# Discovery of electrons

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 This week: What are atoms made of? How do you name compounds and molecules? Dalton s atomic theory 1806 A good theory: Explains all available data Predicts future results Well tested Is usually ignored/disgraced for a while Known natural laws in 1806: Discovery of electrons Law of conservation of mass: Lavoisier 1785 Law of constant composition: 1700 s Law of multiple proportions: Dalton Natural Law: Statement of WHAT happens, not why These laws led to Dalton s Atomic Theory Figure 2.4 The size of an atom Amu: atomic mass unit 1 amu = x g A specific carbon atom has exactly 12 amu All else is relative Figure

2 Sub atomic particles Atoms are really small! Atoms are really small Particle Proton Charge +1 Mass (g) 1.67 x10 24 Mass (amu) Table 2.1 Heaviest atom is only 4x10 22 g Only 1x10 10 m in diameter Electron x x10 4 Can t see with optical microscopes neutron x Gnat sized nucleus here, outer atom at Hwy 1 Atomic Force Microscopy Cu atoms holes Xe atom Fe on Cu Xenon on Nickel Multi-culturalism! 2

3 Making an atomic corral (iron on copper, IBM) Mass spectrometer Mass spectrum of Cl Are all atoms of an element created equally? Mass of Cl is amu from periodic table Figure 2.13 MS leads to discovery of p and n Mass spec Figure 2.14 Average atomic mass similar to GPA calculation 3 unit class = C (2 grade points) 5 unit class = A (4 grade points) Does GPA = 3? Atomic symbols Atomic number = # of protons in nucleus. Mass number = # of p plus n in nucleus At the Earth s surface, 98.93% C with amu 1.070% C with amu Calculate the average mass of C atoms 3

4 px Complete atomic Isotope symbols symbols m ± X is atomic symbol p is atomic number (# of??) m is mass number (# of?? +??) Charge shows result of electrons lost or gained Write atomic symbol for: P, Zn, common ion of Na On Periodic Table 3 Li Atomic # Atomic symbol Atomic mass have the same # p but different # n. # of protons define the element 11 6 C 12 6 C 13 6 C 14 6 C Concept Check-isotopes Can two atoms have the same mass but be different elements? Concept check: atomic symbols How many protons, neutrons and electrons in Phosphorus-31? What is the full atomic symbol for P-31 if it has gained 3 e How many protons, neutrons and electrons in Pu-239? What is the full atomic symbol for a n and 28 e? ion that has Concept check: atomic symbols How many protons, neutrons and electrons in Phosphorus-31? What is the full atomic symbol for P-31 if it has gained 3 e Discovery Radioactivity of Radioactivity Three types of radiation were discovered in the early 1900 s by Marie Curie Henri Becquerel How many protons, neutrons and electrons in Pu-239? What is the full atomic symbol for a 2 + ion that has 45 n and 31 e? Ernest Rutherford 4

5 α particles He nuclei β particles electrons γ rays high Energy X-rays Figure 2.8 Radioactivity is the process of nuclei changing spontaneously into other nuclei Nuclear decay is not affected by Temp, Pressure or time Radiation is useful for sterilization, killing cancer cells, and imaging tissues Relative Penetration power What can we do with atomic masses? α β γ Can be used to calculate relative amounts of a substance What is mass percent of fluoride in NaF? Can be extended to grams also: How many g of Na in 1.00 g NaHCO 3? 5

6 Types of compounds Compounds are two or more atoms bonded together. The chemical formula of a compound indicates which atoms are found in the molecule, and in what proportion they are found. Compounds consisting of are molecular compounds. Compounds consisting of are ionic compounds Molecules that contain two atoms of same element bonded together are called molecules. Molecules and Molecular Compounds diatomics Ionic Compounds Ions are charged atoms or molecules Ionic compounds (such as NaCl) are usually formed between metals and nonmetals. Prediciting Predicting charge Predicting Ionic Charge Figure 2.23 Figure 2.22 Naming ionic compounds Cation (+ ion) name goes first elemental cations are named as element Naming oxo-anion Inorganic Compounds Anion ( ion) goes second replace suffix of element with ide GaAs gallium + arsenic = examples from PT Follow same rules for Polyatomic ions Tranisition metal compounds: use Roman numerals Figure

7 Molecular compounds Molecular compounds exist as individual molecules Molecules stay intact when going from solid to liquid to gas, or when dissolving in a solvent Molecular formulas Molecules and Molecular Molecular Compounds compounds Molecular formula: actual ratio of elements in molecule C 6 H 12 O 6 Empirical formula: smallest whole # ratio of elements Molecules and Molecular Picturing Compounds molecules Rules for naming molecular compounds More metallic element s name comes first Metallic character increases going down or left When in doubt, put carbon first, or oxygen last Add to the 2 nd element s name Use to show how many atoms are in the compound Drop one letter of a-o or o-o, but not i i Examples Figure 2.21 Molecular compound prefixes Examples A compound with 2 N and 3 F Nitrogen is to the left, so elements are in order: Nitrogen fluoride Add prefixes: 7

8 Examples Name: N 8 Cl 7 CBr 4 S 7 O 5 STUDY hours per week Do more than you think you should You CAN succeed! Concept Check Naming Inorganic acids What is formula of hexaphosporus pentaselenide? What is name of O 2 F 5? Acids: a special class of compound, Have H in formula Names of acids are related to the names of anions: -ide becomes hydro-.-ic acid; -ate becomes -ic acid; -ite becomes -ous acid. examples Know methane through hexane: CH 4 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 What is name of this compound: Figure 2.28 CH 3 CH 2 Cl 8

9 Ionic examples Make and name ionic compounds: Na and N Cu 2+ and NO 3 Co 3+ and CO 2 3 K and CN Ca and PO 4 3 Sr and MnO 4 Zn and SO 3 2 Concept Check: Write formulas for the following compounds Iron (II) hydride Lead (IV) phosphate Manganese (II) perchlorate Sodium hypochlorite Beryllium hydroxide Aluminum nitrite Lithium oxalate Magnesium cyanide Chromium (VI) bicarbonate Zinc sulfite 9

### The size of an atom. Discovery of electrons. A good theory: Explains all available data Predicts the future. This week: If you have had chem 10,

This week: What are atoms made of? How do you name compounds and molecules? If you have had chem 10, the Physical Science division really needs FAL leaders. Please see me after class Dalton s atomic theory

### Atomic Theory of Matter

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Learning outcomes: Learn the basic postulates of Dalton s atomic theory. Describe the key experiments that led to the discovery of electrons and the nuclear model

### Chapter 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions. Lecture Presentation. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO

Lecture Presentation Chapter 2 John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Atomic Theory of Matter The theory that atoms are the fundamental building blocks of matter reemerged in

### Atomic Theory of Matter

Atomic Theory of Matter The theory that atoms are the fundamental building blocks of matter John Dalton (1766-1844) Postulates of Dalton s Theory 1) Each element is composed of extremely small particles

### Chapter 2. and Ions. Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten

Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 2 John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Atomic Theory of Matter

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A molecule of water contains hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:8 ratio by mass. This is a statement

### Lecture Presentation. Chapter 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions. James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Presentation Chapter 2 James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT Atomic Theory of Matter The theory that atoms are the fundamental building blocks of matter reemerged in the early nineteenth

### Unit 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Unit 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Upon successful completion of this unit, the students should be able to: 2.1 State and be able to apply the Law of Conservation of Mass, Law of Definite Proportions,

### Ions and Ionic Compounds

Ions and Ionic Compounds Elements combine in a specific ratio to form compounds. Compounds can be categorized as ionic or covalent depending on the type of bond present within the compound. Ionic compounds

### Ionic and Metallic Bonding

Unit 5: Ionic and Metallic Bonding H 2 O Valence Electrons are? The electrons responsible for the chemical properties of atoms, and are those in the outer energy level. Valence electrons - The s and p

### Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Atomic Theory of Matter Postulates of Dalton s Atomic Theory All matter is composed of indivisible atoms. An atom is an extremely small particle of matter that retains its identity

### NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS

NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS 1 WHAT ARE IONIC COMPOUNDS Ionic compounds are formed between elements that are in ionic form. A simpler way of determining whether a compound is ionic is to see if there are any

### Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

hapter 2: Phenomena Phenomena: Some elements, such as A and B, are known to form several compounds. Data on the masses of A and B were collected on different sample sizes of the three compounds. What patterns

### H 2 O. Chapter 9 Chemical Names and Formulas

H 2 O Chapter 9 Chemical Names and Formulas Section 9.1 Naming Ions OBJECTIVES: Identify the charges on monatomic ions by using the periodic table, and name the ions. Section 9.1 Naming Ions OBJECTIVES:

### Chemical Formulas and Chemical Nomenclature. Mr. Matthew Totaro Legacy High School Honors Chemistry

Chemical Formulas and Chemical Nomenclature Mr. Matthew Totaro Legacy High School Honors Chemistry 1 Molecular View of Elements and Compounds 2 Atomic Elements Atomic Elements = elements whose smallest

### Law of Definite Proportion** (Proust): A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass.

# 10 Notes Unit 2: Laws, Properties & Mols Ch. Atoms, Molecules, Ions 5 Chemical Laws: I. Law of Conservation of Mass** (Lavoisier): Mass cannot be created or destroyed. II. III. IV. Law of Definite Proportion**

### Chemical Bonding. Comparison of Properties Ionic Compounds Covalent Compounds Metals

Chemical Bonding Comparison of Properties Ionic Compounds Covalent Compounds Metals Essential Questions Why/How do atoms combine with one another to form the vast array of chemical substances that exist?

### He 1s 2 2 Ne 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 8 = Ar 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 8 = O 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 6 = S 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 4 6 = 2 + 4

Bonding is the joining of two atoms in a stable arrangement. CHAPTER 7: IONIC COMPOUNDS There are two different kinds of bonding: 1. Ionic bonds result from the transfer of electrons from one element to

### Chemical Names and Formulas

Chemical Names and Formulas ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS BONDING AND INTERACTIONS 91 Naming Ions For students using the Foundation edition, assign problems 4, 8 15 Essential Understanding Ions

### Unit 1 Physical Science: Chemical Reactions

Unit 1 Physical Science: Chemical Reactions The physical sciences are concerned with the study of inanimate natural objects. Chemistry is the study of matter, its properties, how and why substances combine

### CP Chemistry Semester 1 Final Test Review

Mass in grams 10 20 30 40 50 CP Chemistry Semester 1 Final Test Review 1. Know the symbol and the power of 10 for the following metric prefixes: A. Mega M 10 6 D. deka da 10 1 G. milli m 10 6 B. kilo k

### Experiment #4. Chemical Nomenclature

Experiment #4. Chemical Nomenclature Many everyday and historically important chemical compounds have common names. For example, water is the common name for H 2 O, baking soda is the common name for NaHCO

### CHAPTER 7: CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. Chemistry 1-2 Enriched Mr. Chumbley

CHAPTER 7: CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS Chemistry 1-2 Enriched Mr. Chumbley SECTION 1: CHEMICAL NAMES AND FORMULAS While the bulk of the content will come from the Naming Chemical Compounds

### Chapter 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chapter 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 2.1 The Atomic Theory of Matter 400-5 BC. Greek philosopher Democritus proposes the idea of matter being made up of small, indivisible particles (atomos). 18th Century.

### Unit 7. Bonds and Naming

Unit 7 Bonds and Naming I. Ionic Bonds Positive ion is attracted to a negative ion; usually a metal & a nonmetal Ionic compound: a substance that has ionic bonds Cation: positive ion Anion: negative ion

### Chapter 5: Molecules and Compounds

C h e m i s t r y 1 2 C h 5 : M o l e c u l e s a n d C o m p o u n d s P a g e 1 Chapter 5: Molecules and Compounds Read Chapter 5 Check for MasteringChemistry due dates. Pure Substances and Mixtures:

### 1/28/13. Naming and Writing Formulas > for Ionic Compounds

chemistry 1 of 29 Naming and Writing Formulas A recipe is a formula for the sauce a complete list of ingredients and their proportions. Chemistry also uses formulas. Once you know the rules, you can write

### Chemical Bonding. Chemical Bonds. Metals, Ions, or Molecules. All Matter Exists as Atoms,

Chemical Bonding Valence electrons (the outer most electrons) are responsible for the interaction between atoms when forming chemical compounds. Another way to say that is that valence electrons are the

### (COMMON IONS AND THEIR CHARGES QUIZZES BEGIN)

(COMMON IONS AND THEIR CHARGES QUIZZES BEGIN) Chapter 2 Homework Problems on Pages 70 75; Set 1: Watch Khan Academy videos at http://www.khanacademy.org/#chemistry Elements and Atoms, Introduction to the

### Chapter 3 - Molecules, Compounds and Chemical Equations

Chapter 3 - Molecules, Compounds and Chemical Equations Section 3.2 two general types of bonding between atoms found in compounds, ionic and covalent ionic bonds result when electrons have been transferred

### ATOMS AND ELEMENTS. Democritus 400 B.C. Atomic Theory of Matter. Dalton s Postulates (1803) Page 1

ATOMS AND ELEMENTS Democritus 400 BC Believed that matter was composed of invisible particles of matter he called atoms According to Democritus, atoms could not be broken into smaller particles Atomic

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which one of the following is not one of the postulates of Dalton's atomic theory? A)

### Science Class 9 th ATOMS AND MOLECULES. Symbols of Atoms of Different Elements. Atomic Mass. Molecules. Ions. Mole Concept. Finish Line & Beyond

Science Class 9 th ATOMS AND MOLECULES Symbols of Atoms of Different Elements Atomic Mass Molecules Ions Mole Concept Atom An atom is a particle of matter that uniquely defines a chemical element. An atom

### Chapter 2. Law of Definite Proportions. Law of Definite Proportions. Law of Conservation of Mass 10/7/2011 WATER H 2 O

Chapter 2 Fundamental Chemical Laws (2.2) Dalton s Atomic Theory (2.3) Defining the Atom (2.5) Atomic Structure (2.6) Molecules and Ions (2.7) The Periodic Table (2.8) Nomenclature (2.9) Law of Conservation

### 10/1/2017. General Chemistry CHEM 101 (3+1+0) Dr. Mohamed El-Newehy. Chapter 2. Chemistry: Atoms, Molecules and Ions

General Chemistry CHEM 101 (3+1+0) Dr. Mohamed El-Newehy http://fac.ksu.edu.sa/melnewehy Chapter 2 Chemistry: Atoms, Molecules and Ions 1 The Structure of the Atom Dalton s Atomic Theory (1808) o Compounds

### CHEMISTRY 1: Chemical Bonding

CHEMISTRY 1: Chemical Bonding Brown, T.L., LeMay, H.E., and B.E. Bursten. Chemistry: The Central Science 8 th Ed. New Jersey: PrenticeHall, 2002. CHEMICAL BONDS The forces that hold atoms or ions together

### Campbell Chemistry Unit 2: Chapter 4 Atomic Theory and Structure and Ionic Nomenclature

Unit 2: Chapter 4 Atomic Theory and Structure and Ionic Nomenclature Name: Schedule 9/1 Thurs 9/2 Fri In Class Using Lab Equipment Lab Polyatomic Ion and Elements Quiz Ionic nomenclature Homework (to be

### CHAPTER 2: ATOMS, IONS, AND MOLECULES

CHAPTER 2: ATOMS, IONS, AND MOLECULES Problems: 2.1-2.78, 2.81-2.93, 2.94-2.96, 2.111-2.119, 2.121, 2.127 2.1 THE NUCLEAR MODEL OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE Joseph John (J. J.) Thomson (1897) carried out experiments

### World of Chemistry Notes for Students [Chapter 4, page 1] Chapter 4 Nomenclature

World of Chemistry Notes for Students [Chapter 4, page 1] Chapter 4 Nomenclature 1) The Periodic Table Review from Chapter The elements are arranged in rows and columns on the Periodic Table according

### Using the Periodic Table

Quick Review - Dimensional Analysis - Density - Classification of Matter (end of Chapter 1 material) - Fundamental Laws - Dalton s Atomic Theory - Cathode-Ray Tube Experiment (J.J. Thomson) - Plum Pudding

### Part I Assignment: Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table

Chapter 11 The Periodic Table Part I Assignment: Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table Use your periodic table and your new knowledge of how it works with electron configurations to write complete

### The chemical formulas of most of the elements are simply their elemental symbol:

Chemical Formulas A chemical formula gives the numbers and types of atoms that are found in a substance. When the substance is a discrete molecule, then the chemical formula is also its molecular formula.

### Compound Names and Formulas Activity

Name: KEY Class Period: Compound Names and Formulas Activity Part 1 Instructions: Study the following compound formulas and their corresponding names. Then answer the questions below. Questions: 1. What

### Column B 5. periodic table a. A vertical column of elements in the

Unit 4 Assignment Packet Name Period: A1: The Periodic Table: Organizing the Elements A. periodic table B. metals C. nonmetals D. periods E. alkali metals F. halogens G. columns H. periodic law I. alkaline

### Ionic Bonding (Ch.7) Covalent Bonding (Ch.8) Metallic Bonding

Unit 3: Chemical Bonding Outline Ionic Bonding (Ch.7) Valence electrons Positive and negative ions and transition metal ions Ionic bonding: Charge on compounds Ionic compounds characteristics Writing ionic

### Regents review Atomic & periodic

2011-2012 1. The diagram below represents the nucleus of an atom. What are the atomic number and mass number of this atom? A) The atomic number is 9 and the mass number is 19. B) The atomic number is 9

### ATOMS, MOLECULES AND IONS

2 ATOMS, MOLECULES AND IONS LECTURE NOTES Students find this material relatively easy to assimilate; it s almost entirely qualitative. On the other hand, there s a lot of memorizing (sorry, learning) to

### Chapter 3. Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations. Chemical Bonds

Lecture Presentation Chapter 3 Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations Chemical Bonds Compounds are composed of atoms held together by chemical bonds. Chemical bonds result from the attractions between

### Naming and Counting Atoms and Molecules. Chemistry--Unit 2

Naming and Counting Atoms and Molecules Chemistry--Unit 2 Masses of 22.4 L O 2, N 2, & HCl N 2 28 g O 2 32 g HCl 36.5 g Observation: At 1 atmosphere pressure and 0 o C, 22.4 L of 3 different gases have

### This exam will be given over 2 days. Part 1: Objectives 1-13 Part 2: Objectives 14-24

Name Hour January Exam Practice A This exam will be given over 2 days. Part 1: Objectives 1-13 Part 2: Objectives 14-24 This practice exam will be graded in the exam portion of the grade book. Objectives

### Chapter 6 Inorganic and Organic Compounds: Names and Formulas

Chapter 6 Inorganic and Organic Compounds: Names and Formulas 6.1 Octet Rule and Ions 1 Octet Rule An octet is 8 valence electrons is associated with the stability of the noble gases does not occur with

### Chemistry Final Exam Review

Chemistry Final Exam Review Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. All of the following are physical properties of matter EXCEPT.

### Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chapter 2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Dalton s Atomic Theory (1808) 1. Elements are composed of extremely small

### H+ Au3+ O2- As3-7. Which elements in the periodic table seldom form ions? (HINT: Which elements do not have charges)

Chemistry 20 Science 10 Review Name Date After you complete each section, check your answers with the answer key. If you don't understand the mistakes you made, ask your teacher for help with this section.

### MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE. Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry

MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry What is chemistry? Chemical properties vs. physical properties examples of both States of matter Scientific method Chapter 2 Data Analysis SI measurement

### Chapter Six Chemical Names and Formulas WS C U1C6

Chapter Six Chemical Names and Formulas WS C U1C6 Name Period Section 6.1 Part I: Matching. Match the definition with the term that best correlates to it. No definition will be used more than once. 1.

### Chapter 9 Practice Test

Name: Class: Date: Chapter 9 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ****You need to know all the rules for naming ionic, molecular

### Monatomic ion: single atom with a + or charge. Examples: Na +, Cl -.

Chemistry Lecture #35: Names and Formulas for Ionic Compounds. Monatomic ion: single atom with a + or charge. Examples: Na +, Cl -. Positive monatomic ions, like Na + or Ca 2+ are simply called sodium

### AP CHEMISTRY. Summer Assignment

AP CHEMISTRY Summer Assignment Welcome to AP Chemistry! In order to have a smooth transition, students are expected to come in with some strong background knowledge. These are some of the things you need

### Chapter 8 Nomenclature

8.1 Names of Atoms Chapter 8 Nomenclature Simple neutral atoms with no charge are named as is: Na is sodium atom, Ne is neon atom Know the names and symbols for elements #1-20 and Ba, Co, I, Cu, Fe, Pb,

### CHEM 103 Naming Compounds

CHEM 103 Naming Compounds Lecture Notes February 7, 2006 Prof. Sevian 1 Agenda How we name compounds depends on what kind of compounds they are Ionic compounds Molecular compounds Acids are molecular compounds

### Naming Ionic Compounds with Two Elements

Chapter 6 Lecture Chapter 6 Ionic and Molecular Compounds 6.3 Naming and Writing Ionic Compounds Fifth Edition Naming of Ionic Compounds In the name of an ionic compound, the positive ion (first ion) is

### Occurs when electrons are transferred electrostatic attractions (btw positive & negative atoms)

Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonding Occurs when electrons are transferred from one atom to another, forming two ions The ions stay together because of electrostatic attractions (btw positive & negative atoms)

### Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2 1 Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table Solutions to In-Chapter Problems 2.1 Each element is identified by a one- or two-letter symbol. Use the periodic table to find the symbol for each element.

### Honors Chemistry - Unit 5 Chapter 7 - Nomenclature

Honors Chemistry - Unit 5 Chapter 7 - Nomenclature Unit 5 Packet - Page 1 of 16 Vocab Due: Quiz(zes): 1) Test Date: UT Quest: 2) VOCABULARY: 1) monatomic ion 2) cation 3) anion 4) binary compound 4) ionic

### Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

1. What name is given to the concept that different samples of a given compound always contain the same elements in the same mass ratio? A) Ration Law D) Law of Definite Proportions B) Law of Equality

### Formation of Ions. Ions formed when atoms gain or lose valence e - to achieve a stable octet

Ionic Bonding Formation of Ions Ions formed when atoms gain or lose valence e - to achieve a stable octet Cation Positively charged ion Forms when atom loses electrons Anion negatively charged ion Forms

### Practice Exam 0201 Name: Date:

Practice Exam 0201 Name: Date: 1. Dalton s atomic theory consisted of all the following postulates EXCEPT A) atoms of different elements have different properties. B) elements are composed of indivisible

### Chapter 2: Atoms and Elements

Chapter 2: Atoms and Elements April 2003 Early Ideas about the structure of Matter Ancient Greece Leucippus and Democritus: Proposed that there were many types of atoms, different in shape and size. Aristotle:

### IONIC BONDING. Belton High School

IONIC BONDING Belton High School Chemical Bond Definition a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms Valence electrons are electrons available to form a

### D) A majority of α particles will pass through a thin metal sheet undeflected, while a small percentage scatter wildly.

4. What was the experimental basis for determining that the nucleus occupies a very small fraction of the volume of an atom? A) Neutral particles are emitted when a sheet of beryllium is bombarded with

### Chapter 2. Atoms, Molecules and Ions. 1) Elements composed of minute, indivisible particles called, Atoms

I) Atoms Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules and Ions A) Dalton s Atomic Theory 1) Elements composed of minute, indivisible particles called, Atoms 2) Atoms of an element are identical & different from atoms of

### Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 1. According to the law of definite proportions, A) the ratio of the masses of the elements in a compound is always the same. B) it is not possible for the same two

### 4.1 Structure of the Atom

4.1 Structure of the Atom How do atoms differ from each other? What are atoms composed of? What are the subatomic particles? 2-1 Structure of the Atom Atoms actually are divisible. They are composed of

### A chemical bond is a force that holds two or more atoms together.

Bonding A chemical bond is a force that holds two or more atoms together. Compound two or more elements chemically combined by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons. Molecule a particle made of 2 or more

### Chapter 5. Table of Contents. Section 1 Simple Ions. Section 2 Ionic Bonding and Salts. Section 3 Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds

Ions and Ionic Compounds Table of Contents Section 1 Simple Ions Section 2 Ionic Bonding and Salts Section 3 Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds Section 1 Simple Ions Objectives Relate the electron configuration

### Compounds. Part 1: Types of Compounds & Bonding

Compounds Part 1: Types of Compounds & Bonding Review In their natural state, atoms have no overall charge. 18 Ar Argon 40 Protons = 18 Electrons = 18 This is because the number of protons (+) equals the

### January Semester Exam Practice B This exam will be given over 2 days. Part 1: Objectives 1-13 Part 2: Objectives 14-24

Name Hour January Semester Exam Practice B This exam will be given over 2 days. Part 1: Objectives 1-13 Part 2: Objectives 14-24 This practice exam will be graded in the exam portion of the grade book

### Chemical Nomenclature Chapter 2.5-8

Chemical Nomenclature Chapter 2.5-8 Octet Rule An octet is 8 valence electrons is associated with the stability of the noble gases does not occur with He, which is stable with two valence electrons (duet)

### Write the chemical formulas for these polyatomic ions: 1. sulfate 2. phosphate 3. carbonate 4. hydroxide 5. nitrate 6. ammonium Slide 1of 51

Write the chemical formulas for these polyatomic ions: 1. sulfate 2. phosphate 3. carbonate 4. hydroxide 5. nitrate 6. ammonium 1of 51 Answers: 1. SO 4 2 2. PO 4 3 3. CO 3 2 4. OH 5. NO 3 6. NH 4 + 2of

### NOMENCLATURE AND WRITING FORMULAS

NOMENCLATURE AND WRITING FORMULAS PART I--FORMULAS AND NOMENCLATURE OF IONIC COMPOUND Composed of Cations and Anions. Types of Cations (positive ions): A. Metals lose electrons to form positive ions. These

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Module 2 Practice Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Elements exhibit similar physical and chemical properties. 1) A) on

### 2) Complete the following table. Take into account that all the atoms in it are neutral atoms: Copper Uranium Phosphorus 15 16

1) Describe Thomson's atomic model and draw it. THOMSON (1897): an atom is a solid sphere positively charged matter with embedded. 2) Complete the following table. Take into account that all the atoms

### Gilbert Kirss Foster. Chapter 4. Chemical Bonding. Understanding Climate Change

Gilbert Kirss Foster Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding Understanding Climate Change Chapter Outline 4.1 Types of Chemical Bonds 4.2 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas 4.3 Lewis Structures 4.4 Electronegativity,

### Formula of a Compound

Name Formula of a Compound 1. Useful only if it correctly represents the substance. 2. The composition is determined in chemical analysis. 3. The formula then is derived by atomic theory and chemical bonding

### Note: Silver and Zn are transition elements but make only one charge Therefore they make Type 1 compounds

CHM 1025 C Chap 7 Worksheet Binary Ionic / Type 1 Compounds Are compounds that usually contain a main group metal. Maingroup metals usually form one cation except Pb and Sn Naming of ions according to

### THE BIG IDEA: ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS

HONORS CHEMISTRY - CHAPTER 4 ATOMIC STRUCTURE OBJECTIVES AND NOTES - V10 NAME: DATE: PAGE: THE BIG IDEA: ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS Essential Questions 1. What components make up an atom? 2.

### Description Computer Bonding. Late Lab Stamp (this stamp means you are not qualified to do lab and test corrections) Name: Period:

Chemistry: Hood River Valley High School Unit 4 Note Pack and Goals Name: Period: Unit 4 Metals, Non-Metals, Metalloids, Ions, and Ionic compounds. Unit Goals- As you work through this unit, you should

### Chemistry 9 Weeks Exam Review Guide

Name Date: Chemistry 9 Weeks Exam Review Guide 9 Weeks Exam: Tuesday, October 15 th Topics Covered Unit 1 Measurement: Accuracy & Precision, metric system, Conversions, Significant Figures, Percent Error,

### Chapter 2. Atomic Theory. Atomic Structure

Chapter 2 Atomic Theory A theory (or model) of the way matter works goes back to the ancient Greeks. Two competing theories at that time were the idea that matter is continuous and that matter is composed

### Section 3.1 The Elements

Is Kr the symbol for Kryptonite? Objectives 1. To learn about the relative abundances of the elements 2. To learn the names of some elements 3. To learn the symbols of some elements F is for Fluorine What

### Chemistry CRT Study Guide First Quarter

Number AL COS # 1. #1.0 Classify sodium chloride as an element, mixture, compound, or colloid. Compound 2. #1.0 Classify air as an element, mixture, compound, or colloid. Mixture 3. #1.0 Classify a blueberry

### Chapter 4 Atoms Practice Problems

Chapter 4 Atoms Practice Problems 1) The primary substances of which all other things are composed are A) molecules. B) compounds. C) elements. D) electrons. E) protons. 2) Which of the following is a

### THE CATION MUST ALWAYS BE WRITTEN FIRST

Name Honors Chemistry / / Binary Ionic Compounds An ionic compound is a compound that is formed between a metal and a non-metal. (Metalloids can also be used in ionic compounds, sometimes as cations and

### Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 1. Which of the following pairs of compounds can be used to illustrate the law of multiple proportions? A) NH 4 and NH 4 Cl B) ZnO 2 and ZnCl 2 C) H 2 O and HCl D)

### What particles form the nucleus of an atom? CHEMISTRY OLYMPICS 2nd 6 weeks

CHEMISTRY OLYMPICS 2nd 6 weeks Class Battle Between: Bauer, Cannon, Hermsdorf, Lawton, and Muller What particles form the nucleus of an atom? A) protons and neutrons B) electrons only C) neutrons and electrons

### 4) A specific isotope of an element is known to have 15 protons and 16 neutrons. Which symbol would properly represent this isotope?

CHM1025 Exam 2 Chapter 4 & 5 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) All of the following statements about different elements are true

### Note that the protons and neutrons are each almost 2,000 times more massive than an electron; What is the approximate diameter of an atom?

Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Evolution of Atomic Theory The ancient Greek scientist Democritus is often credited with developing the idea of the atom Democritus proposed that matter was, on