1 The Globally Harmonized System (GHS) for Hazard Classification and Labelling Development of a Worldwide System for Hazard Communication
2 What is the GHS? A common and coherent approach to defining and classifying hazards, and communicating information on labels and safety data sheets. Target audiences include workers, consumers, transport workers, and emergency responders. Provides the underlying infrastructure for establishment of national, comprehensive chemical safety programs.
3 Why is the GHS needed? No country has the ability to identify and specifically regulate every hazardous chemical product. For example, in the United States, there are an estimated 650,000 such products. Adoption of requirements for information to accompany the product helps address protection needs.
4 Why? (cont.) Many different countries have come to the same conclusion about using information dissemination as a regulatory means to address chemical hazards. While similar, they are different enough to require multiple labels and safety data sheets for the same product in international trade.
5 Why? (cont.) Countries with systems have different requirements for hazard definitions as well as information to be included on a label or material safety data sheet. For example, a product may be considered flammable or toxic in one country, but not in another to which it is being shipped.
6 Why? (cont.) These differences impact both protection and trade. In the area of protection, users in countries that don t have specific requirements may see different label warnings or data sheet information for the same chemical.
7 Why? (cont.) In the area of trade, the need to comply with multiple regulations regarding hazard classification and labelling is costly and time-consuming. Small to medium enterprises are effectively precluded from international trade in chemicals due to the regulatory burden of compliance.
8 Benefits of Harmonization Countries, international organizations, chemical producers and users of chemicals all benefit. Enhance protection of humans and environment. Facilitate international trade in chemicals. Reduce need for testing and evaluation. Assist countries and international organizations to ensure the sound management of chemicals.
9 International Mandate An international mandate to harmonize was adopted at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992 in Brazil: A globally-harmonized hazard classification and compatible labelling system, including material safety data sheets and easily understandable symbols, should be available, if feasible, by the year 2000.
10 Major Existing Systems UN Transport Recommendations European Union (EU) Directives on Substances and Preparations Canadian Requirements for Workplace, Consumers and Pesticides US Requirements for Workplace, Consumers and Pesticides
11 Principles Of Harmonization Protections will not be reduced; comprehensibility will be key. All types of chemicals will be covered; will be based on intrinsic properties (hazards) of chemicals. All systems will have to be changed.
12 Process of Harmonization Under the umbrella of the Interorganization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC). Coordinating Group for Harmonization of Chemical Classification Systems (CG/HCCS) managed the process. Technical work divided among international focal points.
13 The Technical Focal Points The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) The UN Committee of Experts for the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UNCETDG) The International Labor Organization (ILO)
14 The Scope of the GHS Covers all hazardous chemical substances, dilute solutions, and mixtures. Pharmaceuticals, food additives, cosmetics and pesticide residues in food will not be covered at the point of intentional intake, but will be covered where workers may be exposed, and in transport.
15 The GHS Elements Classification Criteria Health and Environmental Hazards Physical Hazards Mixtures Hazard Communication Labels Safety Data Sheets
16 Health & Environmental Hazards Acute Toxicity Skin Corrosion/Irritation Serious Eye Damage/Eye Irritation Respiratory or Skin Sensitization Germ Cell Mutagenicity Carcinogenicity Reproductive Toxicity Target Organ Systemic Toxicity Single and Repeated Dose Hazardous to the Aquatic Environment
17 Tiered Approach to Classification Generally use test data for the mixture, when available Use bridging principles, if applicable For health and environmental hazards, estimate hazards based on the known ingredient information
18 Physical Hazards Definitions, test methods and classification criteria for transport were used as a basis for the work since they were already harmonized.
20 Comprehensibility Guiding principles: Information should be conveyed in more than one way. The comprehensibility of the components of the system should take account of existing studies and evidence gained from testing. The phrases used to indicate the degree (severity) of hazard should be consistent across different hazard types.
21 Labels The Working Group identified about 35 different types of information that are currently required on labels by different systems. To harmonize, key information elements needed to be identified. Additional harmonization may occur on other elements in time, in particular for precautionary statements.
22 Key Label Elements Product identifier Supplier identifier Chemical identity Hazard pictograms* Signal words* Hazard statements* Precautionary information *Standardized
23 Pictogram Shape and Colour For transport, pictograms will have the background and symbol colours currently used. For other sectors, pictograms will have a black symbol on a white background with a red diamond frame. A black frame may be used for shipments within one country. Where a transport pictogram appears, the GHS pictogram for the same hazard should not appear.
24 Transport Pictograms
25 GHS Pictograms!
26 Signal Words Danger or Warning Used to emphasize hazard and discriminate between levels of hazard.
27 Hazard Statements A single harmonized hazard statement for each level of hazard within each hazard class Example: Flammable liquids Category 1: Extremely flammable liquid and vapour Category 2: Highly flammable liquid and vapour Category 3: Flammable liquid and vapour Category 4: Combustible liquid
28 Precautionary Information GHS label should include appropriate precautionary information. The GHS document includes examples of precautionary statements which can be used. The intent is to harmonize precautionary statements in the future.
29 Role of the SDS in the GHS The SDS should provide comprehensive information about a chemical substance or mixture. Primary Use: The Workplace Employers and workers use the SDS as a source of information about hazards and to obtain advice on safety precautions.
31 Format: 16 headings (cont.) 9. Physical and chemical properties 10. Stability and reactivity 11. Toxicological information 12. Ecological information 13. Disposal considerations 14. Transport information 15. Regulatory information 16. Other information
32 Confidential Business Information National authorities should establish appropriate mechanisms for CBI protection. CBI will not be harmonized under the GHS. The provisions for CBI protection should not compromise the health and safety of users. CBI claims should be limited to the names of chemicals and their concentrations in mixtures. Mechanisms should be established for disclosure in emergency and non-emergency situations.
33 Status of the GHS Technical work is done. A new UN group has been established to address implementation and maintenance of the GHS. The GHS was adopted in December 2002 in the UN. It will be available for countries to adopt in 2003.
34 Status in the US US agencies with requirements for labels and MSDSs have been actively involved in the development process. Could be adopted either: Legislatively in Congress; or By regulation in each affected agency.
35 Conclusion Development of the GHS has been a long and complicated process. Hopefully, it will be adopted by countries around the world and will achieve the projected benefits for protection and trade.
36 Information Sources OSHA has a web page on the GHS: hazardcommunications/global.html Includes links to the completed GHS document & international organizations.
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