MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 5: RBS. Byungha Shin Dept. of MSE, KAIST

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 5: RBS. Byungha Shin Dept. of MSE, KAIST"

Transcription

1 2015 Fall Semester MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 5: RBS Byungha Shin Dept. of MSE, KAIST 1

2 Course Information Syllabus 1. Overview of various characterization techniques (1 lecture) 2. Chemical analysis techniques (7 8 lectures) 2.1. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) 2.2. Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) 2.3. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) 2.4. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) 3. Ion beam based techniques (4 lecture) 3.1. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) 3.2. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) Mid-term Exam 1 (30%) 4. Diffraction and imaging techniques (6 7 lectures) 4.1. Basic diffraction theory 4.2. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) & X-ray Reflectometry (XRR) 4.3. Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED) & Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) 4.3. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) & EDS 4.4. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Mid-term Exam 2 (30%) 5. Scanning probe techniques (2 lectures) 5.1. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) & associated techniques 5.2. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)? 6. Summary: Examples of real materials characterization (1 lecture) Final Exam (40%)

3 Course Information Exams & Make-up Class Lecture 9 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lecture 10 Lecture 11 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 No Lecture No Lecture Mid exam 1? Mid exam 1? Mid-term exam period No Lecture No Lecture Mid exam 2? Mid exam 2? Lecture 17 Lecture 18 No Lecture Make-up Lecture 12 Lecture 1 (7 pm)? Make-up Lecture (7 pm)? Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lecture 21 Lecture 22 Final exam period Final exam Mid-term exam 1: 10/13 (Tue) or 10/15 (Thurs) Mid-term exam 2: 11/17 (Tue) or 11/19 (Thurs) Final exam: 12/17 (Thurs), 09:00 11:45 Make-up class 1: 7 pm on 10/28 (Wed) or 10/30 (Fri) Possibly second make-up class in Nov or Dec

4 RBS: Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry Copyright 2007 Evans Analytical Group RBS accurately measures the composition and depth profile of thin films, including hydrogen. Quantitative? Yes Destructive? No Detection limits? at% Lateral resolution (Probe size)? 1 mm Chemical bonding? No Depth resolution? 5 20 nm ~

5 Key Applications & Instrument Configuration Determine thickness and composition of thin films Measure hydrogen Determine film density from a film of known thickness Assess damage to crystal structure as a result of processing Quantification of films on whole wafers (up to 300 mm) Qualify & monitor deposition systems (also fab-to-fab comparisons) Copyright 2007 Evans Analytical Group MeV ions from an electrostatic accelerator are focused on a sample in a vacuum chamber for analysis. Typically, 2 MeV He ++ ions are used.

6 Fundamental Principles Kinematics of elastic scattering Conservation of energy and momentum 1 2 MM 1vv 2 = 1 2 MM 1vv MM 2 2vv 2 MM 1 vv = MM 1 vv 1 cos θθ + MM 2 vv 2 cos φφ 0 = MM 1 vv 1 sin θθ + MM 2 vv 2 sin φφ v 2 v v 1 For M 1 < M 2, kinematic factor K EE 1 = MM 2 2 MM 2 1 sin 2 θθ 1/2 + MM 1 cos θθ EE 0 MM 2 + MM 1 (listed in Handout #4, Append. 1) 2 For a given M 1 and M 2, smallest K is at θ = 180 o Different types of atoms, M 2 largest change in E 1 when θ = 180 o Hence, backscattering spectrometry, though θ ~170 o in practice

7 Fundamental Principles Scattering Cross Section THIN TARGET: N S ATOMS/cm 2 (= N t), Q E 0 of incident particle of M 1 K M2 E 0 that this particle possesses at any angle θ after an elastic collision with an initially stationary M 2 How frequently such a collision occur at a certain angle θ? differential scattering cross section Number of particles scattered into ddω = QQ NN SS Number of particles scattered into the detector with Ω = QQ NN SS Ω dddd θθ ddω (in RBS, solid angle Ω is small, 10-2 steradian or less, so average can be used instead of differential) ddω ddσσ θθ ddω ddω = QQ NN SS 1 Ω Ω = QQ NN SS σσ θθ Ω dddd θθ ddω ddω Ω (average) scattering cross section [cm 2 /steradian]

8 Fundamental Principles Scattering Cross Section Without considering recoil of the target atom (M 1 << M 2 ), i.e., the target atom is stationary all the time σσ θθ = qq2 ZZ 1 ZZ 2 4EE 2 1 sin 4 θθ/2 Including the recoil effect, Z 1 : atomic number of incident particle Z 2 : atomic number of target atom q: elemental charge E: energy of incident particle (For derivation see pp of Handout #5) σσ θθ = qq2 ZZ 1 ZZ 2 4EE 2 sin 4 θθ 2 2 MM 1 MM ~4% correction in the case of He (M 1 =4) incident on Si (M 1 =28) Rutherford Scattering Cross Section, σ(θ) for 1 MeV 4 He is listed in Handout #4, Appendix 2.

9 Fundamental Principles Deviation from Rutherford Scattering Assumption to derive Rutherford scattering cross section: scattering due to the repulsion of two positively charged nuclei of atomic number Z 1 and Z 2 Meaning that incident atom penetrates well inside the orbital of the atomic electrons closest distance < K shell electron radius EE > qq2 ZZ 1 ZZ 2, where a 0 is Bohr radius. aa 0 ~10 kev for He scattering from Si ~340 kev for He scattering from Au At low energy, correction from the screening should be considered. σσ ssss = σσ θθ F At higher energy, departure from the Rutherford scattering cross section due to the interaction of the incident particle with the nucleus of the target atom ~9.6 MeV for He ions incident on Si

10 Fundamental Principles Stopping power (stopping cross section) Energy loss of MeV light ions (such as He) in solids: electronic energy loss (interaction with electrons, excited or ejected) Negligible nuclear energy loss dddd dddd = 2ππqq4 2 ZZ 1 NNZZ EE 2 MM 1 mm 2mmvv2 ln II de/dx : ev / Å (1/ρ) de/dx : ev / (µg/cm 2 ), where ρ is mass density (1/N) de/dx : ev / (atoms/cm 2 ), where N is atomic density listed in Appendix 3 (Handout #4)

11 Fundamental Principles Energy transfer from a projectile to a target atom in an elastic two-body collision concept of kinematic factor and capability of mass perception Likelihood of occurrence of such a two-body collision concept of scattering cross section and capability of quantitative analysis of atomic composition Average energy loss of an atom moving through a dense medium concept of stopping cross section and capability of depth perception

12 Energy Width in Backscattering t= Q: which one is larger, E Au or E Au? E Au Surface Au peak at higher energy than surface Al peak tt dddd EE iiii = dddd dddd dddd dddd tt iiii At t, EE tt = EE 0 EE iiii = EE 0 EE 1 tt = KK AAAA EE tt tt cos θθ dddd = tt KK AAAA + dddd iiii dddd dddd oooooo tt cos θθ dddd tt dddd iiii dddd + KK dddd AAAA EE 0 oooooo EE 1 KK AAAA EE 0 KK AAAA EE? 0 EE AAAA = KK AAAA EE 0 EE 1 = tt[s] dddd Surface energy approximation (for < 100 nm): ~ dddd iiii dddd dddd Mean energy approximation: ~, dddd ~ dddd iiii dddd EEoo 1 4 EE dddd iiii dddd, dddd EEoo dddd dddd EE EE dddd ~ dddd oooooo dddd dddd KKEEoo

13 How to Interpret RBS Data Pt on Si 200nm Pt Channel number = Backscattering energy Surface is on the right (high energy) greater depths to the left (lower energy) Heavier elements produce higher energy backscattering. Why? Rutherford scattering cross section σσ θθ = qq2 ZZ 1 ZZ 2 4EE 2 sin 4 θθ 2 2 MM 1 MM Heavier elements produce larger peaks per unit concentration. Why? Shape of spectrum. Why?

14 Depth Profiles E 1 HH NNNN = NN NNNN σσ NNii (EE 0 ) HH SSSS NN SSSS σσ SSii (EE 1 ) NN NNNN (ZZ NNii /EE 0 ) 2 NN SSSS (ZZ SSSS /EE 1 ) 2 σσ θθ = qq2 ZZ 1 ZZ 2 4EE 2 sin 4 θθ 2 2 MM 1 MM HH NNNN HH SSSS = NN NNNN NN SSSS σσ NNii (EE 0 ) σσ SSii (EE 0 ) NN NNNN NN SSSS or better approximation HH NNNN EE NNii HH SSSS EE SSSS = NN NNNN NN SSSS σσ NNii σσ SSii NN NNNN NN SSSS 2

15 Measuring Concentration & Thickness Comparison of Three WSi x Films with varying W concentrations Comparison of Three Ti Films with varying thickness Copyright 2007 Evans Analytical Group

16 Example of RBS Spectrum Depth O at Surface Si at Surface 2.27 mev He, 160 RBS Si SiO 2 Depth O Si Si in SiO 2 Copyright 2007 Evans Analytical Group

17 Scattering Geometry Affects Depth Resolution Grazing Exit Detector ~100 Incident He ++ Ions Backscattered He Ion Normal Angle Detector Sample Copyright 2007 Evans Analytical Group ~160

18 Scattering Geometry Affects Depth Resolution Grazing angle detector improves depth resolution for thin layers Copyright 2007 Evans Analytical Group

19 Effect of Film Density on Thicknesses mev He, 160 RBS The total atoms in each film are equal (1.13 x atoms/cm 2 ) Both samples produce this spectrum Si Ti density = 5.66 x Ti atoms/cm nm Si Ti Si Ti density = 2.83 x Ti atoms/cm Channel Number nm Fundamental unit of measurement for RBS is atoms/cm 2 Density thickness = atoms/cm 2 To calculate a film thickness using RBS alone one must assume a film density If the film thickness is known (by TEM, SEM, profilometry, etc.), then the film density can be calculated

20 Hydrogen Forward Scattering Spectrometry (HFS) He is heavier than H, so no He backscatters from H (or D) He does forward scatter H at significant energy

21 RBS/HFS Analysis of Silicon Nitride Film RBS spectrum HFS spectrum Film composition: Si % N % H % Copyright 2007 Evans Analytical Group

22 Channeling Conceptual image of channeling process Ref. Scientific American

23 Applications of Channeling Quantitative crystal damage profiling Ion Implants Regrowth of damaged crystals Polishing damage Ion etching Epitaxial layers Thickness of amorphous layers Damage detection limit: 1 x to 1 x displaced at/cm 2 Substitutionality of dopants / impurities

24 Channeling: Crystal Damage Measurement of damage in crystal structure Disorder in crystal structure results in higher backscattering yield Random MeV He ions Yield Crystal with disorder Aligned Region without disorder Region with disorder 0 0 Perfect crystal Energy

25 Channeling: Epitaxial Growth Deposited atoms are in perfect registry with the substrate (i.e., epitaxy) shadow cones by the absorbed atoms

26 Channeling: Substituionality of impurities Yb-implanted Si Yb in not substitutional but is located near the <110> channels

27 Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths Non destructive depth profiling Quantitative without standards Analysis of whole wafers (150, 200, 300 mm), irregular and large samples Can analyze conductors and insulators Can measure hydrogen Weaknesses Large analysis area (1 mm) Poor sensitivity for low Z elements In many cases, useful information limited to thin films (<0.5 µm) Generally not good for bulk samples

MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 5: RBS

MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 5: RBS 2016 Fall Semester MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 5: RBS Byungha Shin Dept. of MSE, KAIST 1 Course Information Syllabus 1. Overview of various characterization techniques (1 lecture)

More information

MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 4: XRF

MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 4: XRF 2016 Fall Semester MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 4: XRF Byungha Shin Dept. of MSE, KAIST 1 Course Information Syllabus 1. Overview of various characterization techniques (1 lecture)

More information

MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 12: Summary. Byungha Shin Dept. of MSE, KAIST

MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 12: Summary. Byungha Shin Dept. of MSE, KAIST 2015 Fall Semester MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 12: Summary Byungha Shin Dept. of MSE, KAIST 1 Course Information Syllabus 1. Overview of various characterization techniques (1

More information

MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 11: Scanning Probe Microscopy. Byungha Shin Dept. of MSE, KAIST

MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 11: Scanning Probe Microscopy. Byungha Shin Dept. of MSE, KAIST 2015 Fall Semester MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 11: Scanning Probe Microscopy Byungha Shin Dept. of MSE, KAIST 1 Course Information Syllabus 1. Overview of various characterization

More information

MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 2: UPS

MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 2: UPS 2016 Fall Semester MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 2: UPS Byungha Shin Dept. of MSE, KAIST 1 Course Information Syllabus 1. Overview of various characterization techniques (1 lecture)

More information

EE 527 MICROFABRICATION. Lecture 5 Tai-Chang Chen University of Washington

EE 527 MICROFABRICATION. Lecture 5 Tai-Chang Chen University of Washington EE 527 MICROFABRICATION Lecture 5 Tai-Chang Chen University of Washington MICROSCOPY AND VISUALIZATION Electron microscope, transmission electron microscope Resolution: atomic imaging Use: lattice spacing.

More information

Surface Sensitivity & Surface Specificity

Surface Sensitivity & Surface Specificity Surface Sensitivity & Surface Specificity The problems of sensitivity and detection limits are common to all forms of spectroscopy. In its simplest form, the question of sensitivity boils down to whether

More information

MSE 321 Structural Characterization

MSE 321 Structural Characterization Auger Spectroscopy Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) Incident Electron Ejected Electron Auger Electron Initial State Intermediate State Final State Physical Electronics

More information

Fundamentals of Nanoscale Film Analysis

Fundamentals of Nanoscale Film Analysis Fundamentals of Nanoscale Film Analysis Terry L. Alford Arizona State University Tempe, AZ, USA Leonard C. Feldman Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN, USA James W. Mayer Arizona State University Tempe,

More information

Silver Thin Film Characterization

Silver Thin Film Characterization Silver Thin Film Characterization.1 Introduction Thin films of Ag layered structures, typically less than a micron in thickness, are tailored to achieve desired functional properties. Typical characterization

More information

MSE 321 Structural Characterization

MSE 321 Structural Characterization Auger Spectroscopy Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) Incident Electron Ejected Electron Auger Electron Initial State Intermediate State Final State Physical Electronics

More information

Lecture 22 Ion Beam Techniques

Lecture 22 Ion Beam Techniques Lecture 22 Ion Beam Techniques Schroder: Chapter 11.3 1/44 Announcements Homework 6/6: Will be online on later today. Due Wednesday June 6th at 10:00am. I will return it at the final exam (14 th June).

More information

ECE Semiconductor Device and Material Characterization

ECE Semiconductor Device and Material Characterization ECE 4813 Semiconductor Device and Material Characterization Dr. Alan Doolittle School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology As with all of these lecture slides, I am indebted

More information

Imaging Methods: Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM / AFM)

Imaging Methods: Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM / AFM) Imaging Methods: Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM / AFM) The atomic force microscope (AFM) probes the surface of a sample with a sharp tip, a couple of microns long and often less than 100 Å in diameter.

More information

Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry

Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry EMSE-515 Fall 2005 F. Ernst 1 Bohr s Model of an Atom existence of central core established by single collision, large-angle scattering of alpha particles ( 4 He

More information

Lecture 23 X-Ray & UV Techniques

Lecture 23 X-Ray & UV Techniques Lecture 23 X-Ray & UV Techniques Schroder: Chapter 11.3 1/50 Announcements Homework 6/6: Will be online on later today. Due Wednesday June 6th at 10:00am. I will return it at the final exam (14 th June).

More information

Photons in the universe. Indian Institute of Technology Ropar

Photons in the universe. Indian Institute of Technology Ropar Photons in the universe Photons in the universe Element production on the sun Spectral lines of hydrogen absorption spectrum absorption hydrogen gas Hydrogen emission spectrum Element production on the

More information

Ion Implantation. alternative to diffusion for the introduction of dopants essentially a physical process, rather than chemical advantages:

Ion Implantation. alternative to diffusion for the introduction of dopants essentially a physical process, rather than chemical advantages: Ion Implantation alternative to diffusion for the introduction of dopants essentially a physical process, rather than chemical advantages: mass separation allows wide varies of dopants dose control: diffusion

More information

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE MOST MERCIFUL AND COMPASSIONATE

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE MOST MERCIFUL AND COMPASSIONATE IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE MOST MERCIFUL AND COMPASSIONATE Ion Beam Analysis of Diamond Thin Films Sobia Allah Rakha Experimental Physics Labs 04-03-2010 Outline Diamond Nanostructures Deposition of Diamond

More information

Surface analysis techniques

Surface analysis techniques Experimental methods in physics Surface analysis techniques 3. Ion probes Elemental and molecular analysis Jean-Marc Bonard Academic year 10-11 3. Elemental and molecular analysis 3.1.!Secondary ion mass

More information

CHAPTER 4 Structure of the Atom

CHAPTER 4 Structure of the Atom CHAPTER 4 Structure of the Atom Fall 2018 Prof. Sergio B. Mendes 1 Topics 4.1 The Atomic Models of Thomson and Rutherford 4.2 Rutherford Scattering 4.3 The Classic Atomic Model 4.4 The Bohr Model of the

More information

Práctica de laboratorio número 6: Non-Rutherford scattering near the MeV 12 C(p,p) 12 C resonance

Práctica de laboratorio número 6: Non-Rutherford scattering near the MeV 12 C(p,p) 12 C resonance Práctica de laboratorio número 6: Non-Rutherford scattering near the 1.734 MeV 12 C(p,p) 12 C resonance 1) Scope In this experiment, the yield of protons backscattered from a thin gold foil deposited over

More information

Atomic Collisions and Backscattering Spectrometry

Atomic Collisions and Backscattering Spectrometry 2 Atomic Collisions and Backscattering Spectrometry 2.1 Introduction The model of the atom is that of a cloud of electrons surrounding a positively charged central core the nucleus that contains Z protons

More information

Structure analysis: Electron diffraction LEED TEM RHEED

Structure analysis: Electron diffraction LEED TEM RHEED Structure analysis: Electron diffraction LEED: Low Energy Electron Diffraction SPA-LEED: Spot Profile Analysis Low Energy Electron diffraction RHEED: Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction TEM: Transmission

More information

Surface Analysis - The Principal Techniques

Surface Analysis - The Principal Techniques Surface Analysis - The Principal Techniques 2nd Edition Editors johnc.vickerman Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, University of Manchester, UK IAN S. GILMORE National Physical Laboratory, Teddington,

More information

APPLICATION OF THE NUCLEAR REACTION ANALYSIS FOR AGING INVESTIGATIONS

APPLICATION OF THE NUCLEAR REACTION ANALYSIS FOR AGING INVESTIGATIONS 1 APPLICATION OF THE NUCLEAR REACTION ANALYSIS FOR AGING INVESTIGATIONS G.Gavrilov, A.Krivchitch, V.Lebedev PETERSBURG NUCLEAR PHYSICS INSTITUTE E-mail: lebedev@pnpi.spb.ru kriv@rec03.pnpi.spb.ru We used

More information

Nanoelectronics 09. Atsufumi Hirohata Department of Electronics. Quick Review over the Last Lecture

Nanoelectronics 09. Atsufumi Hirohata Department of Electronics. Quick Review over the Last Lecture Nanoelectronics 09 Atsufumi Hirohata Department of Electronics 13:00 Monday, 12/February/2018 (P/T 006) Quick Review over the Last Lecture ( Field effect transistor (FET) ): ( Drain ) current increases

More information

EDS User School. Principles of Electron Beam Microanalysis

EDS User School. Principles of Electron Beam Microanalysis EDS User School Principles of Electron Beam Microanalysis Outline 1.) Beam-specimen interactions 2.) EDS spectra: Origin of Bremsstrahlung and characteristic peaks 3.) Moseley s law 4.) Characteristic

More information

Table 1.1 Surface Science Techniques (page 19-28) Acronym Name Description Primary Surface Information Adsorption or selective chemisorption (1)

Table 1.1 Surface Science Techniques (page 19-28) Acronym Name Description Primary Surface Information Adsorption or selective chemisorption (1) Table 1.1 Surface Science Techniques (page 19-28) Acronym Name Description Primary Surface Information Adsorption or selective chemisorption (1) Atoms or molecules are physisorbed into a porous structure

More information

Physics 100 PIXE F06

Physics 100 PIXE F06 Introduction: Ion Target Interaction Elastic Atomic Collisions Very low energies, typically below a few kev Surface composition and structure Ion Scattering spectrometry (ISS) Inelastic Atomic Collisions

More information

Ion-beam techniques. Ion beam. Electrostatic Accelerators. Van de Graaff accelerator Pelletron Tandem Van de Graaff

Ion-beam techniques. Ion beam. Electrostatic Accelerators. Van de Graaff accelerator Pelletron Tandem Van de Graaff Ion-beam techniques RBS Target nucleus Ion beam STIM RBS: Rutherford backscattering ERD: Elastic recoil detection PIXE: Particle induced x-ray emission PIGE: Particle induced gamma emission NRA: Nuclear

More information

The Configuration of the Atom: Rutherford s Model

The Configuration of the Atom: Rutherford s Model CHAPTR 2 The Configuration of the Atom: Rutherford s Model Problem 2.2. (a) When α particles with kinetic energy of 5.00 MeV are scattered at 90 by gold nuclei, what is the impact parameter? (b) If the

More information

Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) Prof. Paul K. Chu

Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) Prof. Paul K. Chu Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) Prof. Paul K. Chu Auger Electron Spectroscopy Introduction Principles Instrumentation Qualitative analysis Quantitative analysis Depth profiling Mapping Examples The Auger

More information

AP 5301/8301 Instrumental Methods of Analysis and Laboratory Lecture 11 Ion Beam Analysis

AP 5301/8301 Instrumental Methods of Analysis and Laboratory Lecture 11 Ion Beam Analysis 1 AP 5301/8301 Instrumental Methods of Analysis and Laboratory Lecture 11 Ion Beam Analysis Prof YU Kin Man E-mail: kinmanyu@cityu.edu.hk Tel: 344-7813 Office: P64 Lecture 8: outline Introduction o Ion

More information

CHARACTERIZATION of NANOMATERIALS KHP

CHARACTERIZATION of NANOMATERIALS KHP CHARACTERIZATION of NANOMATERIALS Overview of the most common nanocharacterization techniques MAIN CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES: 1.Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) 2. Scanning Electron Microscope

More information

Surface Analysis - The Principal Techniques

Surface Analysis - The Principal Techniques Surface Analysis - The Principal Techniques Edited by John C. Vickerman Surface Analysis Research Centre, Department of Chemistry UMIST, Manchester, UK JOHN WILEY & SONS Chichester New York Weinheim Brisbane

More information

Introduction to X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) XPS which makes use of the photoelectric effect, was developed in the mid-1960

Introduction to X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) XPS which makes use of the photoelectric effect, was developed in the mid-1960 Introduction to X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), also known as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) is a widely used technique to investigate

More information

Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry

Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry Timothy P. Spila, Ph.D. Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 214University of Illinois Board of Trustees. All

More information

Lecture 5: Characterization methods

Lecture 5: Characterization methods Lecture 5: Characterization methods X-Ray techniques Single crystal X-Ray Diffration (XRD) Powder XRD Thin film X-Ray Reflection (XRR) Microscopic methods Optical microscopy Electron microscopies (SEM,

More information

Energy Spectroscopy. Excitation by means of a probe

Energy Spectroscopy. Excitation by means of a probe Energy Spectroscopy Excitation by means of a probe Energy spectral analysis of the in coming particles -> XAS or Energy spectral analysis of the out coming particles Different probes are possible: Auger

More information

Surface and Interface Characterization of Polymer Films

Surface and Interface Characterization of Polymer Films Surface and Interface Characterization of Polymer Films Jeff Shallenberger, Evans Analytical Group 104 Windsor Center Dr., East Windsor NJ Copyright 2013 Evans Analytical Group Outline Introduction to

More information

Methods of surface analysis

Methods of surface analysis Methods of surface analysis Nanomaterials characterisation I RNDr. Věra Vodičková, PhD. Surface of solid matter: last monoatomic layer + absorbed monolayer physical properties are effected (crystal lattice

More information

Photon Interactions in Matter

Photon Interactions in Matter Radiation Dosimetry Attix 7 Photon Interactions in Matter Ho Kyung Kim hokyung@pusan.ac.kr Pusan National University References F. H. Attix, Introduction to Radiological Physics and Radiation Dosimetry,

More information

Spectroscopy on Mars!

Spectroscopy on Mars! Spectroscopy on Mars! Pathfinder Spirit and Opportunity Real World Friday H2A The Mars Pathfinder: Geological Elemental Analysis On December 4th, 1996, the Mars Pathfinder was launched from earth to begin

More information

Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry

Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry Principle of SIMS composition depth profiling with surface analysis techniques? Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry erosion of specimen surface by energetic particle bombardment sputtering two possibilities

More information

Emphasis on what happens to emitted particle (if no nuclear reaction and MEDIUM (i.e., atomic effects)

Emphasis on what happens to emitted particle (if no nuclear reaction and MEDIUM (i.e., atomic effects) LECTURE 5: INTERACTION OF RADIATION WITH MATTER All radiation is detected through its interaction with matter! INTRODUCTION: What happens when radiation passes through matter? Emphasis on what happens

More information

III. Energy Deposition in the Detector and Spectrum Formation

III. Energy Deposition in the Detector and Spectrum Formation 1 III. Energy Deposition in the Detector and Spectrum Formation a) charged particles Bethe-Bloch formula de 4πq 4 z2 e 2m v = NZ ( ) dx m v ln ln 1 0 2 β β I 0 2 2 2 z, v: atomic number and velocity of

More information

Electron Rutherford Backscattering, a versatile tool for the study of thin films

Electron Rutherford Backscattering, a versatile tool for the study of thin films Electron Rutherford Backscattering, a versatile tool for the study of thin films Maarten Vos Research School of Physics and Engineering Australian National University Canberra Australia Acknowledgements:

More information

Auger Electron Spectroscopy

Auger Electron Spectroscopy Auger Electron Spectroscopy Auger Electron Spectroscopy is an analytical technique that provides compositional information on the top few monolayers of material. Detect all elements above He Detection

More information

Lecture 12. study surfaces.

Lecture 12. study surfaces. Lecture 12 Solid Surfaces Techniques to Solid Surfaces. Techniques to study surfaces. Solid Surfaces Molecules on surfaces are not mobile (to large extent) Surfaces have a long-range order (crystalline)

More information

Ion Implantation ECE723

Ion Implantation ECE723 Ion Implantation Topic covered: Process and Advantages of Ion Implantation Ion Distribution and Removal of Lattice Damage Simulation of Ion Implantation Range of Implanted Ions Ion Implantation is the

More information

Lecture 5. X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS)

Lecture 5. X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) Lecture 5 X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) 5. Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) 5. Principles 5.2 Interpretation 5.3 Instrumentation 5.4 XPS vs UV Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) 5.5 Auger Electron

More information

Light element IBA by Elastic Recoil Detection and Nuclear Reaction Analysis R. Heller

Light element IBA by Elastic Recoil Detection and Nuclear Reaction Analysis R. Heller Text optional: Institute Prof. Dr. Hans Mousterian www.fzd.de Mitglied der Leibniz-Gemeinschaft Light element IBA by Elastic Recoil Detection and Nuclear Reaction Analysis R. Heller IBA Techniques slide

More information

Analysis of light elements in solids by elastic recoil detection analysis

Analysis of light elements in solids by elastic recoil detection analysis University of Ljubljana Faculty of mathematics and physics Department of physics Analysis of light elements in solids by elastic recoil detection analysis 2nd seminar, 4th year of graduate physics studies

More information

MT Electron microscopy Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis

MT Electron microscopy Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis MT-0.6026 Electron microscopy Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis Eero Haimi Research Manager Outline 1. Introduction Basics of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron

More information

LOW-TEMPERATURE Si (111) HOMOEPITAXY AND DOPING MEDIATED BY A MONOLAYER OF Pb

LOW-TEMPERATURE Si (111) HOMOEPITAXY AND DOPING MEDIATED BY A MONOLAYER OF Pb LOW-TEMPERATURE Si (111) HOMOEPITAXY AND DOPING MEDIATED BY A MONOLAYER OF Pb O.D. DUBON, P.G. EVANS, J.F. CHERVINSKY, F. SPAEPEN, M.J. AZIZ, and J.A. GOLOVCHENKO Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences,

More information

Accreting neutron stars provide a unique environment for nuclear reactions

Accreting neutron stars provide a unique environment for nuclear reactions , Tracy Steinbach, Jon Schmidt, Varinderjit Singh, Sylvie Hudan, Romualdo de Souza, Lagy Baby, Sean Kuvin, Ingo Wiedenhover Accreting neutron stars provide a unique environment for nuclear reactions High

More information

Airo International Research Journal October, 2015 Volume VI, ISSN:

Airo International Research Journal October, 2015 Volume VI, ISSN: 1 INTERACTION BETWEEN CHARGED PARTICLE AND MATTER Kamaljeet Singh NET Qualified Declaration of Author: I hereby declare that the content of this research paper has been truly made by me including the title

More information

object objective lens eyepiece lens

object objective lens eyepiece lens Advancing Physics G495 June 2015 SET #1 ANSWERS Field and Particle Pictures Seeing with electrons The compound optical microscope Q1. Before attempting this question it may be helpful to review ray diagram

More information

Preamble: Emphasis: Material = Device? MTSE 719 PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLIDS

Preamble: Emphasis: Material = Device? MTSE 719 PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLIDS MTSE 719 PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLIDS MTSE 719 - PHYSCL PRIN CHARACTIZTN SOLIDS Section # Call # Days / Times 001 96175 -View Book Info - F:100PM - 355PM - TIER114 Preamble: Core course

More information

PHL424: Nuclear fusion

PHL424: Nuclear fusion PHL424: Nuclear fusion Hot Fusion 5 10 15 5 10 8 projectiles on target compound nuclei 1 atom Hot fusion (1961 1974) successful up to element 106 (Seaborgium) Coulomb barrier V C between projectile and

More information

X-ray Spectroscopy. Interaction of X-rays with matter XANES and EXAFS XANES analysis Pre-edge analysis EXAFS analysis

X-ray Spectroscopy. Interaction of X-rays with matter XANES and EXAFS XANES analysis Pre-edge analysis EXAFS analysis X-ray Spectroscopy Interaction of X-rays with matter XANES and EXAFS XANES analysis Pre-edge analysis EXAFS analysis Element specific Sensitive to low concentrations (0.01-0.1 %) Why XAS? Applicable under

More information

Department of Natural Sciences Clayton State University. Physics 3650 Quiz 1

Department of Natural Sciences Clayton State University. Physics 3650 Quiz 1 Physics 3650 Quiz 1 October 1, 009 Name SOLUTION 1. If the displacement of the object, x, is related to velocity, v, according to the relation x = A v, the constant, A, has the dimension of which of the

More information

EE 212 FALL ION IMPLANTATION - Chapter 8 Basic Concepts

EE 212 FALL ION IMPLANTATION - Chapter 8 Basic Concepts EE 212 FALL 1999-00 ION IMPLANTATION - Chapter 8 Basic Concepts Ion implantation is the dominant method of doping used today. In spite of creating enormous lattice damage it is favored because: Large range

More information

Quantum Mechanics. An essential theory to understand properties of matter and light. Chemical Electronic Magnetic Thermal Optical Etc.

Quantum Mechanics. An essential theory to understand properties of matter and light. Chemical Electronic Magnetic Thermal Optical Etc. Quantum Mechanics An essential theory to understand properties of matter and light. Chemical Electronic Magnetic Thermal Optical Etc. Fall 2018 Prof. Sergio B. Mendes 1 CHAPTER 3 Experimental Basis of

More information

Detectors in Nuclear Physics (48 hours)

Detectors in Nuclear Physics (48 hours) Detectors in Nuclear Physics (48 hours) Silvia Leoni, Silvia.Leoni@mi.infn.it http://www.mi.infn.it/~sleoni Complemetary material: Lectures Notes on γ-spectroscopy LAB http://www.mi.infn.it/~bracco Application

More information

1 Introduction COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL. 1.1 HowdoweDefinetheSurface?

1 Introduction COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL. 1.1 HowdoweDefinetheSurface? 1 Introduction JOHN C. VICKERMAN Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK The surface behaviour of materials

More information

Lecture 6 Plasmas. Chapters 10 &16 Wolf and Tauber. ECE611 / CHE611 Electronic Materials Processing Fall John Labram 1/68

Lecture 6 Plasmas. Chapters 10 &16 Wolf and Tauber. ECE611 / CHE611 Electronic Materials Processing Fall John Labram 1/68 Lecture 6 Plasmas Chapters 10 &16 Wolf and Tauber 1/68 Announcements Homework: Homework will be returned to you on Thursday (12 th October). Solutions will be also posted online on Thursday (12 th October)

More information

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) Lasse Vines 1 Secondary ion mass spectrometry O Zn 10000 O 2 Counts/sec 1000 100 Li Na K Cr ZnO 10 ZnO 2 1 0 20 40 60 80 100 Mass (AMU) 10 21 10 20 Si 07 Ge 0.3 Atomic

More information

4. Inelastic Scattering

4. Inelastic Scattering 1 4. Inelastic Scattering Some inelastic scattering processes A vast range of inelastic scattering processes can occur during illumination of a specimen with a highenergy electron beam. In principle, many

More information

Chemical Engineering 412

Chemical Engineering 412 Chemical Engineering 412 Introductory Nuclear Engineering Lecture 12 Radiation/Matter Interactions II 1 Neutron Flux The collisions of neutrons of all energies is given by FF = ΣΣ ii 0 EE φφ EE dddd All

More information

( 1+ A) 2 cos2 θ Incident Ion Techniques for Surface Composition Analysis Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS)

( 1+ A) 2 cos2 θ Incident Ion Techniques for Surface Composition Analysis Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS) 5.16 Incident Ion Techniques for Surface Composition Analysis 5.16.1 Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS) At moderate kinetic energies (few hundred ev to few kev) ion scattered from a surface in simple kinematic

More information

QUANTUM MECHANICS AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE

QUANTUM MECHANICS AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE 5 CHAPTER QUANTUM MECHANICS AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE 5.1 The Hydrogen Atom 5.2 Shell Model for Many-Electron Atoms 5.3 Aufbau Principle and Electron Configurations 5.4 Shells and the Periodic Table: Photoelectron

More information

Chapter 9. Electron mean free path Microscopy principles of SEM, TEM, LEEM

Chapter 9. Electron mean free path Microscopy principles of SEM, TEM, LEEM Chapter 9 Electron mean free path Microscopy principles of SEM, TEM, LEEM 9.1 Electron Mean Free Path 9. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) -SEM design; Secondary electron imaging; Backscattered electron

More information

An Introduction to Diffraction and Scattering. School of Chemistry The University of Sydney

An Introduction to Diffraction and Scattering. School of Chemistry The University of Sydney An Introduction to Diffraction and Scattering Brendan J. Kennedy School of Chemistry The University of Sydney 1) Strong forces 2) Weak forces Types of Forces 3) Electromagnetic forces 4) Gravity Types

More information

Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films

Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films Hans Lüth Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films Fifth Edition With 427 Figures.2e Springer Contents 1 Surface and Interface Physics: Its Definition and Importance... 1 Panel I: Ultrahigh Vacuum (UHV)

More information

ANALYSIS OF PLASMA FACING MATERIALS IN CONTROLLED FUSION DEVICES. Marek Rubel

ANALYSIS OF PLASMA FACING MATERIALS IN CONTROLLED FUSION DEVICES. Marek Rubel ANALYSIS OF PLASMA FACING MATERIALS IN CONTROLLED FUSION DEVICES Marek Rubel Alfvén Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM VR, Stockholm, Sweden Acknowledgements Paul Coad and Guy

More information

MODERN TECHNIQUES OF SURFACE SCIENCE

MODERN TECHNIQUES OF SURFACE SCIENCE MODERN TECHNIQUES OF SURFACE SCIENCE Second edition D. P. WOODRUFF & T. A. DELCHAR Department ofphysics, University of Warwick CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Contents Preface to first edition Preface to second

More information

Electron Microscopy I

Electron Microscopy I Characterization of Catalysts and Surfaces Characterization Techniques in Heterogeneous Catalysis Electron Microscopy I Introduction Properties of electrons Electron-matter interactions and their applications

More information

Scanning Probe Microscopy. EMSE-515 F. Ernst

Scanning Probe Microscopy. EMSE-515 F. Ernst Scanning Probe Microscopy EMSE-515 F. Ernst 1 Literature 2 3 Scanning Probe Microscopy: The Lab on a Tip by Ernst Meyer,Ans Josef Hug,Roland Bennewitz 4 Scanning Probe Microscopy and Spectroscopy : Theory,

More information

The design of an integrated XPS/Raman spectroscopy instrument for co-incident analysis

The design of an integrated XPS/Raman spectroscopy instrument for co-incident analysis The design of an integrated XPS/Raman spectroscopy instrument for co-incident analysis Tim Nunney The world leader in serving science 2 XPS Surface Analysis XPS +... UV Photoelectron Spectroscopy UPS He(I)

More information

Chapter 9 Ion Implantation

Chapter 9 Ion Implantation Chapter 9 Ion Implantation Professor Paul K. Chu Ion Implantation Ion implantation is a low-temperature technique for the introduction of impurities (dopants) into semiconductors and offers more flexibility

More information

Ion Implant Part 1. Saroj Kumar Patra, TFE4180 Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology. Norwegian University of Science and Technology ( NTNU )

Ion Implant Part 1. Saroj Kumar Patra, TFE4180 Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology. Norwegian University of Science and Technology ( NTNU ) 1 Ion Implant Part 1 Chapter 17: Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology by M. Quirk & J. Serda Spring Semester 2014 Saroj Kumar Patra,, Norwegian University of Science and Technology ( NTNU ) 2 Objectives

More information

Joint ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Nuclear Data for Analytical Applications October 2013

Joint ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Nuclear Data for Analytical Applications October 2013 2495-03 Joint ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Nuclear Data for Analytical Applications 21-25 October 2013 Ion Beam Analysis Techniques for non-destructive Profiling Studies M. Kokkoris Department of Physics National

More information

Gaetano L Episcopo. Scanning Electron Microscopy Focus Ion Beam and. Pulsed Plasma Deposition

Gaetano L Episcopo. Scanning Electron Microscopy Focus Ion Beam and. Pulsed Plasma Deposition Gaetano L Episcopo Scanning Electron Microscopy Focus Ion Beam and Pulsed Plasma Deposition Hystorical background Scientific discoveries 1897: J. Thomson discovers the electron. 1924: L. de Broglie propose

More information

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS FOR PHONON TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS AT SOLID INTERFACES

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS FOR PHONON TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS AT SOLID INTERFACES 148 A p p e n d i x D SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS FOR PHONON TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS AT SOLID INTERFACES D.1 Overview The supplementary information contains additional information on our computational approach

More information

Physics of Radiotherapy. Lecture II: Interaction of Ionizing Radiation With Matter

Physics of Radiotherapy. Lecture II: Interaction of Ionizing Radiation With Matter Physics of Radiotherapy Lecture II: Interaction of Ionizing Radiation With Matter Charge Particle Interaction Energetic charged particles interact with matter by electrical forces and lose kinetic energy

More information

Particle nature of light & Quantization

Particle nature of light & Quantization Particle nature of light & Quantization A quantity is quantized if its possible values are limited to a discrete set. An example from classical physics is the allowed frequencies of standing waves on a

More information

IV. Surface analysis for chemical state, chemical composition

IV. Surface analysis for chemical state, chemical composition IV. Surface analysis for chemical state, chemical composition Probe beam Detect XPS Photon (X-ray) Photoelectron(core level electron) UPS Photon (UV) Photoelectron(valence level electron) AES electron

More information

Structure of Surfaces

Structure of Surfaces Structure of Surfaces C Stepped surface Interference of two waves Bragg s law Path difference = AB+BC =2dsin ( =glancing angle) If, n =2dsin, constructive interference Ex) in a cubic lattice of unit cell

More information

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) ELEC-L3211 Postgraduate Course in Micro and Nanosciences Department of Micro and Nanosciences Personal motivation and experience on SIMS Offers the possibility to

More information

Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)

Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) 1. Introduction Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) Silvia Natividad, Gabriel Gonzalez and Arena Holguin Auger Electron Spectroscopy (Auger spectroscopy or AES) was developed in the late 1960's, deriving

More information

Radiation (Particle) Detection and Measurement

Radiation (Particle) Detection and Measurement Radiation (Particle) Detection and Measurement Radiation detection implies that the radiation interacts (e.g. leaves at least part of its energy) in the material. A specific material is chosen, because

More information

Interaction X-rays - Matter

Interaction X-rays - Matter Interaction X-rays - Matter Pair production hν > M ev Photoelectric absorption hν MATTER hν Transmission X-rays hν' < hν Scattering hν Decay processes hν f Compton Thomson Fluorescence Auger electrons

More information

Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) Thomas Sky

Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) Thomas Sky 1 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) Thomas Sky Depth (µm) 2 Characterization of solar cells 0,0 1E16 1E17 1E18 1E19 1E20 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 P Concentration (cm -3 ) Characterization Optimization

More information

Chapter 37 Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 37 Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 37 Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom Planck s Quantum Hypothesis; Blackbody Radiation Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effect Energy, Mass, and Momentum of a Photon Compton

More information

Atomic Physics. Chapter 6 X ray. Jinniu Hu 24/12/ /20/13

Atomic Physics. Chapter 6 X ray. Jinniu Hu 24/12/ /20/13 Atomic Physics Chapter 6 X ray 11/20/13 24/12/2018 Jinniu Hu 1!1 6.1 The discovery of X ray X-rays were discovered in 1895 by the German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen. He found that a beam of high-speed electrons

More information

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS (1) For a ground - state neutral atom with 13 protons, describe (a) Which element this is (b) The quantum numbers, n, and l of the inner two core electrons (c) The stationary state

More information

Radioactivity - Radionuclides - Radiation

Radioactivity - Radionuclides - Radiation Content of the lecture Introduction Particle/ion-atom atom interactions - basic processes on on energy loss - stopping power, range Implementation in in Nucleonica TM TM Examples Origin and use of particles

More information

INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM MECHANICS

INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM MECHANICS 4 CHAPTER INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM MECHANICS 4.1 Preliminaries: Wave Motion and Light 4.2 Evidence for Energy Quantization in Atoms 4.3 The Bohr Model: Predicting Discrete Energy Levels in Atoms 4.4 Evidence

More information