BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: Processes: Herbivory. 2. Basic feeding guilds of herbivores: 3. Effects of herbivores on plants:

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: Processes: Herbivory. 2. Basic feeding guilds of herbivores: 3. Effects of herbivores on plants:"

Transcription

1 BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: Processes: Herbivory Lecture summary: Feeding guilds. Effects of herbivores on plants: Distribution and abundance. Compensation. Recruitment. Fecundity. Plant defense. Diversity. Plant defense theory. Dr. S. Malcolm BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: slide 1 2. Basic feeding guilds of herbivores: Grazers Browsers Leaf miners Borers sheep, bison, rabbits & grasshoppers. deer, goats and hares. many insects. of leaves, stems, trunks, buds, seeds and fruits (many insects). Root feeders nematodes, insects, mammals. Sap suckers many insects, birds and mammals. Gallers many insects, mites, nematodes and bacteria. Frugivores, seed predators, pollinators and nectarivores also feed on plant parts. Dr. S. Malcolm BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: slide 2 3. Effects of herbivores on plants: Influence the distribution and abundance of plants: Through effects on: 1) Plant parts (Figure 12.7) Roots, leaves, flowers etc. 2) Timing in plant development Seedlings vs mature plants etc. 3) Post-attack effects Induction of chemical defenses/trichomes/spines etc. Redistribution of nutrients etc. Dr. S. Malcolm BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: slide 3 1

2 4. Effects of herbivores on plants: 1) Compensation - despite some compensation herbivores almost always harm plants - although this may look like benefits Figs 8.2 & 8.3 2) Enhanced negative competitive effects Fig 8.4 Begon, 2nd ed. & Fig ) Increased mortality - repeated defoliation by herbivores can kill plants or make them more susceptible to death but they can defend e.g. Fig 8.4 Begon, 3rd ed., and module death in Fig. 9.4) 4) Reduced recruitment by killing seedlings In a 6ft 2 area cultivated by Charles Darwin (1859) he found that 295/357 seedlings (83%) were killed by slugs and insects (Begon et al., p. 322). 5) Reduced growth - Herbivory can slow or stop plant growth (Fig. 9.5) - but grasses tend to be resistant to the effects of grazing because the low meristem is unaffected. Dr. S. Malcolm BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: slide 4 5. Plant fecundity reduction: Smaller plants produce fewer or less viable seeds. Plants may flower later: Can turn annuals into perennials by repeated grazing or mowing. Herbivores can eat reproductive parts (flowers) directly: Excluding mutualistic, pollen or nectar feeding. Seed predation. Dr. S. Malcolm BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: slide 5 6. Plant defense: Herbivory is the process that describes the interaction between: Plant defense, and, Herbivore foraging. See Figure 20.1 from Malcolm (1992) In, M.J. Crawley (editor), Natural Enemies: The population biology of predators, parasites and diseases. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. Dr. S. Malcolm BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: slide 6 2

3 7. Plant defense theory (Table): Apparency theory (Feeny, 1976). Optimal Defense theory (Rhoades & Cates 1976). Toxins effective against abundant generalist herbivores, and may account for the effectiveness of some specialist herbivores ( Qualitative of Feeny). E.g. alkaloids, furanocoumarins, saponins, cardenolides and cyanogenic glycosides. Digestibility reducers effective against both specialists and generalists by making nutrients less available to herbivores ( Quantitative of Feeny). E.g. tannins. Dr. S. Malcolm BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: slide 7 Figure 12.7 (3 rd ed.): Plant niche diversity for insect and fungal exploiters separated into feeding guilds Dr. S. Malcolm BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: slide 8 Figure 8.2 (3 rd ed.): Regrowth of 2 varieties of Lolium multiflorum after defoliation. Dr. S. Malcolm BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: slide 9 3

4 Figure 8.3 (3 rd ed.): Compensatory flower production by secondary and tertiary umbels in damaged parsnip Dr. S. Malcolm BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: slide 10 Figure 8.4 (2 nd ed.): Reduced competitive dominance of oats susceptible to a root-feeding nematode. resistant susceptible Dr. S. Malcolm BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: slide 11 Figure 8.7 (3 rd ed.): Negative effect of competition + beetle herbivory on leaf area of the dock Rumex crispus Dr. S. Malcolm BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: slide 12 4

5 Figure 8.4 (3 rd ed.): Decreased Phyllonorycter leaf miner survivorship with increased oak defoliation. Dr. S. Malcolm BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: slide 13 Figure 9.4: Effects of beetle herbivory on waterlily leaf survivorship Dr. S. Malcolm BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: slide 14 Figure 9.5: Effects of flea beetle herbivory on sand-dune willow growth rate Dr. S. Malcolm BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 11: slide 15 5

BIOS 5970: Plant-Herbivore Interactions Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences

BIOS 5970: Plant-Herbivore Interactions Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences BIOS 5970: Plant-Herbivore Interactions Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences D. POPULATION & COMMUNITY DYNAMICS Week 13. Herbivory, predation & parasitism: Lecture summary: Predation:

More information

BIOS 5970: Plant-Herbivore Interactions Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences

BIOS 5970: Plant-Herbivore Interactions Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences BIOS 5970: Plant-Herbivore Interactions Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences Week 5. Plant defense theory 2: Development: Lecture summary: Resource Availability Theory: Coley, Bryant

More information

BIOS 6150: Ecology Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences

BIOS 6150: Ecology Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences BIOS 6150: Ecology Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences Week 3: Intraspecific Competition. Lecture summary: Definition. Characteristics. Scramble & contest. Density dependence k-values

More information

BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 12: Decomposition and Detritivory: 2. Decomposers and detritivores: 3. Resources of decomposers: Lecture summary:

BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 12: Decomposition and Detritivory: 2. Decomposers and detritivores: 3. Resources of decomposers: Lecture summary: BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 12: Decomposition and Detritivory: Lecture summary: Decomposers & detritivores: Resources. Characteristics. Model of detritivory. Size of detritivores. Diversity & abundance.

More information

Honors Biology Ecology Concept List

Honors Biology Ecology Concept List 1. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ. a. mutualism and commensalism b. parasitism and predation c. species richness and species diversity d. primary succession and secondary

More information

Levels of Organization in Ecosystems. Ecologists organize ecosystems into three major levels. These levels are: population, community, and ecosystem.

Levels of Organization in Ecosystems. Ecologists organize ecosystems into three major levels. These levels are: population, community, and ecosystem. Levels of Organization in Ecosystems Ecologists organize ecosystems into three major levels. These levels are: population, community, and ecosystem. Population A population is a group of individuals of

More information

Predation. Predation & Herbivory. Lotka-Volterra. Predation rate. Total rate of predation. Predator population 10/23/2013. Review types of predation

Predation. Predation & Herbivory. Lotka-Volterra. Predation rate. Total rate of predation. Predator population 10/23/2013. Review types of predation Predation & Herbivory Chapter 14 Predation Review types of predation Carnivory Parasitism Parasitoidism Cannabalism Lotka-Volterra Predators control prey populations and prey control predator populations

More information

What Shapes an Ecosystem Section 4-2

What Shapes an Ecosystem Section 4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem Section 4-2 Biotic and Abiotic Factors Ecosystems are influenced by a combination of biological and physical factors. Biotic factors are the biological influences on an organism.

More information

Ecological Relationships

Ecological Relationships Ecological Relationships http://www.univie.ac.at/zoologie/ecophys/crabsp-300dpi.jpg http://www.cs.umbc.edu/courses/undergraduate/201/fall06/projects/p1/fox-rabbit.jpg How do biotic factors influence each

More information

Herbivory: the consumption of plant parts (generally leaves and roots) by animals

Herbivory: the consumption of plant parts (generally leaves and roots) by animals Herbivory: the consumption of plant parts (generally leaves and roots) by animals >25% of all species on earth are herbivores >50% of all organisms are plant and herbivores, so their interactions have

More information

BIOS 6150: Ecology Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences

BIOS 6150: Ecology Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences BIOS 6150: Ecology Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences Week 14: Roles of competition, predation & disturbance in community structure. Lecture summary: (A) Competition: Pattern vs process.

More information

Page # Herbivory. I. Introduction A. Functional types of heterotrophs. Predators. Parasites. Herbivores. How do they differ?

Page # Herbivory. I. Introduction A. Functional types of heterotrophs. Predators. Parasites. Herbivores. How do they differ? Herbivory I. Introduction A. Functional types of heterotrophs Predators Parasites Herbivores How do they differ? Functional types of heterotrophs Predators - kill and eat several animals (prey) over lifetime

More information

Food Web and Ecological Relationships Quiz

Food Web and Ecological Relationships Quiz Biology II Ms. Chen Name: Food Web and Ecological Relationships Quiz Date: Multiple Choice (2 pts each) Directions: Circle the best answer. 1. The loss of the producers in an ecosystem would most likely

More information

Community Interactions. Community An assemblage of all the populations interacting in an area

Community Interactions. Community An assemblage of all the populations interacting in an area Community Interactions Community An assemblage of all the populations interacting in an area Populations are affected by: Available living space habitat Resource Availability niche Species interactions

More information

5 th Grade Ecosystems Mini Assessment Name # Date. Name # Date

5 th Grade Ecosystems Mini Assessment Name # Date. Name # Date An ecosystem is a community of organisms and their interaction with their environment. (abiotic, biotic, niche, habitat, population, community)- 1. Which effect does a decrease in sunlight have on a pond

More information

BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 14: Life Histories: 2. Components of life histories: Growth, fecundity and survivorship. 3. Components of life histories:

BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 14: Life Histories: 2. Components of life histories: Growth, fecundity and survivorship. 3. Components of life histories: BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 14: Life Histories: Lecture summary: Components of life histories: Growth. Fecundity. Survivorship. Reproductive value. Trade-offs. r- and K-selection. Habitat templates. Clutch

More information

BIOS 6150: Ecology Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences

BIOS 6150: Ecology Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences BIOS 6150: Ecology Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences Week 7: Dynamics of Predation. Lecture summary: Categories of predation. Linked prey-predator cycles. Lotka-Volterra model. Density-dependence.

More information

2 BIO 4134: Plant-Animal Interactions

2 BIO 4134: Plant-Animal Interactions 1 Characteristic Invertebrates Vertebrates Body Size Small Large Metabolic Rate Low High Population Density Large Small Food Specificity High Low Bite Size Small Large Mobility Low-High Low-High Starvation

More information

Ecosystem change: an example Ecosystem change: an example

Ecosystem change: an example Ecosystem change: an example 5/13/13 Community = An assemblage of populations (species) in a particular area or habitat. Here is part of a community in the grassland of the Serengetti. Trophic downgrading of planet Earth: What escapes

More information

COMMUNITY INTERACTIONS

COMMUNITY INTERACTIONS COMMUNITY INTERACTIONS Competition Limited resources (food, space, mates, etc) If two organisms want to use the same resource at the same time they must compete between members of the same species between

More information

BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 13: Symbiosis & Mutualism: Lecture summary: 2. Processes: Mutualism. 3. Processes: Mutualism

BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 13: Symbiosis & Mutualism: Lecture summary: 2. Processes: Mutualism. 3. Processes: Mutualism BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 13: Symbiosis & Mutualism: Lecture summary: Definitions. Examples. Symbiotic and nonsymbiotic. Crops. Fruit dispersal. Gut mutualists. Mycorrhizae. Resplendent quetzal, M & P

More information

1. The graph below represents a change in event A that leads to changes in events B and C.

1. The graph below represents a change in event A that leads to changes in events B and C. 1. The graph below represents a change in event A that leads to changes in events B and C. Which row in the chart best identifies each event in the graph? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 2. A stable ecosystem is characterized

More information

Unit 6 Populations Dynamics

Unit 6 Populations Dynamics Unit 6 Populations Dynamics Define these 26 terms: Commensalism Habitat Herbivory Mutualism Niche Parasitism Predator Prey Resource Partitioning Symbiosis Age structure Population density Population distribution

More information

Mrs. Fanek Ecology Date

Mrs. Fanek Ecology Date Name Period Mrs. Fanek Ecology Date 1. The graph below represents a change in event A that leads to changes in events B and C. Which row in the chart best identifies each event in the graph? A) 1 B) 2

More information

BIOS 5970: Plant-Herbivore Interactions Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences

BIOS 5970: Plant-Herbivore Interactions Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences BIOS 5970: Plant-Herbivore Interactions Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences D. POPULATION & COMMUNITY DYNAMICS Week 10. Population models 1: Lecture summary: Distribution and abundance

More information

-The study of the interactions between the different species in an area

-The study of the interactions between the different species in an area Community Ecology -The study of the interactions between the different species in an area Interspecific Interactions -Interaction between different species -May be positive, negative, or neutral and include

More information

Desert Patterns. Plants Growth and reproduction Water loss prevention Defenses. Animals Growth and reproduction Water loss prevention Defenses

Desert Patterns. Plants Growth and reproduction Water loss prevention Defenses. Animals Growth and reproduction Water loss prevention Defenses Desert Patterns Plants Growth and reproduction Water loss prevention Defenses Animals Growth and reproduction Water loss prevention Defenses Abiotic Features Introduction A major emphasis in ecology is

More information

Mutualism: Inter-specific relationship from which both species benefit

Mutualism: Inter-specific relationship from which both species benefit Mutualism Mutualism: Inter-specific relationship from which both species benefit Mutualism Symbiosis: Intimate (generally obligate) inter-specific relationships from which both partners benefit 1 Mutualism

More information

Spring 9 Week Assessment REVIEW

Spring 9 Week Assessment REVIEW Spring 9 Week Assessment REVIEW Which two species are more closely related? A. bears & raccoons or B. raccoons & badgers Raccoons and badgers Which species is the most closely related to the guinea pig?

More information

Mutualism. Mutualism. Mutualism. Early plants were probably wind pollinated and insects were predators feeding on spores, pollen or ovules

Mutualism. Mutualism. Mutualism. Early plants were probably wind pollinated and insects were predators feeding on spores, pollen or ovules Mutualism Mutualism: Inter-specific relationship from which both species benefit Mutualism Symbiosis: Intimate (generally obligate) inter-specific relationships from which both partners benefit Mutualism

More information

Find this material useful? You can help our team to keep this site up and bring you even more content consider donating via the link on our site.

Find this material useful? You can help our team to keep this site up and bring you even more content consider donating via the link on our site. Find this material useful? You can help our team to keep this site up and bring you even more content consider donating via the link on our site. Still having trouble understanding the material? Check

More information

Principles of Ecology

Principles of Ecology Principles of Ecology What is Ecology? Ecology is the study of interactions that occur between organisms and their environment Biosphere Recall that the biosphere includes all living things In order to

More information

Chapter 4 AND 5 Practice

Chapter 4 AND 5 Practice Name: Chapter 4 AND 5 Practice 1. Events that occur in four different ecosystems are shown in the chart below. Which ecosystem would most likely require the most time for ecological succession to restore

More information

Section 2: How Species Interact with Each Other

Section 2: How Species Interact with Each Other Section 2: How Species Interact with Each Other Preview Bellringer Objectives An Organism s Niche Ways in Which Species Interact Competition Indirect Competition Adaptations to Competition Section 2: How

More information

Ch 4 Ecosystems and Communities. 4.2 Niches and Community Interactions

Ch 4 Ecosystems and Communities. 4.2 Niches and Community Interactions Ch 4 Ecosystems and Communities 4.2 Niches and Community Interactions The Niche The conditions in which an organisms lives, and how it interacts with its environment (in the trees, on the ground, inside

More information

3 Types of Interactions

3 Types of Interactions CHAPTER 18 3 Types of Interactions SECTION Interactions of Living Things BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What determines an area s carrying capacity?

More information

Ecology 2. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ecology 2. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Ecology 2 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following statements is consistent with the principle of competitive

More information

Thorns, Prickles, Spines - The characteristics make the plant less likely to be grazed by large herbivores; not effective against insect herbivores.

Thorns, Prickles, Spines - The characteristics make the plant less likely to be grazed by large herbivores; not effective against insect herbivores. PLANT RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE This discussion is based on: Briske, D. D. 1991. Developmental morphology and physiology of grasses. p. 85-108. In: Grazing Management: An Ecological Perspective. R. K. Heitschmidt

More information

Exploring Matthaei s Ecosystems

Exploring Matthaei s Ecosystems Name: Exploring Matthaei s Ecosystems As you walk on the trails, look for evidence of each of the following components of an ecosystem. Draw and describe what you observed and where you found it. Component

More information

14.1. KEY CONCEPT Every organism has a habitat and a niche. 38 Reinforcement Unit 5 Resource Book

14.1. KEY CONCEPT Every organism has a habitat and a niche. 38 Reinforcement Unit 5 Resource Book 14.1 HABITAT AND NICHE KEY CONCEPT Every organism has a habitat and a niche. A habitat is all of the living and nonliving factors in the area where an organism lives. For example, the habitat of a frog

More information

STAAR REVIEW 2015 BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS:

STAAR REVIEW 2015 BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS: Name: STAAR REVIEW 2015 BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS: Which body system(s) would be used for running? EX: Food is chewed, swallowed, and passed into the stomach where it is broken down into nutrients.

More information

Plant and Animal Interactions

Plant and Animal Interactions Plant and Animal Interactions 21 LESSON For each student: For each adult: Materials Needed Student Data Sheet: Plant and Animal Interactions pencil clipboard Leader Sheet: Plant and Animal Interactions

More information

BIOS 6150: Ecology Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences

BIOS 6150: Ecology Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences BIOS 6150: Ecology Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences Week 6: Predation and predatory behavior: Lecture summary: Nature of predation. Diet breadth & choice. Optimal foraging. Functional

More information

The Structure of Ecological Networks and Consequences for Fragility

The Structure of Ecological Networks and Consequences for Fragility The Structure of Ecological Networks and Consequences for Fragility closely connected clustered Emily I. Jones ECOL 596H Feb. 13, 2008 Why ecological network structure matters 2. 3. the network contains

More information

7. E C. 5 B. 1 D E V E L O P A N D U S E M O D E L S T O E X P L A I N H O W O R G A N I S M S I N T E R A C T I N A C O M P E T I T I V E O R M U T

7. E C. 5 B. 1 D E V E L O P A N D U S E M O D E L S T O E X P L A I N H O W O R G A N I S M S I N T E R A C T I N A C O M P E T I T I V E O R M U T 7. E C. 5 B. 1 D E V E L O P A N D U S E M O D E L S T O E X P L A I N H O W O R G A N I S M S I N T E R A C T I N A C O M P E T I T I V E O R M U T U A L L Y B E N E F I C I A L R E L A T I O N S H I

More information

TEKS 11B investigate and analyze how organisms, populations, and communities respond to external factors

TEKS 11B investigate and analyze how organisms, populations, and communities respond to external factors TEKS 11B investigate and analyze how organisms, populations, and communities respond to external factors 1. How does human development of land effect the carrying capacity in a given area for a species

More information

Grade 7 Lesson Instructions Friend or Foe? Preparation: Background information: Activity:

Grade 7 Lesson Instructions Friend or Foe? Preparation: Background information: Activity: Instructions Friend or Foe? You can use monarchs to teach about many things! Stone Mountain Memorial Association (SMMA) uses the monarch butterfly to help students apply their knowledge in other contexts

More information

6 TH. Most Species Compete with One Another for Certain Resources. Species Interact in Five Major Ways. Some Species Evolve Ways to Share Resources

6 TH. Most Species Compete with One Another for Certain Resources. Species Interact in Five Major Ways. Some Species Evolve Ways to Share Resources Endangered species: Southern Sea Otter MILLER/SPOOLMAN ESSENTIALS OF ECOLOGY 6 TH Chapter 5 Biodiversity, Species Interactions, and Population Control Fig. 5-1a, p. 104 Species Interact in Five Major Ways

More information

6 2 Insects and plants

6 2 Insects and plants 6 2 Insects and plants Insect DIY 1. Find plant habitat 2. Find plant 3. Accept plant 4. Eat survive, reproduce Plant characteristics Shape structure Mechanical defenses trichomes Chemical defenses sap,

More information

Chapter 04 Lecture Outline

Chapter 04 Lecture Outline Chapter 04 Lecture Outline William P. Cunningham University of Minnesota Mary Ann Cunningham Vassar College Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1

More information

PLANT RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE

PLANT RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE PLANT RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE This discussion is based on: Briske, D. D. 1991. Developmental morphology and physiology of grasses. p. 85-108. In: Grazing Management: An Ecological Perspective. R. K. Heitschmidt

More information

Slide 1. Earth Science. Chapter 10 Ecosystems

Slide 1. Earth Science. Chapter 10 Ecosystems Slide 1 Earth Science Chapter 10 Ecosystems 1 Slide 2 Section 1 Living Things & the Environment Habitats Organism a living thing: Plants, animals, fungi, etc. Habitat an area that provides the things an

More information

BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 20: Community Structure & Predation: 2. The effect of grazing herbivores: 3. The effect of grazing herbivores:

BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 20: Community Structure & Predation: 2. The effect of grazing herbivores: 3. The effect of grazing herbivores: BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 20: Community Structure & Predation: Lecture summary: Effects of grazing herbivores. Effects of predators. Effects of parasites & disease. Variation in time. Disturbance & community

More information

Ch20_Ecology, community & ecosystems

Ch20_Ecology, community & ecosystems Community Ecology Populations of different species living in the same place NICHE The sum of all the different use of abiotic resources in the habitat by s given species what the organism does what is

More information

1.0 Forest Ecology at the Ecosystem Level

1.0 Forest Ecology at the Ecosystem Level 1.0 Forest Ecology at the Ecosystem Level Ecology is the study of living and non-living parts of the environment and how they affect each other. The environment is everything around us. It includes the

More information

Academic Year Second Term. Science Revision sheets

Academic Year Second Term. Science Revision sheets Academic Year 2015-2016 Second Term Science Revision sheets Name: Date: Grade:3/ Q1 : Choose the letter of the choice that best answer the questions 1. Which of these is what a plant does that makes more

More information

Interspecific ant competition over novel aphid resources and changes in plant chemistry. due to ant-aphid mutualisms on milkweed plants

Interspecific ant competition over novel aphid resources and changes in plant chemistry. due to ant-aphid mutualisms on milkweed plants Liesl Oeller 7/27/14 Ecology Summer 2014 Interspecific ant competition over novel aphid resources and changes in plant chemistry due to ant-aphid mutualisms on milkweed plants Abstract Ants and aphids

More information

Non-native Invasive Species

Non-native Invasive Species Non-native Invasive Species Quiz: Mack et al. 2000 2. List and describe two examples of hypotheses about why a community might be vulnerable to invasion. Vocab: Mack et al. 2000 Allelopathy chemical defense

More information

14.1 Habitat And Niche

14.1 Habitat And Niche 14.1 Habitat And Niche A habitat differs from a niche. Habitat physical area in which an organism lives Niche each species plays a specific role in an ecosystem niche includes the species habitat, feeding

More information

AP Environmental Science I. Unit 1-2: Biodiversity & Evolution

AP Environmental Science I. Unit 1-2: Biodiversity & Evolution NOTE/STUDY GUIDE: Unit 1-2, Biodiversity & Evolution AP Environmental Science I, Mr. Doc Miller, M.Ed. North Central High School Name: ID#: NORTH CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL NOTE & STUDY GUIDE AP Environmental

More information

Ch. 14 Interactions in Ecosystems

Ch. 14 Interactions in Ecosystems Ch. 14 Interactions in Ecosystems 1 14.1 Habitat vs. Niche Habitat all biotic and abiotic factors where an organism lives WHERE a species lives 2 Ecological Niche All physical, chemical, and biological

More information

Chapter 6 Population and Community Ecology. Thursday, October 19, 17

Chapter 6 Population and Community Ecology. Thursday, October 19, 17 Chapter 6 Population and Community Ecology Module 18 The Abundance and Distribution of After reading this module you should be able to explain how nature exists at several levels of complexity. discuss

More information

Chapter 6 Reading Questions

Chapter 6 Reading Questions Chapter 6 Reading Questions 1. Fill in 5 key events in the re-establishment of the New England forest in the Opening Story: 1. Farmers begin leaving 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Broadleaf forest reestablished 2.

More information

Community Ecology Bio 147/247 Species Richness 3: Diversity& Abundance Deeper Meanings of Biodiversity Speci es and Functional Groups

Community Ecology Bio 147/247 Species Richness 3: Diversity& Abundance Deeper Meanings of Biodiversity Speci es and Functional Groups Community Ecology Bio 147/247 Species Richness 3: Diversity& Abundance Deeper Meanings of Biodiversity Speci es and Functional Groups The main Qs for today are: 1. How many species are there in a community?

More information

Ecology. Science Matters Chapter 16

Ecology. Science Matters Chapter 16 Ecology Science Matters Chapter 16 Learning outcomes Understand what the term ecology means. Be able to name different habitats. Be able to give examples of producers, consumers and decomposers in the

More information

Organisms & Environments Task Cards

Organisms & Environments Task Cards Organisms & Environments Task Cards Organisms & Environments Task Cards Thank you so much for purchasing this product. I am truly appreciative of your business and I will happily respond to any of your

More information

Welcome to Principles of Entomology!

Welcome to Principles of Entomology! Welcome to Principles of Entomology! ENY 3005/5006 Course Packet and Study Guides 10: Insects & Plants Over 360,000 species of insects feed on Angiosperms (the flowering plants), and insects have fed on

More information

Chapter 5-6 Test. Directions: Choose the best answer.

Chapter 5-6 Test. Directions: Choose the best answer. Chapter 5-6 Test Name Directions: Choose the best answer. 1. All the following are characteristics of linear population growth except. a. limiting factors involved b. curve type graph c. smaller increase

More information

Answer Key Niche and Carrying Capacity Review Questions 1. A 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. B 6. A 7. D 8. C 9. A 10. B 11. A 12. D 13. B 14. D 15.

Answer Key Niche and Carrying Capacity Review Questions 1. A 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. B 6. A 7. D 8. C 9. A 10. B 11. A 12. D 13. B 14. D 15. Answer Key Niche and Carrying Capacity Review Questions 1. A 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. B 6. A 7. D 8. C 9. A 10. B 11. A 12. D 13. B 14. D 15. D 1. The diagram below represents a remora fish attached to a shark.

More information

Goldenrod Galls and the Scientific Method

Goldenrod Galls and the Scientific Method Goldenrod Galls and the Scientific Method Overview Groups of students are given several goldenrod stems with galls. They are asked to make observations, come up with questions and make hypotheses. They

More information

Ecology Symbiotic Relationships

Ecology Symbiotic Relationships Ecology Symbiotic Relationships Overview of the Co-evolution and Relationships Exhibited Among Community Members What does Symbiosis mean? How do we define Symbiosis? Symbiosis in the broadest sense is

More information

What is Ecology? The scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms in their environment, or surroundings

What is Ecology? The scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms in their environment, or surroundings ECOLOGY What is Ecology? The scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms in their environment, or surroundings Organization of the Biosphere Levels of organization Biosphere-

More information

Why do Invasive Species Successfully Establish & Invade?

Why do Invasive Species Successfully Establish & Invade? Why do Invasive Species Successfully Establish & Invade? Many are introduced, few become invasive Hypotheses about why invaders succeed: 1. Invasive species have traits that favor establishment and spread

More information

Examples of biotic communities: Pond community, Forest community, Lake community etc.

Examples of biotic communities: Pond community, Forest community, Lake community etc. BIOTIC COMMUNITY Community : In an environment or habitat, different types of plants and animals exist in close association and show interdependence. An actively interacting group of a number of different

More information

Principles of Ecology Prey predator and Plant herbivore interactions: Part II

Principles of Ecology Prey predator and Plant herbivore interactions: Part II Paper No. : 12 Module : 16 Development Team Principal Investigator: Co-Principal Investigator: Paper Coordinator: Content Writer: Content Reviewer: Prof. Neeta Sehgal Head, Department of Zoology, University

More information

SWMS Science Department

SWMS Science Department Big Idea 17 Interdependence SC.7.L.17.1 Explain and illustrate the roles of and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web. SC.7.L.17.2 Compare

More information

1. competitive exclusion => local elimination of one => competitive exclusion principle (Gause and Paramecia)

1. competitive exclusion => local elimination of one => competitive exclusion principle (Gause and Paramecia) Chapter 54: Community Ecology A community is defined as an assemblage of species living close enough together for potential interaction. Each member of same community has a particular habitat and niche.

More information

Insects and Plants 3/7/2012. Coevolution. Coevolution. Reciprocal evolution

Insects and Plants 3/7/2012. Coevolution. Coevolution. Reciprocal evolution and Plants Butterflies and Plants: a study in coevolution By Ehrlich & Raven A classic! Coevolution Reciprocal evolution The hawk moth (Xanthopan morganii) visiting the Madagascar Star Orchid (Angraecum

More information

Round One All play. Each question = 1 point

Round One All play. Each question = 1 point Ecology Unit Review Round One All play Each question = 1 point Leaf cells are one type of tree cell. Which process occurs in a live leaf cell? a. Evolution b. Adaptation c. sugar production d. sexual reproduction

More information

Plants allocate carbon to enhance performance and to increase plant fitness

Plants allocate carbon to enhance performance and to increase plant fitness CO2 Plants allocate carbon to enhance performance and to increase plant fitness Plant Ecology in a Changing World Jim Ehleringer, University of Utah http://plantecology.net Plants allocate resources to

More information

Chapter 8 Understanding Populations

Chapter 8 Understanding Populations Chapter 8 Understanding Populations Section 2: How Species Interact with Each Other Key Terms: Niche Competition Predation Parasitism Mutualism Commensalism Symbiosis How Species Interact with Each Other

More information

Page 1. Name:

Page 1. Name: Name: 9477-1 - Page 1 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) The ecological niche of an organism refers to the A) relation of the organism to humans B) biosphere in which the organism lives C) position of the organism in a food

More information

Types of Consumers. herbivores

Types of Consumers. herbivores no energy = no life Types of Consumers herbivores herbivore us vegetation to swallow or devour Types of Consumers herbivores the organisms that eat plants carnivores carnivore us flesh to swallow or devour

More information

Unpack the Standard: Students will categorize relationships between organisms that are competitive or mutually beneficial.

Unpack the Standard: Students will categorize relationships between organisms that are competitive or mutually beneficial. Unpack the Standard: Students will categorize relationships between organisms that are competitive or mutually beneficial. Competition Among Organisms Competition occurs when organisms of the same or different

More information

8/18/ th Grade Ecology and the Environment. Lesson 1 (Living Things and the Environment) Chapter 1: Populations and Communities

8/18/ th Grade Ecology and the Environment. Lesson 1 (Living Things and the Environment) Chapter 1: Populations and Communities Lesson 1 (Living Things and the Environment) 7 th Grade Ecology and the Environment Chapter 1: Populations and Communities organism a living thing (plant, animal, bacteria, protist, fungi) Different types

More information

Plant. Responses and Adaptations. Plant Hormones. Plant Hormones. Auxins. Auxins. Hormones tell plants:

Plant. Responses and Adaptations. Plant Hormones. Plant Hormones. Auxins. Auxins. Hormones tell plants: Plant Responses and Adaptations Plant Hormones Hormone - a substance that is produced in 1 part of an organism & affects another part of the same individual (a chemical messenger) Plant hormones are chemical

More information

Tuesday 2/19/13. Pick up a study guide & the clicker with the number next to your name. Please be READY TO GO when the bell rings

Tuesday 2/19/13. Pick up a study guide & the clicker with the number next to your name. Please be READY TO GO when the bell rings Tuesday 2/19/13 Pick up a study guide & the clicker with the number next to your name. Please be READY TO GO when the bell rings Turn in your books & HIV Labs!!! 4 th SIX WEEKS ASSESSMENT REVIEW In binomial

More information

Chapter 6 Population and Community Ecology

Chapter 6 Population and Community Ecology Chapter 6 Population and Community Ecology Friedland and Relyea Environmental Science for AP, second edition 2015 W.H. Freeman and Company/BFW AP is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board,

More information

Interactions of life

Interactions of life Interactions of life Objectives Describe how organisms obtain energy for life. Explain how organisms interact. Recognize that every organism occupies a niche. Energy Living organisms need a constant supply

More information

3.3 TXT + WKBK answers.docx Page 1 of 5

3.3 TXT + WKBK answers.docx Page 1 of 5 3.3TXT+WKBKanswers.docx Page1of5 TEXTBOOK SECTION3.3ASSESSMENT,p.147 CheckYourUnderstandingAnswers CheckingConcepts 1.(a)Sampleanswer:Anexampleofanative speciesiswhitebarkpineintherocky MountainsorGarryoakinVancouver

More information

Populations L3.notebook. June 10, Today you will: Jun 8 8:59 AM

Populations L3.notebook. June 10, Today you will: Jun 8 8:59 AM Today you will: Jun 8 8:59 AM 1 Population all the members of a species in a locality at a particular time Community all the species in a given area Geographic range the region where an organism is sighted

More information

BIOS 5970: Plant-Herbivore Interactions Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences

BIOS 5970: Plant-Herbivore Interactions Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences BIOS 5970: Plant-Herbivore Interactions Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences Week 8. Pollination and fruit dispersal: Lecture summary: Mutualisms between plants and animals: Pollination

More information

Tolerance. Tolerance. Tolerance 10/22/2010

Tolerance. Tolerance. Tolerance 10/22/2010 Section 4.2 Mrs. Michaelsen Tolerance Every species has its own range of tolerance: The ability to survive and reproduce under a range of environmental circumstances. Tolerance Stress can result when an

More information

Understanding Populations Section 1. Chapter 8 Understanding Populations Section1, How Populations Change in Size DAY ONE

Understanding Populations Section 1. Chapter 8 Understanding Populations Section1, How Populations Change in Size DAY ONE Chapter 8 Understanding Populations Section1, How Populations Change in Size DAY ONE What Is a Population? A population is a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical

More information

The 4 levels of ecology. Communities and Ecosystems. Natural Communities of the San Francisco Peninsula. Community ecology

The 4 levels of ecology. Communities and Ecosystems. Natural Communities of the San Francisco Peninsula. Community ecology The 4 levels of ecology Communities and Ecosystems Chapter 20 Community ecology Natural Communities of the San Francisco Peninsula Community ALL the organisms (plants, animals, fungi, microbes) that live

More information

Community Structure. Community An assemblage of all the populations interacting in an area

Community Structure. Community An assemblage of all the populations interacting in an area Community Structure Community An assemblage of all the populations interacting in an area Community Ecology The ecological community is the set of plant and animal species that occupy an area Questions

More information

ENVE203 Environmental Engineering Ecology (Nov 19, 2012)

ENVE203 Environmental Engineering Ecology (Nov 19, 2012) ENVE203 Environmental Engineering Ecology (Nov 19, 2012) Elif Soyer Biological Communities COMPETITION Occurs when 2 or more individuals attempt to use an essential common resource such as food, water,

More information

1) Which of the following describes the mammals, fish, birds, and plants that live in an environment? a) Abiotic c) biome b) population d) biotic

1) Which of the following describes the mammals, fish, birds, and plants that live in an environment? a) Abiotic c) biome b) population d) biotic CH.16 practice TEST -6th grade Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following describes the mammals, fish, birds, and plants that

More information

STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 2

STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 2 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 2 ANIMAL ECOLOGY 1.1 Every Species Has Its Niche 1.2 Hierarchy of Ecology A. Definitions and Levels of Study 1. Ecology is the study of the relationship of organisms to their environment.

More information

Montana s Noxious Weeds: Integrated Weed Management

Montana s Noxious Weeds: Integrated Weed Management Montana s Noxious Weeds: Integrated Weed Management MODULE 5 Integrated Weed Management Begin with the end in mind... Kill the weed Yes, but not the whole story Healthy plant community that meets management

More information