2 WHAT HAPPENS WHEN AN ACID DISSOLVED IN WATER? Water acts as a Brønsted Lowry base and abstracts a proton (H+) from the acid. As a result, the conjugate base of the acid and a hydronium ion are formed.
3 ACID AND BASE STRENGTH Strong acids are completely dissociated in water. Their conjugate bases are quite weak. Weak acids only dissociate partially in water. Their conjugate bases are weak bases.
4 ACID AND BASE STRENGTH In any acid-base reaction, the equilibrium will favor the reaction that moves the proton to the stronger base. HCl(aq) + H2O(l) + H3O (aq) + Cl (aq) H2O is a much stronger base than Cl, so the equilibrium lies so far to the right K is not measured (K>>1).
5 ACID AND BASE STRENGTH C2H3O2(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + C2H3O2 (aq) Acetate ion is a stronger base than H2O, so the equilibrium favors the left side (K<1).
6 AUTOIONIZATION OF WATER As we have seen, water is amphoteric. In pure water, a few molecules act as bases and a few act as acids. H2O(l) + H2O(l) + H3O (aq) + OH (aq) This is referred to as autoionization.
7 ION-PRODUCT CONSTANT The equilibrium expression for this process is Kc = [H3O+] [OH ] This special equilibrium constant is referred to as the ion-product constant for water, Kw. At 25 C, Kw =
8 PH ph is defined as the negative base-10 logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration. ph = log [H3O+]
9 PH In pure water, Kw = [H3O+] [OH ] = Because in pure water [H3O+] = [OH ], [H3O+] = ( )1/2 =
10 PH Therefore, in pure water, ph = log ( ) = 7.00 An acid has a higher [H3O+] than pure water, so its ph is <7 A base has a lower [H3O+] than pure water, so its ph is >7.
11 OTHER P SCALES The p in ph tells us to take the negative log of the quantity (in this case, hydrogen ions). Some similar examples are poh log [OH ] pkw log Kw
12 Watch This!!! Because [H3O+] [OH ] = Kw = , we know that log [H3O+] + log [OH ] = log Kw = or, in other words, ph + poh = pkw = 14.00
13 HOW DO WE MEASURE PH? For less accurate measurements, one can use Litmus paper Red paper turns blue above ~ph = 8 Blue paper turns red below ~ph = 5 An indicator
14 HOW DO WE MEASURE PH? For more accurate measurements, one uses a ph meter, which measures the voltage in the solution.
15 STRONG ACIDS You will recall that the seven strong acids are HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO3, and HClO4. These are, by definition, strong electrolytes and exist totally as ions in aqueous solution. For the monoprotic strong acids, [H3O+] = [acid].
16 STRONG BASES Strong bases are the soluble hydroxides, which are the alkali metal and heavier alkaline earth metal hydroxides (Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+). Again, these substances dissociate completely in aqueous solution.
17 EXAMPLE OF STRONG ACIDS HCl HBr HI HClO4 HClO3 HNO3 H2SO4
18 EXAMPLES OF STRONG BASES LiOH NaOH KOH RbOH CsOH Ca(OH)2 Sr(OH)2 Ba(OH)2 It is helpful to correlate the common strong bases with the location on the periodic table. Where are they located?
19 NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS OBJECTIVES: Explain how acid-base titration is used to calculate the concentration of an acid or a base.
20 ACID-BASE REACTIONS Acid + Base Water + Salt Properties related to every day: antacids depend on neutralization farmers adjust the soil ph Baking powder human body kidney stones from insoluble salts
21 ACID-BASE REACTIONS Neutralization Reaction - a reaction in which an acid and a base react in an aqueous solution to produce a salt and water: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) K2SO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l)
22 TITRATION Titration is the process of adding a known amount of solution of known concentration to determine the concentration of another solution Remember - a balanced equation is a mole ratio The equivalence point is when the moles of hydrogen ions is equal to the moles of hydroxide ions (= neutralized!)
23 TITRATION EQUIVALENCE POINT Refer to the additional page your teacher gave you for extra questions.
24 TITRATION The concentration of acid (or base) in solution can be determined by performing a neutralization reaction An indicator is used to show when neutralization has occurred Often we use phenolphthaleinbecause it is colorless in neutral and acid; turns pink in base
25 STEPS - NEUTRALIZATION REACTION #1. A measured volume of acid of unknown concentration is added to a flask #2. Several drops of indicator added #3. A base of known concentration is slowly added, until the indicator changes color; measure the volume
26 NEUTRALIZATION The solution of known concentration is called the standard solution added by using a buret Continue adding until the indicator changes color called the end point of the titration
27 Problem 1 Suppose 20.0 ml of 5.0 x 10-3M NaOH is required to reach the end point in the titration of 10.0 ml of HCl of unknown concentration. Determine the molarity of HCl.
28 HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) 1 mole NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) 1 mole known: 20 ml of 5.0 x 10-3 M NaOH 10 ml of HCl unknown: M of HCl (0.005 M)(0.020 L) = (M HCl)(0.010 L) M HCl = 0.01 M
29 Problem 2 In a titration, 27.4 ml of M Ba(OH)2 is added to a 20.0 ml of HCl of unknown concentration. Determine the molarity of HCl.
30 2HCl + Ba(OH)2 2 mole BaCl2 + 2H2O 1 mole known: 27.4 ml of M Ba(OH)2 20 ml of HCl unknown: M of HCl (2)( M)( L) = (M HCl)(0.020 L) M HCl = M
31 In Blue book : Problems 11, 15, 24, 25
32 DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS For a generalized acid dissociation, HA(aq) + H2O(l) A (aq) + H3O+(aq) the equilibrium expression would be [H3O+] [A ] Kc = [HA] This equilibrium constant is called the acid-dissociation constant, Ka.
33 DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS The greater the value of Ka, the stronger the acid.
34 CALCULATING KA FROM THE PH The ph of a 0.10 M solution of formic acid, HCOOH, at 25 C is Calculate Ka for formic acid at this temperature. [H3O+] [COO ] We know that Ka = [HCOOH]
35 CALCULATING KA FROM THE PH The ph of a 0.10 M solution of formic acid, HCOOH, at 25 C is Calculate Ka for formic acid at this temperature. To calculate Ka, we need the equilibrium concentrations of all three things. We can find [H3O+], which is the same as [HCOO ], from the ph.
36 CALCULATING KA FROM THE PH ph = log [H3O+] 2.38 = log [H3O+] 2.38 = log [H3O+] = 10log [H3O+] = [H3O+] = [H3O+] = [HCOO ]
37 CALCULATING KA FROM PH Now we can set up a table [HCOOH], M [H3O+], M Initially [HCOO ], M 0 Change = = At Equilibrium
38 CALCULATING KA FROM PH [ ] [4.2 Ka = 10 3] [0.10] =
39 CALCULATING PH FROM KA Calculate the ph of a 0.30 M solution of acetic acid, HC2H3O2, at 25 C. HC2H3O2(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + C2H3O2 (aq) Ka for acetic acid at 25 C is
40 CALCULATING PH FROM KA The equilibrium constant expression is [H3O+] [C2H3O2 ] Ka = [HC2H3O2]
41 CALCULATING PH FROM KA We next set up a table [C2H3O2], M [H3O+], M [C2H3O2 ], M Initially Change x +x +x 0.30 x 0.30 x x At Equilibrium We are assuming that x will be very small compared to 0.30 and can, therefore, be ignored.
42 CALCULATING PH FROM KA Now, 2 (x) = (0.30) ( ) (0.30) = x = x = x
43 CALCULATING PH FROM KA ph = log [H3O+] ph = log ( ) ph = 2.64
44 POLYPROTIC ACIDS Have more than one acidic proton. If the difference between the Ka for the first dissociation and subsequent Ka values is 103 or more, the ph generally depends only on the first dissociation.
45 WEAK BASES Bases react with water to produce hydroxide ion.
46 WEAK BASES The equilibrium constant expression for this reaction is [HB] [OH ] Kb = [B ] where Kb is the base-dissociation constant.
47 WEAK BASES Kb can be used to find [OH ] and, through it, ph.
48 PH OF BASIC SOLUTIONS What is the ph of a 0.15 M solution of NH3? NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH (aq) [NH4+] [OH ] Kb = = [NH3]
49 PH OF BASIC SOLUTIONS Tabulate the data. Initially At Equilibrium [NH3], M [NH4+], M [OH ], M x 0.15 x x
50 PH OF BASIC SOLUTIONS 2 (x) = (0.15) ( ) (0.15) = x = x = x2
52 KA AND KB Ka and Kb are related in this way: Ka Kb = Kw Therefore, if you know one of them, you can calculate the other.
53 REACTIONS OF ANIONS WITH WATER Anions are bases. As such, they can react with water in a hydrolysis reaction to form OH and the conjugate acid: X (aq) + H2O(l) HX(aq) + OH (aq)
54 REACTIONS OF CATIONS WITH WATER Cations with acidic protons (like NH4+) will lower the ph of a solution. Most metal cations that are hydrated in solution also lower the ph of the solution.
55 REACTIONS OF CATIONS WITH WATER Attraction between nonbonding electrons on oxygen and the metal causes a shift of the electron density in water. This makes the O-H bond more polar and the water more acidic. Greater charge and smaller size make a cation more acidic.
56 EFFECT OF CATIONS AND ANIONS 1. An anion that is the conjugate base of a strong acid will not affect the ph. 2. An anion that is the conjugate base of a weak acid will increase the ph. 3. A cation that is the conjugate acid of a weak base will decrease the ph.
57 EFFECT OF CATIONS AND ANIONS 4. Cations of the strong Arrhenius bases will not affect the ph. 5. Other metal ions will cause a decrease in ph. 6. When a solution contains both the conjugate base of a weak acid and the conjugate acid of a weak base, the affect on ph depends on the Ka and Kb values.
58 FACTORS AFFECTING ACID STRENGTH The more polar the H-X bond and/or the weaker the H-X bond, the more acidic the compound. Acidity increases from left to right across a row and from top to bottom down a group.
59 FACTORS AFFECTING ACID STRENGTH In oxyacids, in which an OH is bonded to another atom, Y, the more electronegative Y is, the more acidic the acid.
60 FACTORS AFFECTING ACID STRENGTH For a series of oxyacids, acidity increases with the number of oxygens.
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