Root cross-section (Ranunculus)

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1 Plant Lab Review

2 Root cross-section (Ranunculus) Epidermis Cortex Vascular Cylinder Phloem Endodermis Xylem

3 Ranunculus Root Cross section Give three functions of the root Anchor plant Absorb water and minerals Store food Give a function of the cortex Gives plant support (structure), stores food Give the function of vascular tissue A. Xylem- conducts water and minerals B. Phloem- transports sugars

4 Obs. 4 Sunflower stem cross section (Helianthus) Ground tissue Phloem (Companion cells) Xylem Phloem (fibers) Epidermis Vascular bundle

5 Sunflower stem cross section (Helianthus) What would the longitudinal section of xylem and phloem look like? Tubular, dude Which part of the stem is able to make new cells and allow the stem to elongate? Apical meristem Which part of a stem is able to increase in width or girth (adds wood)? Lateral meristem (vascular cambium)

6 Leaf Epidermis Stomata are openings through which plants can exchange gases with their environment. Guard cell open and close stomata.

7 Leaf Epidermis What is the function of the stomata? Regulate gas exchange What is the function of the guard cells? Open and close stomata Name one molecule needed for photosynthesis that enters the leaf through the stomata. CO 2 Name two molecules that exit the leaf through the stomata during the day. H 2 O, O 2 What substance on the surface of the epidermis protects a leaf from drying out? Waxy cuticle

8 Leaf cross-section Upper Epidermis Palisade Mesophyll Spongy Mesophyll Lower Epidermis Guard Cells Stomata What is the name of the main photosynthetic tissue in the leaf? Mesophyll; palisade and spongy

9 Leaf cross-section Describe how each cell type contributes to leaf function: Epidermal cells Light absorption, conserve water Guard cells Gas exchange Palisade mesophyll Light absorption Spongy mesophyll Light absorption AND gas exchange Vascular tissue Gas exchange, fluid and nutrient distribution

10 Flower Structure How many pistils, stamens, petals and sepals does the flower have? 1, 6, 3, 3 What are the functions of: sepals, petals, stamens pistil? Sepals protect flower bud Petals attract pollinators Stamen are male reproductive organ Pistil is female organ Give at least two examples of flower adaptations that ensure pollination. Fragrance Nectar Bright colors Shapes Location of pistil vs stamen

11 Name three different examples of adaptations that ensure that seeds (fruit) are dispersed from the parent plant. Edible fruit Aerodynamic seed transport Sticky or tricky design Name a way that the parent plant helps the embryo once it has germinated. (Where do the nutrients come from that the embryo uses until it starts photosynthesizing?) Cotyledons provide nourishment for the plant embryo

12 Mosses and Liverworts How does fertilization occur? Swimming sperm Do they disperse by spores or seeds? Spores Where are these structures produced? Sporangia What advance found in mosses and liverworts represents the first step in becoming a terrestrial organism? (stops them from drying out) Waxy cuticle

13 Mosses and Liverworts Give two characteristics of the Mosses and Liverworts that limit them to moister environments? No vascular system Swimming sperm No root system Do they have secondary growth (wood)? No

14 Ferns How does fertilization occur? Swimming sperm Do they disperse by spores or seeds? Spores Where are these structures produced? Sporangia What specialized tissues found in ferns (compared to mosses and liverworts) represent increasing independence from an aquatic habitat? Vascular system Do they have secondary growth (wood)? Some

15 Conifers How does pollination occur? Wind Do they disperse by spores or seeds? Seeds Where are these structures produced? Female Cones What specialized tissues allow them to live in a terrestrial habitat? Cuticle, vascular system, roots, true leaves Do they have secondary growth? Yes What is the name of the cells responsible for secondary growth? Vascular cambium (lateral meristem) What reproductive characteristic found in conifers (compared to ferns) represents increasing independence from an aquatic habitat? Seeds (cones)

16 Flowering Plants How does pollination occur? Wind and animals Do they disperse by spores or seeds? seeds Where are these structures produced? flowers What specialized tissues allow them to live in a terrestrial habitat? Cuticle, vascular system, roots, true leaves Do members of this phylum have secondary growth? Yes What two structures/organs differentiate flowering plants from all other plant phyla? Flowers fruit How do these structures increase the reproductive success of flowering plants over conifers? Animal pollination and dispersal

17 Review Questions What adaptation prevents the shoot (above-ground) from drying out in terrestrial plants? Waxy cuticle What allows ferns to grow taller than mosses and liverworts? Vascular system What characteristic is found in conifers and flowering plants that frees them from water during sexual reproduction? seeds Give two ways animals function to increase reproductive success in flowering plants. Pollination and seed dispersal Distinguish between pollination and fertilization. Pollination is pollen delivery to stigma Fertilization is delivery of sperm to egg

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