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1 Warm Up (11/8/17) Use the PowerPoint found on my website to answer the following 1. What occurs during each of the 3 stages of interphase (G1, S, G2)? 2. What are the four stages of mitosis? Briefly describe each of them. 3. During what stage does cell division take place? 4. How do checkpoints during the cell cycle help prevent cancer?

2 Wednesday, November 8 th Ch 8 Review: Cellular transport, cell growth and division, control of the cell cycle 9.1 /9.2: The need for energy/ photosynthesis Start Ch 9 Study Guide Homework due Monday (11/13): Chapter 9 Study Guide- write answers on separate piece of paper Unit 3 (Ch 6, 7, 8, 9) Exam next Wed! No school this Friday (Veterans Day)

3 9.1 Need for Energy 9.2 Photosynthesis

4 What is energy? the ability to do work

5 What does energy look like in your cells? In cells, energy is stored in the form of ATP!

6 ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate One big molecule that is made of 5 smaller molecules bonded together. Adenine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups

7 How does ATP give cells energy? ATP breaks apart and releases its energy. ENERGY!!!

8 When ATP breaks apart, it releases energy and loses a phosphate group. That means that it is now ADP

9 So, aner ATP breaks apart and releases its energy, then what happens? Energy ATP ADP??????

10 It is recharged ADP uses energy and gains an extra P and is recharged back to ATP ADP ATP Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Energy Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ParSally charged batery Fully charged batery

11 What happens to a phosphate bond when energy is Released? Phosphate bond is broken Stored? Phosphate bond is formed

12 We eat to get energy. How do the things that we eat get energy?

13 PHOTOSYNTHESIS 6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Carbon Dioxide + Water makes Glucose Sugar & Oxygen. Plants make their own food (sugar) by combining carbon dioxide gas and water. PHOTOSYNTHESIS means to make with light in Root Words.

14

15 HOW PLANTS GET THEIR MATERIALS TO MAKE SUGAR Sunlight hits the leaves and a green pigment called CHLOROPHYLL traps the light s energy.

16 HOW PLANTS GET THEIR MATERIALS TO MAKE SUGAR Roots pull water up from the soil.

17 HOW PLANTS GET THEIR MATERIALS TO MAKE SUGAR CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 Carbon Dioxide gas enters by diffusion through openings in the leaves called STOMATA.

18 HOW PLANTS GET THEIR MATERIALS TO MAKE SUGAR Sunlight hits the leaves and a green pigment called CHLOROPHYLL traps the light s energy. CO2 Carbon Dioxide gas enters by diffusion through openings in the leaves called STOMATA. Roots pull water up from the soil.

19 CHLOROPHYLL Chlorophyll is found inside the CHLOROPLAST,. This particular pigment reflects green wavelengths. Chlorophyll s job is to trap the light energy from the sun. CHLOROPLAST

20 CHLOROPLAST Let s Look Inside! CHLOROPLAST

21 CHLOROPLAST Inside of Chloroplast CHLOROPLAST

22 CHLOROPLAST STROMA: a gelatinous material CHLOROPLAST THYLAKOID MEMBRANES stacked together to form GRANA

23

24 LIGHT REACTION O2 GRANA capture the sunlight energy. O2 O2 H+ H+ H+ This energy is used to split water molecules The Hydrogen moves into the STROMA, and the Oxygen is released as a gaseous waste H+ in stroma creates a proton gradient across thylakoid membrane à makes ATP in electron transport chain

25 DARK REACTION The reactions that occur in the STROMA do not require light. Hydrogen from the Grana and CO2 from the air are chemically bonded in a series of reactions called the Calvin Cycle or DARK REACTIONS. GLUCOSE Sugar is the end product and the whole purpose of PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

26 GLUCOSE Sugar is the end product and the whole purpose of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. DARK REACTION CO2 CO2 CO2 H+ H+ Hydrogen from the Grana and CO2 from the air are chemically bonded in a series of reactions called the Calvin Cycle or DARK REACTIONS.

27 GLUCOSE Sugar is the end product and the whole purpose of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. DARK REACTION H+ CO2 CO2 H+ Hydrogen from the Grana and CO2 from the air are chemically bonded in a series of reactions called the Calvin Cycle or DARK REACTIONS.

28 GLUCOSE PRODUCTION C6H12O6 C6H12O6 The final step is to move Glucose out of the Chloroplast and into the plant cells for use as FOOD for energy.

29 Sunlight Chloroplast CO 2 1. Light ReacSon Need: Light / H 2 O Produces: ATP / O 2 Purpose: Sunlight à ATP 2. Dark ReacSon (Calvin Cycle) Need: CO 2 / ATP Produces: Glucose Purpose: Use CO 2 and ATP to make glucose H 2 O O 2

30 Light H 2 O Chloroplast CO 2 Light ReacSons ATP Calvin Cycle O 2 Sugar (Glucose)

31 REVIEW PHOTOSYNTHESIS CO2 + H2O C6H12O6 + O2 The light reaction takes place in the GRANA STACKS. The light energy is used to split water, or HYDROLYSIS. The Hydrogen moves out to the STROMA. The Oxygen gas leaves the plant as a waste product.

32 REVIEW PHOTOSYNTHESIS CO2 + H2O C6H12O6 + O2 The Dark Reaction takes place in the STROMA. Hydrogen from the Light Reaction is combined with Carbon Dioxide gas from outside the leaf. After a series of chemical reactions, GLUCOSE is made and released from the Chloroplast for plant use.

33 WHAT DO PLANTS DO WITH GLUCOSE? Light from the sun takes 8 minutes to reach a plant on Earth. Photosynthesis is rapid, and glucose can be produced almost instantly after sunlight has hit a leaf. Once Glucose is made, a plant can use the energy stored in glucose to do many things.... MAKE NEW CELLS MAKE FLOWERS REPRODUCE MORE PLANTS GROW LONGER ROOTS GROW BIGGER MAKE THORNS TO PROTECT ITSELF

34 GLUCOSE, WHAT IS IT GOOD FOR? STAY TUNED FOR NEXT CLASS.. CELLULAR RESPIRATION

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