Pages in the Montana Master Gardener Handbook

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1 Insect Identification Pages in the Montana Master Gardener Handbook

2 Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management is an effective and environmentally sensitive approach to pest management that relies on a combination of common-sense practices. EPA Proper Identification and Monitoring Set Action Threshold Prevention Control Least toxic controls.

3 Determine a Threshold How many is too many? Is it because? It gross you out? I paid a lot for the tree, shrub or garden? Fear of the unknown?

4 Integrated Pest Management Proper Identification and Monitoring Set Action Threshold Prevention Control Least toxic controls.

5 Four Types of Pest Control Control

6 Pyramid of IPM Tactics Intervention Toxicity CHEMICAL Increasing BIOLOGICAL PHYSICAL (MECHANICAL) Prevention CULTURAL Penn State University

7 Questions?

8 What is an Insect? 100, species in North America north of Mexico Typical suburban backyard may contain millions of individual insects and spiders and several thousand species. Evolved over 400 million years

9 What is an insect? 1.5 million known species million species actually exist Adaptation ti and survival in a variety of habitats Small size Prodigious reproduction Multiple generations over a short span of time

10 ~1% are actually pests Vast majority of insects are: Harmless OR Beneficial Is it a pest or a guest?

11 Beneficial? Pollination Food for birds and fish Produce useful products Consume pests

12 Beneficial Insects

13 Beneficial Insects

14 Beneficial Insects

15 ~1% are classified as pests! Destroy crops Destroy ornamentals Destroy stored products Transmit diseases Attack humans and pets

16 How do you know?

17 Nomenclature (again ) Just as with plants Organize and communicate Correct identification does not require a degree DIVISION CLASS ORDER FAMILIES You are only required to know the orders of classification of insects GENERA SPECIES

18 Insect Orders of Horticultural Importance Coleoptera Beetles and weevils Dermaptera - Earwigs Diptera Flies, mosquitoes, gnats Hemiptera True bugs Homoptera Scale, mealy bugs, whiteflies, aphids, leafhoppers, cicadas

19 Insect Orders of Horticultural Importance Hymenoptera Bees, ants, wasps, sawflies Lepidoptera Butterflies, moths Neuroptera - Lacewings Orthoptera Grasshoppers, crickets Thysanoptera - Thrips

20 How do you identify an unknown insect? Get a good field guide: Peterson s Field Guide Insects 1970 National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Insects and Spiders 2007

21 Important Body Parts Mouthparts Piercing/sucking Sucking Chewing Sponging

22 Important Body Parts Mouthparts Piercing/sucking Sucking Chewing Sponging

23 Important Body Parts Mouthparts Piercing/sucking Sucking Chewing Sponging

24 Important Body Parts Mouthparts Piercing/sucking Sucking Chewing Sponging

25 Important Body Parts Legs Feet (tarsi) Wings Antennae Eyes

26 Important Body Parts

27 Gradual or Incomplete Metamorphosis

28 Complete Metamorphosis

29 Coleoptera Beetles, weevils Hard outer skeleton Two pairs of wings Chewing mouth parts Adults have noticeable antennae Larvae 3 pairs of legs on the thorax, no legs on abdomen Complete metamorphosis

30

31 Be on the lookout for: Japanese Beetles

32 Be on the lookout for: Asian Longhorned Beetles

33 Be on the lookout for: Emerald ash borer

34 Earwigs Feed on aphids Feed on flowers Maternal behavior Incomplete metamorphosis Dermaptera

35 Diptera Flies, mosquitoes, gnats, midges Adults one pair wings Soft body, often hairy Adults-sponging g or piercing Fly larvae-mouth hooks or chewing-maggots Legless larvae Complete metamorphosis

36 Beet Leaf Miner

37 Hemiptera True bugs: Stink, plant, squash, box elder Two pairs of wings First are half-wings Second are membranous Incomplete metamorphosis Piercing/sucking

38 Homoptera Most destructive order Aphids, whiteflies, mealy bugs, scale, leafhoppers

39 Generally small, soft- bodied insects Homoptera Winged and unwinged forms All non-egg stages have piercing-sucking mouth parts Gradual metamorphosis Many are carriers of plant pathogens

40 Bees, ants, wasps Hymenoptera Adults 2 pairs membranous wings Larvae of the above have no legs Generally chewing Soft-bodied or slightly hard-bodied Complete metamorphosis

41 Clear winged moth: Not a bee or wasp at at all

42 Lepidoptera Butterflies, moths Adults soft-bodied 4 membranous wings covered with small scales Larvae chewing Adults sucking/nectar Larvae legs on thorax and prolegs on abdomen Complete metamorphosis

43 Spruce budworm

44 Neuroptera

45 Grasshoppers, crickets, katydids Gradual metamorphosis All stages chewing Can form swarms Can fly considerable distances Feed on grass, shrubs, trees Orthoptera

46 Thysanoptera Thrips Tiny Scrape and feed Not all have wings Most easily seen on flowers

47

48 Common Non- Insect Pests Acari Spider mites Ticks Mites

49 Diplopoda Chilopoda Crustacea

50 Insect Control Thresholds of tolerance Use cultural, physical practices first Promote biological i l control Only use pesticides when necessary Can depend on insect physical characteristics and type of metamorphosis Often depends upon feeding method

51 Cultural practices Select hardy plants Scouting Crop rotation Interplanting Thinning Watering Fertility Staking Injury prevention Mulch Control weeds Promote healthy populations Sanitation

52 Mechanical (Physical) controls Hand-pick Traps Barriers Exclusion

53 Biological control (Remember Predators Parasites Pathogens Birds Beneficials i??)

54 Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management is a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks Stat Public Law August 3, 1996

55 IPM Do you really need to use chemical controls? Use a combination of cultural and mechanical controls If a pesticide is warranted, use a reduced risk pesticide Always read the label Master Gardeners should only recommend pesticides if they are comfortable doing so and if the recommendation follows the label

56 Pesticide Labels READ THEM!!! Pesticide Labeling is the main means of communication between a pesticide manufacturer and pesticide users. Label is the information attached to the Pesticide Container. Labeling is the label and any other information you receive from the manufacturer.

57 Pesticide Labels Gives you instructions on how to use the product safely and correctly. Pesticide users are required by law to comply with all the instructions and directions for use in pesticide labeling.

58 Questions?

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