Lecture 7. Our Sun. Ecology. Mushroom. Introduction. Food Chain. Food Chain. Circle of Life

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1 Introduction Mushroom George Wong, mycologist Office Hour: TBA Office: St. John 612B Telephone: X hawaii.edu Lecture 7 Our Sun Ecology How organisms interact with each other and their physical environment. Includes relationship between people and environment. All energy comes from the sun! Food Chain Food Chain Circle of Life Mufasa: Everything you see exists together, in a delicate balance. As king, you need to understand that balance, and respect all the creatures-- from the crawling ant to the leaping antelope. Simba: But, Dad, don't we eat the antelope? Mufasa: Yes, Simba, but let me explain. When we die, our bodies become the grass. And the antelope eat the grass. And so we are all connected in the great Circle of Life. 1

2 Today s Lecture: Biomes Biome Characteristics Occupy large regions Plants & animals Have specific climate with similar plants and animal adaptations Earth can be divided into Biomes Species composition is not the same in different areas Australia Morocco Deserts California Tunisia Tundra Taiga Categories of Biome Primary Biomes Grasslands Deserts Deciduous Forests Tropical Rainforests Other Biomes Chaparral Savanna Tropical Deciduous Rain Forest Division into Biomes Arctic Arctic Circle Temperate Tropic of Cancer Latitude determines temperatures Tropical Temperate Tropic of Capricorn Latitudes define some biomes Antarctic Antarctic Circle 2

3 Tundra Biome Characteristics of Tundra Biome Found only in Northern Hemisphere Very short growing season Mosses, lichens, sedges, no trees Tundra Tundra Plants Characteristics of Tundra Biome Characteristics of Tundra Biome Vegetation carpet soil permafrost soil water Permafrost restricts root growth. Reason for small plants. Permafrost layer Abundant water (wet sponge) 3

4 More Tundra Pictures More Tundra Picture Characteristics of Tundra Biome Some animals in the Tundra Lemmings Arctic Fox Snowy Owl Caribou Lemmings lemmings Lemming Comic Arctic Fox Picture Arctic Fox 4

5 Snowy Owl Picture Caribou Picture snowy owl caribou Taiga Biome Characteristics of Taiga Biome Snow: cone shaped trees Evergreen conifers Seasonal cycle: migrations Abundant, open water Nutrient rich soils Taiga Picture Taiga Picture 5

6 Moose Lynx moose lynx Snowshoe hare Grasslands Biome Snowshoe hare Grasslands Biome Names: Steppe, prairie, plain, etc. Temperate & tropics similar Unbroken sea of grass Grazing adapted plants Fires important: no trees? Prairie dogs 6

7 bison Desert Biome giraffes Desert Biome Widely spaced plants Spiny and succulents plants Many types of animals, well adapted 7

8 Desert Biome playa (temporary lake) Spade-foot Toads Deciduous Forest Biome Deciduous Forest Biome Broadleaf plants; seasonal Complex biome Good canopy & understory Fairly rich soils; productive Early settlers used land for agriculture, but abandoned. deer 8

9 Tropical Rainforest Biome black bear Tropical Rainforest Biome Large number of species Tall, stratified tree canopy = dark on forest floor (seedlings?) Good drainage Rapid decomposition = nutrients in plants Emergent layer Canopy layer Understory Biomes Heavily modified by human activity Example: US grasslands barely exist. Mostly has been taken over by agriculture. So Biomes defined by potential, not actual plants & animals Forest floor 9

10 Biomes cold tundra Defined by climate of region Combination of temperature & rainfall most important factors. hot desert taiga grassland deciduous rainforest dry wet Questions 1. Another name for the grassland biome is: 2. The area used as the basis for defining a biome is: 3. Water in the soil in tundra regions: 4. In which of these biomes would you expect to find the fewest trees? Questions 5. Which of these biomes is likely to have the largest percentage of its area covered by water? 6. Grassland climates: 7. Rich understory vegetation: 8. The spatial extent of each biome is primarily determined by: Questions 9. Gould argues that the gravel deposits studied by Buckland as evidence of "Noah's flood 10.Gould uses Buckland (in The Freezing of Noah) to show that a good scientist, when a theory they have proposed is shown to be wrong,: 10

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