1 OCR 2010 [D/500/7833] OCR is an exempt Charity THIS IS A NEW SPECIFICATION ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY GCE CHEMISTRY A Atoms, Bonds and Groups F321 * OCE / * Candidates answer on the Question Paper OCR Supplied Materials: Data Sheet for Chemistry A (inserted) Other Materials Required: Scientific calculator Thursday 14 January 2010 Morning Duration: 1 hour * F * INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Write your name clearly in capital letters, your Centre Number and Candidate Number in the boxes above. Use black ink. Pencil may be used for graphs and diagrams only. Read each question carefully and make sure that you know what you have to do before starting your answer. Answer all the questions. Do not write in the bar codes. Write your answer to each question in the space provided, however additional paper may be used if necessary. INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question. Where you see this icon you will be awarded marks for the quality of written communication in your answer. This means for example you should: ensure that text is legible and that spelling, punctuation and grammar are accurate so that meaning is clear; organise information clearly and coherently, using specialist vocabulary when appropriate. You may use a scientific calculator. A copy of the Data Sheet for Chemistry A is provided as an insert with this question paper. You are advised to show all the steps in any calculations. The total number of marks for this paper is 60. This document consists of 12 pages. Any blank pages are indicated.
2 2 Answer all the questions. 1 Europium, atomic number 63, is used in some television screens to highlight colours. A chemist analysed a sample of europium using mass spectrometry. The results are shown in Table 1.1 below. isotope relative isotopic mass abundance (%) 151 Eu Eu (a) Define the term relative isotopic mass. Table 1.1.  (b) Using Table 1.1, calculate the relative atomic mass of the europium sample. Give your answer to two decimal places. answer = 
3 (c) Isotopes of europium have differences and similarities. 3 In terms of protons, neutrons and electrons, how is an atom of 151 Eu different from an atom of 153 Eu?...  In terms of protons, neutrons and electrons, how is an atom of 151 Eu similar to an atom of 153 Eu?...  (d) Modern plasma television screens emit light when mixtures of noble gases, such as neon and xenon, are ionised. The first ionisation energies of neon and xenon are shown in the table below. element 1st ionisation energy / kj mol 1 neon xenon Explain why xenon has a lower first ionisation energy than neon..  [Total: 9]
4 2 A student carries out experiments using acids, bases and salts. (a) Calcium nitrate, Ca(NO 3 ) 2, is an example of a salt. 4 The student prepares a solution of calcium nitrate by reacting dilute nitric acid, HNO 3, with the base calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH) 2. Why is calcium nitrate an example of a salt?...  Write the equation for the reaction between dilute nitric acid and calcium hydroxide. Include state symbols....  (iii) Explain how the hydroxide ion in aqueous calcium hydroxide acts as a base when it neutralises dilute nitric acid.... 
5 (b) A student carries out a titration to find the concentration of some sulfuric acid. 5 The student finds that cm 3 of mol dm 3 aqueous sodium hydroxide, NaOH, is neutralised by cm 3 of dilute sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4. H 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) Calculate the amount, in moles, of NaOH used. answer = mol  Determine the amount, in moles, of H 2 SO 4 used. answer = mol  (iii) Calculate the concentration, in mol dm 3, of the sulfuric acid. answer = mol dm 3  (c) After carrying out the titration in (b), the student left the resulting solution to crystallise. White crystals were formed, with a formula of Na 2 SO 4 x H 2 O and a molar mass of g mol 1. What term is given to the x H 2 O part of the formula?...  Using the molar mass of the crystals, calculate the value of x. answer =  [Total: 10]
6 6 3 This question is about different models of bonding and molecular shapes. (a) Magnesium sulfide shows ionic bonding. What is meant by the term ionic bonding?...  Draw a dot-and-cross diagram to show the bonding in magnesium sulfide. Show outer electron shells only.  (b) Dot-and-cross diagrams can be used to predict the shape of covalent molecules. Fluorine has a covalent oxide called difluorine oxide, F 2 O. The oxygen atom is covalently bonded to each fluorine atom. Draw a dot-and-cross diagram of a molecule of F 2 O. Show outer electron shells only. 
7 Predict the bond angle in an F 2 O molecule. Explain your answer  (c) Liquid ammonia, NH 3, and water, H 2 O, both show hydrogen bonding. Draw a labelled diagram to show hydrogen bonding between two molecules of liquid ammonia.  Water has several anomalous properties as a result of its hydrogen bonding. Describe and explain one anomalous property of water which results from hydrogen bonding....  [Total: 13]
8 8 4 Chlorine and bromine are elements in Group 7 of the Periodic Table. (a) Chlorine is used in water treatment. State one advantage and one disadvantage of using chlorine in water treatment. advantage:... disadvantage:  (b) The electron configuration of bromine contains outermost electrons in the 4th shell. Using your knowledge of Group 7 elements, complete the electron configuration of bromine. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6...  (c) Displacement reactions can be used to detect bromide ions in solution. A student has a solution that contains bromide ions. The student carries out the following experiment. Step 1 Step 2 She bubbles some chlorine gas through a sample of the solution. The mixture changes colour. The student then adds an organic solvent, cyclohexane, to the mixture. She shakes the contents and allows the layers to separate. Write the ionic equation for the reaction that takes place in step 1. What colour does the cyclohexane layer turn in step 2?
9 9 (d) Chlorine reacts differently with dilute and concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide. When chlorine reacts with dilute sodium hydroxide, one of the products is sodium chlorate(i). This is the reaction that is used to manufacture bleach. When chlorine is reacted with hot concentrated sodium hydroxide, a different reaction takes place. One of the products is NaCl O 3, used as a weedkiller. In each reaction, chlorine has been both oxidised and reduced. What term is used to describe a redox reaction in which an element is both oxidised and reduced? Write equations for these two reactions of chlorine with sodium hydroxide: equation for reaction with dilute sodium hydroxide, equation for reaction with hot concentrated sodium hydroxide....  (iii) Chlorine forms another chlorate called sodium chlorate(vii), used in the manufacture of matches. Suggest the formula of sodium chlorate(vii). [Total: 10]
10 5 Chemists use the Periodic Table to predict the behaviour of elements. 10 (a) Early attempts at developing a Periodic Table arranged elements in order of increasing atomic mass. State which two elements from the first twenty elements of the modern Periodic Table are not arranged in order of increasing atomic mass. Why does the modern Periodic Table not arrange some elements, such as those in a, in order of increasing atomic mass? (b) Magnesium and strontium are in Group 2 of the Periodic Table. When reacted with oxygen, magnesium forms a white powder called magnesium oxide. Write the equation for the reaction of magnesium with oxygen. Magnesium reacts with dilute acids. Describe what you would expect to see when magnesium ribbon is added to an excess of dilute hydrochloric acid....  (iii) Strontium reacts in a similar way to magnesium. Describe one difference you might observe if strontium, instead of magnesium, was reacted with dilute hydrochloric acid.
11 11 (c) The third period of the Periodic Table features the elements magnesium and chlorine. The table below shows the melting points of these elements. element melting point / C magnesium 650 chlorine 101 Describe the structure and bonding shown by these elements. Use your answer to explain the difference in melting points. In your answer, you should use appropriate technical terms spelt correctly...  TURN OVER FOR PART (d)
12 12 (d) The element strontium forms a nitrate, Sr(NO 3 ) 2, which decomposes on heating as shown below. 2Sr(NO 3 ) 2 (s) 2SrO(s) + 4NO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) Using oxidation numbers, explain why the reaction involves both oxidation and reduction....  A student heats 5.29 g of Sr(NO 3 ) 2 and collects the gas at room temperature and pressure, RTP. 2Sr(NO 3 ) 2 (s) 2SrO(s) + 4NO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) Calculate the volume of gas, in dm 3, obtained by the student at RTP. Molar mass of Sr(NO 3 ) 2 = g mol 1. END OF QUESTION PAPER answer =... dm 3  [Total: 18] Copyright Information OCR is committed to seeking permission to reproduce all third-party content that it uses in its assessment materials. OCR has attempted to identify and contact all copyright holders whose work is used in this paper. To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced in the OCR Copyright Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations, is given to all schools that receive assessment material and is freely available to download from our public website ( after the live examination series. If OCR has unwittingly failed to correctly acknowledge or clear any third-party content in this assessment material, OCR will be happy to correct its mistake at the earliest possible opportunity. For queries or further information please contact the Copyright Team, First Floor, 9 Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 1GE. OCR is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group; Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a