2 Valence Electrons are? The electrons responsible for the chemical properties of atoms, and are those in the outer energy level. Valence electrons - The s and p electrons in the outer energy level highest occupied energy level Core electrons are those in the energy levels below.
3 Keeping Track of Electrons Atoms in the same column (family)... 1) Have the same outer electron configuration. 2) Have the same number of valence electrons. The number of valence electrons are easily determined. It is the group number for a representative element Group 2A: Be, Mg, Ca, etc, 2 valence electrons
4 Electron Dot diagrams are A way of showing & keeping track of valence electrons. How to write them? Write the symbol - it represents the nucleus and inner (core) electrons Put one dot for each valence electron (8 maximum) They don t pair up until they have to (Hund s rule) X
5 The Electron Dot diagram for Nitrogen Nitrogen has 5 valence electrons to show. First we write the symbol. Then add 1 electron at a time to each side. Now they are forced to pair up. N
6 The Octet Rule Noble gases are unreactive in chemical reactions In 1916, Gilbert Lewis used this fact to explain why atoms form certain kinds of ions and molecules The Octet Rule: in forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve a noble gas configuration; 8 in the outer level is stable Each noble gas (except He, which has 2) has 8 electrons in the outer level
7 Atoms and Ions Atoms are electrically neutral. Because there is the same number of protons (+) and electrons (-). Ions are atoms, or groups of atoms, with a charge (positive or negative) They have different numbers of protons and electrons. Only electrons can move, and ions are made by gaining or losing electrons.
8 A positive ion. A Cation is Formed by losing electrons. More protons than electrons. Metals can lose electrons K + 1 Has lost one electron (no name change for positive ions) Ca +2 Has lost two electrons
9 Formation of Cations If we look at the electron configuration, it makes sense to lose electrons: Na 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 1 valence electron Na + 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 This is a noble gas configuration with 8 electrons in the outer level.
10 Electron Dots For Cations Metals will have few valence electrons (usually 3 or less); calcium has only 2 valence electrons Ca
11 Electron Dots For Cations Metals will lose the valence electrons Ca
12 Electron Dots For Cations Metals will lose the valence electrons to forming positive ions Ca +2 This is named the calcium ion. NO DOTS are now shown for the cation.
13 A negative ion. An Anion is Has gained electrons. Nonmetals can gain electrons. Charge is written as a superscript on the right. F -1 O -2 Has gained one electron (-ide is new ending = fluoride) Gained two electrons (oxide)
14 Electron Configurations: Anions S = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 4 = 6 valence electrons S -2 = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 = noble gas configuration. Halide ions are ions from chlorine or other halogens that gain electrons
15 Electron Dots For Anions Nonmetals will have many valence electrons (usually 5 or more) They will gain electrons to fill outer shell. P -3 (This is called the phosphide ion, and should show dots)
16 Ionic Bonding/Compounds Anions and cations are held together by opposite charges (+ and -) Ionic compounds are called salts. Simplest ratio of elements in an ionic compound is called the formula unit. The bond is formed through the transfer of electrons (lose and gain) Electrons are transferred to achieve noble gas configuration.
17 Ionic Bonding Na Cl The metal (sodium) tends to lose its one electron from the outer level. The nonmetal (chlorine) needs to gain one more to fill its outer level
18 Ionic Bonding Na + Cl - Note: Remember that NO DOTS are now shown for the cation!
19 Ionic Bonding Lets do an example by combining calcium and phosphorus: Ca P All the electrons must be accounted for, and each atom will have a noble gas configuration (which is stable).
20 Ionic Bonding Ca P
21 Ionic Bonding Ca +2 P
22 Ionic Bonding Ca +2 P Ca
23 Ionic Bonding Ca +2 P -3 Ca
24 Ionic Bonding Ca +2 P -3 Ca P
25 Ionic Bonding Ca +2 P -3 Ca +2 P
26 Ionic Bonding Ca Ca +2 P -3 Ca + 2 P
27 Ionic Bonding Ca Ca +2 P -3 Ca +2 P
28 Ionic Bonding Ca +2 Ca +2 P -3 Ca +2 P -3
29 Ionic Bonding = Ca 3 P 2 Formula Unit This is a chemical formula, which shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative particle of the substance.
30 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 1A: Lose 1 electron to form 1+ ions H 1+ Li 1+ Na 1+ K 1+ Rb 1+
31 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 2A: Loses 2 electrons to form 2+ ions Be 2+ Mg 2+ Ca 2+ Sr 2+ Ba 2+
32 Predicting Ionic Charges B 3+ Al 3+ Ga 3+ Group 3A: Loses 3 electrons to form 3+ ions
33 Predicting Ionic Charges Neither! Group 4A elements rarely form ions (they tend to share) Group 4A: Do they lose 4 electrons or gain 4 electrons?
34 N 3- P 3- As 3- Predicting Ionic Charges Nitride Phosphide Arsenide Group 5A: Gains 3 electrons to form 3- ions
35 Predicting Ionic Charges O 2- S 2- Se 2- Oxide Sulfide Selenide Group 6A: Gains 2 electrons to form 2- ions
36 Predicting Ionic Charges F 1- Fluoride Br 1- Bromide Cl 1- Chloride I 1- Iodide Group 7A: Gains 1 electron to form 1- ions
37 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 8A: Stable noble gases do not form ions!
38 Predicting Ionic Charges Group B elements: Many transition elements have more than one possible oxidation state. Note the use of Roman Iron (II) = Fe 2+ numerals to show charges Iron (III) = Fe 3+
39 Polyatomic ions are Groups of atoms that stay together and have an overall charge, and one name. Usually end in ate or -ite Acetate: C 2 H 3 O 2-1 Nitrate: NO 3-1 Nitrite: NO 2 1- Permanganate: MnO 4 1- Hydroxide: OH 1- and Cyanide: CN 1-
40 Sulfate: SO 4 2- Sulfite: SO 3 2- Polyatomic ions. Carbonate: CO 3 2- Chromate: CrO 4 2- Dichromate: Cr 2 O 7 2- Phosphate: PO 4 3- Phosphite: PO 3 3- Ammonium: NH 4 1+ (One of the few positive polyatomic ions) If the polyatomic ion begins with H, then combine the word hydrogen with the other polyatomic ion present: H 1+ + CO 3 2- HCO 3 1- hydrogen + carbonate hydrogen carbonate ion
41 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Use the criss-cross method to balance subscripts.
42 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Barium nitrate (note the 2 word name) 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including Ba 2+ ( NO -) CHARGES! Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Use the criss-cross method to balance subscripts. Now balanced. Not balanced! = Ba(NO 3 ) 2
43 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Ammonium sulfate (note the 2 word name) 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Use the criss-cross method to balance the subscripts. ( NH + ) 4 SO Now balanced. Not balanced! = (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4
44 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Iron (III) chloride (note the 2 word name) 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Use the criss-cross method to balance the subscripts. Fe 3+ Cl - 3 Now balanced. Not balanced! = FeCl 3
45 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Aluminum sulfide (note the 2 word name) 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Use the criss-cross method to balance the subscripts. Al 3+ S Now balanced. Not balanced! = Al 2 S 3
46 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Magnesium carbonate (note the 2 word name) 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. Mg 2+ CO 3 2- They are balanced! = MgCO 3
47 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Zinc hydroxide (note the 2 word name) 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Use the criss-cross method to balance the subscripts. Zn 2+ ( OH - ) 2 Now balanced. Not balanced! = Zn(OH) 2
48 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Aluminum phosphate (note the 2 word name) 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Al 3+ PO Check to see if charges are balanced. They ARE balanced! = AlPO 4
49 Naming cations Two methods can clarify when more than one charge is possible: 1) Stock system uses roman numerals in parenthesis to indicate the numerical value 2) Classical method uses root word with suffixes (-ous, -ic) Does not give true value
50 Naming cations We will use the Stock system. Cation - if the charge is always the same (like in the Group A metals) just write the name of the metal. Transition metals can have more than one type of charge. Indicate their charge as a roman numeral in parenthesis after the name of the metal
51 Exceptions: Some of the transition metals have only one ionic charge: Do not need to use roman numerals for these: Silver is always 1+ (Ag 1+ ) Cadmium and Zinc are always 2+ (Cd 2+ and Zn 2+ )
52 Practice by naming these: Na +1 Ca +2 Al +3 Fe +2 Pb +2
53 Write symbols for these: Potassium ion Magnesium ion Chromium (VI) ion Barium ion Mercury (II) ion
54 Naming Anions Anions are always the same charge Change the monatomic element ending to ide F -1 a Fluorine atom will become a Fluoride ion.
55 Practice by naming these: Cl -1 N -3 Br -1 O -2
56 Write symbols for these: Sulfide ion Iodide ion Phosphide ion Strontium ion
57 Naming Ionic Compounds 1. Name the cation first, then anion 2. Monatomic cation = name of the element Ca 2+ = calcium ion 3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide Cl - = chloride CaCl 2 = calcium chloride
58 Naming Ionic Compounds (Metals with multiple oxidation states) some metals can form more than one charge (usually the transition metals) use a Roman numeral in their name: PbCl 2 use the anion to find the charge on the cation (chloride is always 1-) Pb 2+ is the lead (II) cation PbCl 2 = lead (II) chloride
59 Things to look for: 1) If cations have ( ), the number in parenthesis is their charge. 2) If anions end in -ide they are probably off the periodic table (Monoatomic) 3) If anion ends in -ate or ite, then it is polyatomic
60 Practice by writing the formula or name as required Iron (II) Phosphate Potassium Sulfide Ammonium Chromate MgSO 4 FeCl 3
61 Properties of Ionic Compounds 1. Are Crystalline solids - a regular repeating 3-D arrangement of ions in the solid Ions are strongly bonded together. Structure is rigid. 2. High melting points 3. Melted ionic compounds conduct electricity.
62 Conducting electricity means allowing charges to move. In a solid, the ions are locked in place. Ionic solids are insulators. When melted, the ions can move around Solid NaCl: must get to about 800 ºC. Dissolved in water, they also conduct (free to move in aqueous solutions)
63 Sodium Chloride Crystal Lattice Ionic compounds organize in a characteristic crystal lattice of alternating positive and negative ions, repeated over and over.
64 Metallic Bonds are How metal atoms are held together in the solid. Metals hold on to their valence electrons very weakly. Think of them as positive ions (cations) floating in a sea of electrons
65 Electrons are free to move through the solid. Metals conduct electricity. Sea of Electrons
66 Metals are: Malleable - Hammered into shape (bendable). Also ductile - drawn into thin wires. Both malleability & ductility explained in terms of mobility of the valence electrons
67 Alloys We use lots of metals every day, but few are pure metals Alloys - are mixtures of 2 or more elements, at least 1 is a metal made by melting a mixture of the ingredients, then cooling Brass: an alloy of Cu and Zn Bronze: Cu and Sn
68 Why use alloys? Properties are often superior to the pure element Sterling silver (92.5% Ag, 7.5% Cu) is harder and more durable than pure Ag, but still soft enough to make jewelry and tableware Steels are very important alloys corrosion resistant, ductility, hardness, toughness, cost
69 More about Alloys Types? a) substitutional alloy- the atoms in the components are about the same size b) interstitial alloy- the atomic sizes quite different; smaller atoms fit into the spaces between larger Amalgam - dental use, contains Hg
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