Beneficial Aspects. Extent and Economic Importance. Entomology For Master Gardeners

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1 Entomology For Master Gardeners Molly Greenwood Spring 2017 Extent and Economic Importance Major form of higher life Attack all stages of all species Damage equals harvest Beneficial aspects Beneficial Aspects Pollination Predators / Parasites Human food Biological control agents Nutrient recycling Insect products: honey, wax, shellac, dye Conservation biology Art and literature Ecotourism- butterfly farms / exhibits

2 Population Dynamics Insects have high reproductive potential Can migrate; move with plants Population limited by: Environmental resistance Host plant resistance if you build it, they will come Exotic (non-native) insects Movement and Spread Adults have wings & legs Adults can migrate Larvae have legs Larvae can walk Larvae can move with wind Concept of a Pest Interfere with objectives Insects play vital ecological roles 1% of insects are pests Learn to live with damage- economic threshold

3 Diagnosing Insect Pest Problems Recognize limitations Most sick plants are abiotic Identify the plant Note the symptoms Look for broad patterns Within plant (leaf vs. fruit) Across plant (spot vs. all plants) Collect specimens Pest Managment Integrated Pest Management Legislative Control Physical/Mechanical Control Cultural Control Biological Control Chemical Control IPM Integrate all approaches to manage pest Pest ID Detection, monitoring models Know insect biology Ecologically sound

4 Legislative Control Quarantine State regulation- noxious weeds Public education critical Physical Control Insect removal/habitat destruction Sanitation/salvage Firewood in direct sun Physical barriers- cutworms Mass trapping Trap trees Cultural Control Crop rotation Green manure fallow Genetic resistance Conventional resistant varieties GMO s

5 Biological Control Ecologically best strategy Life history knowledge critical Classical vs. Bio. insect pest suppression Bio control agents Vertebrate predators Invertebrate predators Invertebrate parasites Pathogenic microorganisms Ex. Virus, bacteria (Bt), fungi, nematodes Chemical Control Limitations: ecological, cost, hazard Follow label-legal document Pay attention to pre-harvest interval Federal regulation of residual tolerance Pesticide applicator certification Characteristics of Insects Arthropods: exoskeleton, jointed appendages Adult Insects: Head, thorax, abdomen 1pair antennae 3 pair legs 2 pair of wings Head Thorax Abdome n

6 Arthropods (Phylum Arthropoda: also include trilobites, horseshoe crabs, spiders, crustaceans, millipedes, centipedes) Insects are all in the HEXAPODA (class) Body with three distinct regions: head, thorax, and abdomen 1. Head: Sensory Organ a) Paired appendages (antennae) b) Mouthparts Head 2. Thorax: Locomotion Thora x 3. Abdomen: Reproductive and Digestive Insect Classification Insect Classification Abdome n

7 Insect Classification Taxonomic Classification Common level: Order and Family Basis for classification Mouthparts Type of wings Type of metamorphosis Thoracic legs Prolegs

8 Thoracic legs Prolegs Insect Relatives Spiders, mites, ticks, centipedes, millipedes, sowbugs, snails, slugs Bugs vs. bugs Insect Growth and Development Metamorphosis Shed exoskeleton (molting) Stages Egg Larva/nymph Pupa Adult Instars

9 Metamorphosis: Simple Wing pads Wings Squash bug Metamorphosis: Complete

10 Metamorphosis Insect Growth and Development Gradual: Egg-nymph-adult Nymph similar to adult Ex. Aphids, scales, grasshoppers Complete: Egg-larva-pupa-adult Larva does damage Stages occur in different habitats Ex. Beetles, butterflies, flies Insect Feeding/Mouthparts Chewing Hard mandibles Holes, tunnels, partial eaten leaves Sucking Straw (stylet), probosis Curling, stunting, mottling, galls Phytotoxic necrosis

11 4 Types of Mouth Parts Piercing/sucking Straw Chewing Mouth Parts

12 Piercing/ sopping Common Insect Orders Coleoptera: beetles, weevils Dermaptera: earwigs Diptera: flies, mosquitoes, gnats, midges Hemiptera: true bugs Homoptera: aphids, scales, leafhoppers, cicadas, whiteflies, mealy bugs Hymenoptera: bees, wasps, ants, sawflies Isoptera: termites Coleoptera: beetles, weevils Complete Chewing Attributes: 400,000 species, hard front wings, beneficial and pest species, adults and larvae may feed on same host

13 Dermaptera: earwigs Gradual Chewing Attributes: front wings thickened, pest or beneficial (aphid predator), nocturnal, hide during the day Diptera: flies, mosquitoes Complete Larvae: chewing/hooks Adult: sponging, piercing Attributes: larvae legless, adults soft bodied, compound eye, one pair of wings, haltere, disease vectors, pest and beneficial Hemiptera: true bugs Gradual Piercing, sucking Attributes: nymphs resemble adults, many plant feeding pests, triangle on back, some predators, some disease vectors (Chagas disease)

14 Homoptera: aphids, leaf hoppers, white flies, scales Gradual Sucking Attributes: small soft bodied insects, unwinged forms, attack many vegetables, multiple generations, parthenogenesis, some disease vectors (CTV), greenhouse pests Hymenoptera: bees, wasps, ants, sawflies Complete Chewing Attributes: legless larvae, adult stinger, two pair of membranous wings, ants with narrow waist, many species, pollinators, parasites, predators, sawflies are important defoliators, many species social Isoptera: termites Gradual Chewing Attributes: soft bodied insects, winged or wingless, colonies occur in ground or in wood, drywood and subterranean termites, caste system, social

15 Lepidoptera: moths, butterflies Complete Larvae: chewing Adults: sucking Attributes: caterpillars, adults have two pairs of scaled wings, many defoliators, adults feed on nectar, adults pollinate, basis for ecotourism Neuroptera: lacewings, antlions Complete Chewing Attributes: adults have 2 pairs of membranous wings, wings held rooflike, many species are predators Orthoptera: grasshoppers, crickets, mantids, cockroaches Gradual Chewing Attributes: hard bodied adult, two pair of wings, front wings are hard, adults and nymphs cause damage, moderate pests

16 Siphonaptera: fleas Complete Sucking Attributes: wingless insects, live as ectoparasites on birds and mammals, body is laterally flattened, often jumping, important disease vectors, include plague and typhus Thysanoptera: thrips Gradual Sucking Attributes: adults are minute soft bodied, two pairs of long wings, many feed on plants and especially flowers, cause cosmetic damage to fruit, some disease transmission Common Insect Orders Continued Lepidoptera: moths, butterflies Neuroptera: lacewings, antlions Odonata: dragonflies, damselflies Orthoptera: grasshoppers, crickets, mantids, cockroaches Siphonaptera: fleas Thysanoptera: thrips Thysanura: siverfish, firebrats

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