocoating of magnetic cores with sulfonic acid functionalized shells for the catalytic dehydration of fructose to 5 hydroxymethylfurfural Chinese Journal of Catalysis 35 (2014) 703 708 催化学报 2014 年第 35 卷第 5 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article (Special Issue on the 2nd International

More information

Highly effective electrochemical water oxidation by copper oxide film generated in situ from Cu(II) tricine complex

Highly effective electrochemical water oxidation by copper oxide film generated in situ from Cu(II) tricine complex Chinese Journal of Catalysis 39 (218) 479 486 催化学报 218 年第 39 卷第 3 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article (Special Issue of Photocatalysis

More information

A review of the direct oxidation of methane to methanol

A review of the direct oxidation of methane to methanol Chinese Journal of Catalysis 37 (2016) 1206 1215 催化学报 2016 年第 37 卷第 8 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Review A review of the direct

More information

High performance ORR electrocatalysts prepared via one step pyrolysis of riboflavin

High performance ORR electrocatalysts prepared via one step pyrolysis of riboflavin Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 1668 1679 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 10 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article igh performance RR electrocatalysts

More information

Selection of oxide supports to anchor desirable bimetallic structures for ethanol reforming and 1,3 butadiene hydrogenation

Selection of oxide supports to anchor desirable bimetallic structures for ethanol reforming and 1,3 butadiene hydrogenation Chinese Journal of Catalysis () 9 7 催化学报 年第 卷第 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article (Dedicated to Professor Yi Chen on the occasion of

More information

available at journal homepage:

available at  journal homepage: Chinese Journal of Catalysis 35 (2014) 1446 1455 催化学报 2014 年第 35 卷第 9 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Chiral Mn III (Salen) supported

More information

Using probe molecule FTIR spectroscopy to identify and characterize Pt group metal based single atom catalysts

Using probe molecule FTIR spectroscopy to identify and characterize Pt group metal based single atom catalysts Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 1473 1480 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 9 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Perspective (Special Issue of

More information

Electronic Supplementary Information

Electronic Supplementary Information Electronic Supplementary Information Facile synthesis of halogenated carbon quantum dots as an important intermediate for surface modification Jin Zhou, Pei Lin, Juanjuan Ma, Xiaoyue Shan, Hui Feng, Congcong

More information

One step synthesis of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets for efficient catalysis of phenol removal under visible light

One step synthesis of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets for efficient catalysis of phenol removal under visible light Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (217) 1711 1718 催化学报 217 年第 38 卷第 1 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article One step synthesis of graphitic

More information

Clean synthesis of propylene carbonate from urea and 1,2-propylene glycol over zinc iron double oxide catalyst

Clean synthesis of propylene carbonate from urea and 1,2-propylene glycol over zinc iron double oxide catalyst Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology J Chem Technol Biotechnol 81:794 798 (2006) DOI: 10.1002/jctb.1412 Clean synthesis of propylene carbonate from urea and 1,2-propylene glycol over zinc iron

More information

SnO2 based solid solutions for CH4 deep oxidation: Quantifying the lattice capacity of SnO2 using an X ray diffraction extrapolation method

SnO2 based solid solutions for CH4 deep oxidation: Quantifying the lattice capacity of SnO2 using an X ray diffraction extrapolation method Chinese Journal of Catalysis 37 (2016) 1293 1302 催化学报 2016 年第 37 卷第 8 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article SnO2 based solid solutions

More information

enzymatic cascade system

enzymatic cascade system Electronic Supplementary Information Fe 3 O 4 -Au@mesoporous SiO 2 microsphere: an ideal artificial enzymatic cascade system Xiaolong He, a,c Longfei Tan, a Dong Chen,* b Xiaoli Wu, a,c Xiangling Ren,

More information

Promoting effect of polyaniline on Pd catalysts for the formic acid electrooxidation reaction

Promoting effect of polyaniline on Pd catalysts for the formic acid electrooxidation reaction Chinese Journal of Catalysis 6 (5) 94 95 催化学报 5 年第 6 卷第 7 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Promoting effect of polyaniline on catalysts

More information

Low cost and efficient visible light driven microspheres fabricated via an ion exchange route

Low cost and efficient visible light driven microspheres fabricated via an ion exchange route Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 1899 1908 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 11 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Low cost and efficient

More information

Synthesis of renewable diesel with hydroxyacetone and 2-methyl-furan

Synthesis of renewable diesel with hydroxyacetone and 2-methyl-furan Supporting Information Synthesis of renewable diesel with hydroxyacetone and 2-methyl-furan Guangyi Li, a,b Ning Li, a Shanshan Li, a,b Aiqin Wang, a Yu Cong, a Xiaodong Wang a and Tao Zhang a * a State

More information

Tailored temperature window of MnOx CeO2 SCR catalyst by addition of acidic metal oxides

Tailored temperature window of MnOx CeO2 SCR catalyst by addition of acidic metal oxides Chinese Journal of Catalysis 35 (214) 1281 1288 催化学报 214 年第 35 卷第 8 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article (Special Issue on Rare Earth

More information

Electrocatalytic water oxidation by a nickel oxide film derived from a molecular precursor

Electrocatalytic water oxidation by a nickel oxide film derived from a molecular precursor Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 1812 1817 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 11 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Electrocatalytic water

More information

available at journal homepage:

available at  journal homepage: Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 518 528 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 3 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article One pot synthesis of ordered

More information

Supporting Information:

Supporting Information: Supporting Information: In Situ Synthesis of Magnetically Recyclable Graphene Supported Pd@Co Core-Shell Nanoparticles as Efficient Catalysts for Hydrolytic Dehydrogenation of Ammonia Borane Jun Wang,

More information

Facile Synthesis and Catalytic Properties of CeO 2 with Tunable Morphologies from Thermal Transformation of Cerium Benzendicarboxylate Complexes

Facile Synthesis and Catalytic Properties of CeO 2 with Tunable Morphologies from Thermal Transformation of Cerium Benzendicarboxylate Complexes Electronic Supplementary Information Facile Synthesis and Catalytic Properties of CeO 2 with Tunable Morphologies from Thermal Transformation of Cerium Benzendicarboxylate Complexes Yuhua Zheng, Kai Liu,

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for RSC Advances. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014 Supporting Information Au nanoparticles supported on magnetically separable Fe 2 O 3 - graphene

More information

Synthesis of FER zeolite with piperidine as structure directing agent and its catalytic application

Synthesis of FER zeolite with piperidine as structure directing agent and its catalytic application Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 1880 1887 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 11 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Synthesis of FER zeolite

More information

Recent advances in naphtha catalytic cracking by nano ZSM 5: A review

Recent advances in naphtha catalytic cracking by nano ZSM 5: A review Chinese Journal of Catalysis 37 (2016) 671 680 催化学报 2016 年第 37 卷第 5 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Review Recent advances in naphtha

More information

Hydrothermal Synthesis of H 3 PW 12 O 40 /TiO 2 Nanometer Photocatalyst and Its Catalytic Performance for Methyl Orange

Hydrothermal Synthesis of H 3 PW 12 O 40 /TiO 2 Nanometer Photocatalyst and Its Catalytic Performance for Methyl Orange CHEM. RES. CHINESE UNIVERSITIES 2012, 28(3), 366 370 Hydrothermal Synthesis of H 3 PW 12 O 40 /TiO 2 Nanometer Photocatalyst and Its Catalytic Performance for Methyl Orange FENG Chang-gen * and SHANG Hai-ru

More information

Simple synthesis of sub nanometer Pd clusters: High catalytic activity of Pd/PEG PNIPAM in Suzuki reaction

Simple synthesis of sub nanometer Pd clusters: High catalytic activity of Pd/PEG PNIPAM in Suzuki reaction Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 651 657 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 4 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Simple synthesis of sub

More information

Carbon film encapsulated Fe2O3: An efficient catalyst for hydrogenation of nitroarenes

Carbon film encapsulated Fe2O3: An efficient catalyst for hydrogenation of nitroarenes Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 1909 1917 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 11 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Carbon film encapsulated

More information

Bimetallic synergistic Au/CuO-hydroxyapatite catalyst for aerobic oxidation of alcohols

Bimetallic synergistic Au/CuO-hydroxyapatite catalyst for aerobic oxidation of alcohols Chinese Journal of Catalysis 36 (2015) 1358 1364 催化学报 2015 年第 36 卷第 8 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Bimetallic synergistic Au/CuO-hydroxyapatite

More information

Preparation of three dimensional interconnected mesoporous anatase TiO2 SiO2 nanocomposites with high photocatalytic activities

Preparation of three dimensional interconnected mesoporous anatase TiO2 SiO2 nanocomposites with high photocatalytic activities Chinese Journal of Catalysis 37 (2016) 846 854 催化学报 2016 年第 37 卷第 6 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article (Special Issue on Environmental

More information

Macroporous bubble graphene film via template-directed ordered-assembly for high rate supercapacitors

Macroporous bubble graphene film via template-directed ordered-assembly for high rate supercapacitors Electronic Supporting Information for Macroporous bubble graphene film via template-directed ordered-assembly for high rate supercapacitors Cheng-Meng Chen* a, Qiang Zhang b, Chun-Hsien Huang c, Xiao-Chen

More information

Effect of methanol concentration on oxygen reduction reaction activity of Pt/C catalysts

Effect of methanol concentration on oxygen reduction reaction activity of Pt/C catalysts Chinese Journal of Catalysis 34 (213) 115 1111 催化学报 213 年第 34 卷第 6 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Effect of methanol concentration

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Bamboo-Like Carbon Nanotube/Fe 3 C Nanoparticle Hybrids and Their Highly Efficient Catalysis for Oxygen Reduction Wenxiu Yang a,b, Xiangjian Liu a,b, Xiaoyu Yue a,b, Jianbo Jia,

More information

Facile synthesis of nanostructured CuCo 2 O 4 as a novel electrode material for high-rate supercapacitors

Facile synthesis of nanostructured CuCo 2 O 4 as a novel electrode material for high-rate supercapacitors Facile synthesis of nanostructured CuCo 2 O 4 as a novel electrode material for high-rate supercapacitors Afshin Pendashteh, a Mohammad S. Rahmanifar, b Richard B. Kaner, c and Mir F. Mousavi* a,c a Department

More information

Source mechanism solution

Source mechanism solution Source mechanism solution Contents Source mechanism solution 1 1. A general introduction 1 2. A step-by-step guide 1 Step-1: Prepare data files 1 Step-2: Start GeoTaos or GeoTaos_Map 2 Step-3: Convert

More information

dissolved into methanol (20 ml) to form a solution. 2-methylimidazole (263 mg) was dissolved in

dissolved into methanol (20 ml) to form a solution. 2-methylimidazole (263 mg) was dissolved in Experimental section Synthesis of small-sized ZIF-8 particles (with average diameter of 50 nm): Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (258 mg) was dissolved into methanol (20 ml) to form a solution. 2-methylimidazole (263 mg) was

More information

Synthesis of Mesoporous ZSM-5 Zeolite Crystals by Conventional Hydrothermal Treatment

Synthesis of Mesoporous ZSM-5 Zeolite Crystals by Conventional Hydrothermal Treatment Synthesis of Mesoporous ZSM-5 Zeolite Crystals by Conventional Hydrothermal Treatment Ming Zhou,* Ali A. Rownaghi, and Jonas Hedlund,* *Chemical Technology, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå,

More information

EFFECTS OF ADDITIONAL GASES ON THE CATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF N20 OVER Cu-ZSM-5

EFFECTS OF ADDITIONAL GASES ON THE CATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF N20 OVER Cu-ZSM-5 Jointly published by Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam and Akad~miai Kiad6, Budapest RKCL3296 Reaet.Kinet. Catal.Lett. Vol. 64, No. 2, 215-220 (1998) EFFECTS OF ADDITIONAL GASES ON THE CATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION

More information

Highlights of the major progress in single atom catalysis in 2015 and 2016

Highlights of the major progress in single atom catalysis in 2015 and 2016 Chinese Journal of Catalysis 38 (2017) 1498 1507 催化学报 2017 年第 38 卷第 9 期 www.cjcatal.org available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Minireview (Special Issue of the

More information

Ultrasonic assisted fabrication and catalytic activity of CeZrAl oxide supported Pd for the purification of gasohol exhaust

Ultrasonic assisted fabrication and catalytic activity of CeZrAl oxide supported Pd for the purification of gasohol exhaust Chinese Journal of Catalysis 34 (2013) 751 757 催化学报 2013 年第 34 卷第 4 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Ultrasonic assisted fabrication

More information

INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE CHEMISTRY PROPERTIES OF Ga 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 CATALYSTS BY FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY

INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE CHEMISTRY PROPERTIES OF Ga 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 CATALYSTS BY FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE CHEMISTRY PROPERTIES OF Ga 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 CATALYSTS BY FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY Balázs Szabó 1, Tamás Ollár 1, Ákos Rédey 1 1 Department of Environmental Engineering and Chemical Technology,

More information

Effect of sulfur doping on the photocatalytic performance of BiVO4 under visible light illumination

Effect of sulfur doping on the photocatalytic performance of BiVO4 under visible light illumination Chinese Journal of Catalysis 34 (2013) 1617 1626 催化学报 2013 年第 34 卷第 8 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Effect of sulfur doping on

More information

Sub-10-nm Au-Pt-Pd Alloy Trimetallic Nanoparticles with. High Oxidation-Resistant Property as Efficient and Durable

Sub-10-nm Au-Pt-Pd Alloy Trimetallic Nanoparticles with. High Oxidation-Resistant Property as Efficient and Durable Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for ChemComm. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014 Electronic Supplementary Information Sub-10-nm Au-Pt-Pd Alloy Trimetallic Nanoparticles with High

More information

Supported Au Ni nano alloy catalysts for the chemoselective hydrogenation of nitroarenes

Supported Au Ni nano alloy catalysts for the chemoselective hydrogenation of nitroarenes Chinese Journal of Catalysis 36 (2015) 160 167 催化学报 2015 年第 36 卷第 2 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Supported Au Ni nano alloy catalysts

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Microwave-Activated CuO Nanotip/ZnO Nanorod Nanoarchitectures for Efficient Hydrogen Production Yan-Gu Lin a, Yu-Kuei Hsu b, San-Yuan Chen a, Li-Chyong Chen* c, and Kuei-Hsien Chen*

More information

One-pot Solvent-free Synthesis of Sodium Benzoate from the Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol over Novel Efficient AuAg/TiO 2 Catalysts

One-pot Solvent-free Synthesis of Sodium Benzoate from the Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol over Novel Efficient AuAg/TiO 2 Catalysts Electronic Supplementary Information One-pot Solvent-free Synthesis of Sodium Benzoate from the Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol over Novel Efficient AuAg/TiO 2 Catalysts Ying Wang, Jia-Min Zheng, Kangnian

More information

Pt-Ni alloyed nanocrystals with controlled archtectures for enhanced. methanol oxidation

Pt-Ni alloyed nanocrystals with controlled archtectures for enhanced. methanol oxidation Supplementary Information Pt-Ni alloyed nanocrystals with controlled archtectures for enhanced methanol oxidation Xiao-Jing Liu, Chun-Hua Cui, Ming Gong, Hui-Hui Li, Yun Xue, Feng-Jia Fan and Shu-Hong

More information

Synthesis of 12 nm iron oxide nanoparticles

Synthesis of 12 nm iron oxide nanoparticles Electronic Supporting Information for Dendronized iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agent for MRI Brice Basly, a Delphine Felder-Flesch,* a Pascal Perriat, b Claire Billotey, c Jacqueline Taleb, c Geneviève

More information

Atomic & Molecular Clusters / 原子分子团簇 /

Atomic & Molecular Clusters / 原子分子团簇 / Atomic & Molecular Clusters / 原子分子团簇 / 王金兰 Email: jlwang@seu.edu.cn Department of Physics Southeast University What is nanometer? Nano is Small (10-7 --10-9 m; 1-100 nm) 10 0 m 10-1 m 10-2 m 10-3 m 10-4

More information

A Robust and Highly Active Copper-Based Electrocatalyst. for Hydrogen Production at Low Overpotential in Neutral

A Robust and Highly Active Copper-Based Electrocatalyst. for Hydrogen Production at Low Overpotential in Neutral Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for ChemComm. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015 Supporting information A Robust and Highly Active Copper-Based Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Production

More information

The preload analysis of screw bolt joints on the first wall graphite tiles in East

The preload analysis of screw bolt joints on the first wall graphite tiles in East The preload analysis of screw bolt joints on the first wall graphite tiles in East AO ei( 曹磊 ), SONG Yuntao( 宋云涛 ) Institute of plasma physics, hinese academy of sciences, Hefei 230031, hina Abstract The

More information

Facile preparation of N doped carbon nanofiber aerogels from bacterial cellulose as an efficient oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalyst

Facile preparation of N doped carbon nanofiber aerogels from bacterial cellulose as an efficient oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalyst Chinese Journal of Catalysis 35 (214) 877 883 催化学报 214 年第 35 卷第 6 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article (Special Issue on Carbon in Catalysis)

More information

Urchin-like Ni-P microstructures: A facile synthesis, properties. and application in the fast removal of heavy-metal ions

Urchin-like Ni-P microstructures: A facile synthesis, properties. and application in the fast removal of heavy-metal ions SUPPORTING INFORMATION Urchin-like Ni-P microstructures: A facile synthesis, properties and application in the fast removal of heavy-metal ions Yonghong Ni *a, Kai Mi a, Chao Cheng a, Jun Xia a, Xiang

More information

Catalytic performance of Pt Rh/CeZrYLa+LaAl with stoichiometric natural gas vehicles emissions

Catalytic performance of Pt Rh/CeZrYLa+LaAl with stoichiometric natural gas vehicles emissions Chinese Journal of Catalysis 36 (15) 29 298 催化学报 15 年第 36 卷第 3 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Catalytic performance of Pt Rh/CeZrYLa+LaAl

More information

Electronic Supplementary Information

Electronic Supplementary Information Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for ChemComm. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016 Electronic Supplementary Information Metal-Organic Framework-Templated Synthesis of γ-fe 2 O 3

More information

Synthesis of isoalkanes over core (Fe-Zn-Zr)-shell (zeolite) catalyst

Synthesis of isoalkanes over core (Fe-Zn-Zr)-shell (zeolite) catalyst Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for ChemComm. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016 Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) Synthesis of isoalkanes over core (Fe-Zn-Zr)-shell (zeolite)

More information

Characterization of V2O5/MoO3 composite photocatalysts prepared via electrospinning and their photodegradation activity for dimethyl phthalate

Characterization of V2O5/MoO3 composite photocatalysts prepared via electrospinning and their photodegradation activity for dimethyl phthalate Chinese Journal of Catalysis 36 (2015) 2194 2202 催化学报 2015 年第 36 卷第 12 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article (Special Issue on Photocatalysis)

More information

DEVELOPMENT OF CATALYSTS FOR ETHANE EPOXIDATION REACTION. Keywords: Ethylene oxide, Partial oxidation, Ethane epoxidation, Second metal.

DEVELOPMENT OF CATALYSTS FOR ETHANE EPOXIDATION REACTION. Keywords: Ethylene oxide, Partial oxidation, Ethane epoxidation, Second metal. DEVELOPMENT OF CATALYSTS FOR ETHANE EPOXIDATION REACTION Kingsuda Mahunee a, Krittiya Pornmai a, Sitthiphong Pengpanich c, Sumaeth Chavade j* a,b a The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn

More information

A novel Ag 3 AsO 4 visible-light-responsive photocatalyst: facile synthesis and exceptional photocatalytic performance

A novel Ag 3 AsO 4 visible-light-responsive photocatalyst: facile synthesis and exceptional photocatalytic performance Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Chemical Communications Supporting Information A novel Ag 3 AsO 4 visible-light-responsive photocatalyst: facile synthesis and exceptional photocatalytic performance

More information

Seed induced synthesis of small crystal TS 1 using ammonia as alkali source

Seed induced synthesis of small crystal TS 1 using ammonia as alkali source Chinese Journal of Catalysis 36 (2015) 1928 1935 催化学报 2015 年第 36 卷第 11 期 www.chxb.cn available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnjc Article Seed induced synthesis of

More information

Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI)

Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) Electronic Supplementary material (ESI) for Nanoscale Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials by Using Metal-Cyanide Coordination Polymers and Their Lithium Storage

More information

Electronic Supplementary Information. Semicondutor-Redox Catalysis Promoted by Metal-Organic Frameworks for CO 2

Electronic Supplementary Information. Semicondutor-Redox Catalysis Promoted by Metal-Organic Frameworks for CO 2 Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. This journal is the Owner Societies 214 Electronic Supplementary Information Semicondutor-Redox Catalysis Promoted by Metal-Organic

More information

Ionic Conductivity and Solid Electrolytes

Ionic Conductivity and Solid Electrolytes Ionic Conductivity and Solid Electrolytes Ceramic insulators The primary function of insulation in electrical circuits is physical separation of conductors and regulation or prevention of current flow

More information

Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) Green synthesis of shape-defined anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals wholly exposed with {001} and {100} facets

Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) Green synthesis of shape-defined anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals wholly exposed with {001} and {100} facets Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) Green synthesis of shape-defined anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals wholly exposed with {001} and {100} facets Lan Wang, a Ling Zang, b Jincai Zhao c and Chuanyi Wang*

More information

Concurrent Engineering Pdf Ebook Download >>> DOWNLOAD

Concurrent Engineering Pdf Ebook Download >>> DOWNLOAD 1 / 6 Concurrent Engineering Pdf Ebook Download >>> DOWNLOAD 2 / 6 3 / 6 Rozenfeld, WEversheim, HKroll - Springer.US - 1998 WDuring 2005 年 3 月 1 日 - For.the.journal,.see.Conc urrent.engineering.(journal)verhagen

More information