Natural Enemies of Vegetable Pests

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1 Natural Enemies of Vegetable Pests Some of the beneficials that help control vegetable pests Jude Boucher

2 General Predators: Coleoptera (beetles) Pink spotted lady beetle, Colorado potato beetle egg batches: Coleomegilla maculate healthy (left), eaten by lady beetle (right)

3 General Predators Convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Seven-spotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata

4 General Predators Photo by J. Ogrodnick or staff, NYSARS Lady beetle larva Lady beetle pupae

5 General Predators Photo by D. Ferro, UMass Ground beetle, Labia grandis, nocturnal predator of Colorado potato beetle eggs, larvae and pupae. Larvae are obligate parasitoid of CPB pupae.

6 General Predators: Diptera (flies) Photo by Roger Adams, UConn Photo by Lorraine Los, UConn Aphidoletes midge close-up midge larvae larva eating aphid among dead aphids

7 General Predators Photo by Mary Concklin, UConn Syrphid (hover/flower) fly and larva eating aphids

8 General Predators: Mantodea (mantids) Praying mantis emerging from egg mass

9 General Predators: Hemiptera (true bugs) Adult spined soldier bug feeding on Colorado potato beetle larva

10 General Predators Anchor stink bug feeding on Colorado potato beetle larva

11 General Predators Minute pirate bug feeding on two-spotted spider mite

12 General Predators Photo by A. Frodsham Assassin & Damsel bugs prey on eggs & larvae of CEW, FAW, ECB, aphids, mites

13 General Predators: Neuroptera (nerve-wing insects) Green lacewing adult and eggs up on stalks to prevent cannibalism

14 General Predators Photo by J. Ogrodnick or staff, NYSARS Green lacewing larva attacking aphid

15 General Predators: Hymenoptera (wasps, bees & ants) Photo by Gail Reynolds Stinging wasps: Great Golden Digger Wasp

16 General Predators Crab spider attacking bee

17 General Predators Toad

18 General Predators Hawk

19 General Predators Guinea hen

20 Parasitoids Cotesia congregata, Braconid wasp larvae and pupae on a tobacco hornworm

21 Parasitoids Cotesia glomeratus, Braconid wasp larvae emerging from sides of imported cabbageworm larva yellow pupae of C. glomeratus under ICW larva

22 Parasitoids Cotesia rubecula, Braconid wasp larva & pupa emerged from ICW larvae

23 Parasitoids Pteromalid wasps, Pteromalus spp., deposit eggs in imported cabbageworm larvae and pupae

24 Parasitoids Cotesia orobenae pupae (Note how wasps have emerged from two pupal cases) C. orobenae parasitoid of cross-striped cabbageworm larvae (top) CSCW egg batch (bottom)

25 Parasitoids Diadigma insulare, Ichnumonid wasp pupa inside diamondback moth puparium healthy DBM pupa

26 Parasitoids C. rubecula pupae Diadigma insulare, Ichnumonid wasp pupa (top) Cotesia rubecula, Brachonid wasp pupa (bottom)

27 Parasitoids Hyposoter spp., Ichneumonid wasp pupa beside dead fall armyworm larva

28 Parasitoids Aphidiid wasps developing inside round (brown) aphid mummies emergence holes of adult wasps

29 Parasitoids Diaeretiella rapae, parasitoid of cabbage aphid - can be purchased commercially

30 Parasitoids Photo by Kristen Potter Trichogramma spp. wasps are tiny egg parasitoids

31 Parasitoids Photo by J. Ogrodnick or staff, NYSARS European corn borer eggs parasitized by Trichogramma ostriniae wasps Commercially-purchased T. ostriniae released from white cards

32 Parasitoids Photo by J. Ogrodnick or staff, NYSARS Tachinid fly Trichopoda pennipes, a parasitoid of squash bugs

33 Parasitoid s Tachinid fly eggs on fall armyworm larva

34 Parasitoids Tachinid fly egg on Colorado potato beetle

35 Parasitoids Photo by Rolando Lopez, UMass Tachinid fly (Myiopharua spp.) emerging from Colorado potato beetle

36 Pathogens Photo by J. Ogrodnick or staff, NYSARS Fungi attack aphids, leafhoppers, flies, caterpillars, whiteflies, beetles, thrips and mites

37 Pathogens Photo by J. Ogrodnick or staff, NYSARS Cabbage looper larva attacked by a nuclear polyhedrosis virus

38 Native plants for beneficial refuges (shelter/food) Umbelliferae family: Anis, Coriander/Cilantro, Caraway, Dill, Fennel Compositae family: Strawflowers, black-eyed Susan, Coreopsis, Yarrow Sweet Alyssum, Borage, Peony Sage Sunflower Fava bean Cowpea Buckwheat

39 PennState s Trial on Perennial Plants with Most Insect Visits Clustered mountain mint, Pycnanthemum muticum 22 insect genera, 5-12X as many pollinator visits Stiff goldenrod, Solidago rigida 22 insect genera, but 1/5 as many pollinator visits Thoroughwort, Eupatorium hyssopifolium 15 insect genera, 1/6 as many pollinator visits

40 Parasite Short-winged blister beetles, Meloe campanicollis larvae parasitize solitary ground bees We thought he had a Brassica crop infestation, but it turns out it was a ground bee infestation

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