1 Engineering Physics -I (PH 6151) UNIT-V PHOTONICS AND FIBRE OPTICS
2 Syllabus: Lasers Spontaneous and stimulated emission Population Inversion -Einstein s co-efficient (Derivation)- types of lasers-nd-yag,co 2 lasers, semiconductor lasers (Homo and Hetero junction ) industrial and Medical applications. Optical fibre Principle and propagation of light in optical fibre-numerical Aperture and Acceptance angle-types of Optical fibres (material, refractive Index, mode)-attenuation, dispersion and bendingfibre optical communication system (Block diagram) active and passive fibre sensors -Endoscope
3 Learning objective To learn basics of lasers viz., the fundamental theory, conditions for laser action, few types of lasers, laser applications in industry and medicine. Also, to learn the concepts, types and some applications of the optical fibers.
4 Introduction Electromagnetic spectrum Microwaves and MASERS Limits of Masers and Introduction to LASERS 1.Excess of heat production 2. Heat dissipation is less
5 Basics of laser LASER is acronym of expansion Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation If the light passes through the medium, it experiences reflection, refraction and scattering losses. Then, How did the amplification of light appears as laser?
6 Conditions for laser action The medium on which the light propagates should be altered for the following : 1.There must be population inversion (N2>N1) in the atoms of medium 2.The energy density of radiation on the medium should be increased. The ρ(v) is to be increased in optical resonance cavity. 3.The ratio of Einstein s coefficient should be less (A21/B21<) so that more stimulated emission to take place than the spontaneous emission
7 Population inversion
8 Pumping The mechanism involved are: 1.When the medium is exposed to optical radiation for excitation then the mechanism is called Optical pumping 2.If the active medium is subjected to the electric field for increase of electron velocity which also transfers the energy to near by atoms called Electrical discharge pumping. 3. Direct conversion The electric field will be applied on the direct band gap semiconductor, where electrons and holes mix up for recombination and subsequently releases the energy by emission of laser radiation.
9 Pumping 4. Pumping by inelastic collision In an inelastic collision of atoms with electron, one of atom will be excited. The atom simultaneously releases the energy gained in the collision to its neighbor and make it become excited known as pumping by in-elastic collision
10 Excitation, spontaneous emission and stimulated emission
11 Einstein's theory Let the energy levels of a atom be E1 and E2 as lower and Higher respectively. The excitation The rate of excitation from lower level E1 to higher level E2 will be ( B (1) N )
12 B 12 N 1 ( ) Where - a constant depends on excitations/absorption. - Number of atoms per unit volume with E1 energy - Energy density of radiation during the excitation Spontaneous emission The rate of spontaneous emission from E 2 to E 1 (de excitation) is
13 Stimulated emission The rate of stimulated emission from E 2 to E 1 is ' N ( B (3) 21 2 ) (3) 21
14 At thermal equilibrium the rate of excitation = rate of spontaneous emission + rate of stimulated emission, ie.,
15 The constant depends on excitation which is also depends on stimulated emission because both of them are taking place in a controlled manner. Therefore, From Boltzmann s energy distribution law to the dissimilar particles for a system having energy difference between them as
16 hν = E 2 -E 1
18 Significance The ratio of Einstein coefficients have indicate that (A 21 / B 12 ) should be less, which is one of the condition for laser action to be satisfied. Here, B 12 should be more so that the ratio become minimum. Therefore, to obtain the laser action in the active medium one could predict the B 12 value from the above ratio contains Einstein s coefficients.
19 Some Types of Lasers In the present section some types of lasers are presented as below: Nd-YAG laser CO 2 -laser Semiconductor lasers
20 Nd-YAG laser Principle The rare earth Nd metal ion is present in the Yttrium Aluminium Garnet structured mixture (YAG) which requires minimum energy for excitations. Excitation of Nd ion and de excitation causes the laser emission Structure & working
21 Limitation & application 1.The transition from Nd 3+ to Nd 2+ gives IR radiations of 1.06μm wavelength using threshold power in 100 W to get several 100W as output power of radiations. 2.The Nd-YAG laser has 100 ps duration of pulses and intensity as 1016W/cm 2, this has been in the use for industrial applications and laser induced fusion reaction.
22 Principle Carbon di oxide (CO 2 ) laser Each electronic level is splits into various vibrational sublevels and each vibrational levels to rotational sub levels. Thus, energy difference between various electronic levels corresponding to visible and Ultra violet (UV) region. Likewise, energy difference between various vibrational levels to IR region and energy difference between rotational levels to far IR region of the spectrum
23 Structure and working
24 Vibrational modes Energy level diagram
25 Limitation & applications The laser radiation is highly intense in both continuous and pulsed modes with high energy per unit area. CO 2 laser found wide application in material processing and medical applications followed by communication purpose
26 Semiconductor laser Band structure and semiconductor In atomic model, the lower energy levels are equivalent to valence states of electrons from the atoms of semi conductors. The higher energy level are equivalent to conduction states of electrons from the atoms of semiconductor.
27 Principle When p-type semi conductor fused over n-type, the p-n junction will be formed. Applying electric field on the junction causes acceleration of charges and mixing of one over the other called recombination in semiconductors. The energy from recombination has been used for driving of electrons in p-n junction to p-type and holes in p-n junction to N-type, where the diode functions in forward bias is called rectifier action
28 The energy from recombination get enhanced and in turn generates light radiation from p-n junction of diode function in forward bias is called laser action from semi conductor diode Types of Semi conductor lasers Homo junction semi conductor laser Hetro junction semi conductor laser
29 Homo junction If the same semiconductor of p-type and n-type are fused together to get p-n junction, then it is homo junction laser diode. Hetro junction If metal with semiconductors of two different materials of p-type and n-type are fused together to get p-n junction, with third material at the junction forms the diode called Hetro junction laser diode.
30 Structure of homo junction Ga-As homo junction laser diode can be formed by doping Ga p-type semiconductor on one side and n- type on other, so that p-n junction could be formed. The p-n junction is the active medium and the junction has been metallized on outer surface using aluminium mirror for resonance cavity where the energy density of radiation enhances by back and forth reflection. The structure of homo junction diode laser is as shown below:
31 Geometrical structure Band structure
32 Structure of Hetero junction
33 Applications of lasers-industries Material processing -Welding Cutting
34 Vaporizing and deposition Laser can be used to vaporizing of materials and also used for deposition on substrate. Some pre selected area of material may be evaporated or evaporatrant may be located closed to the substance. Brittle material like rock marble etc., can be fractured using laser beams. Such technique finds application in rock crushing and boring
35 Laser in Medicine Mechanism of visuals & Retinal repair On the part of Cornea and the lens at the back of the human eye the light sensitive elements are present called Retina. When the light falls on a lens and retina, the photosensitive cells present on retina converts light in to electrical signal and the optical nerve carries the signal to brain. The resulting is the mechanism of visuals
36 Retinal treatment using laser Due to some diseases or impact, the retina could detach and created partial blindness. Before the application of laser therapy, the Xenon lamp was in use to attach the retina The unique application of laser is to attach the retina, where laser can be used to focus the small spot of light precisely. The time involved is also extremely small in the order of 300usec. at 1J of energy.
37 Laser for cancer treatment Lasers are used extensively in the cancer treatment. In laboratories the Amelanotic melanoma was given to the lab animals and ruby laser radiation was administered for complete tumor treatment which disappeared in 30days
38 lasers in Holography A Photography is two dimensional recording of three dimensional scenes. Since, the photo sensitive material is coated on to photo film which could record intensity variations and does not respond to phase distribution. Since the intensity variations are alone recorded, the 3dimesion features is lost.
39 Recording of Hologram -Principle The phase distribution was introduced during the record i,e one wave from the object (object wave ) superimposed on to a reference wave. The two waves interfere in the plane of recording medium and produce interference fringes. This called recording process.
40 These fringes are depending on object and recording medium which records the intensity distribution with phase, hence three dimensional images are formed as in Fig.
41 Reconstruction of Hologram The line -holography Before the use of laser in the mixing of reference wave to object wave both of them should be almost parallel and traversed path should be equal called line- holograph. One of the basic requirements of good hologram is the presence of large coherent length. If the source is discharge lamp having small coherent length where, the interference wave forms the virtual and real images along the same direction and causes unfocussed real image in the presence of virtual image.
43 Off axis holography using laser To over come defect of line holograph an off axis holograph was introduced followed by present day laser based holography