Scientific Identification & Classification

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1 Scientific Identification & Classification

2 Plant Parts Leaves Stems Roots Flowers

3 Leaves-External Petiole-leaf stalk or part that connects the leaf to the stem Blade-the large, flat part of the leaf Midrib-the large center vein Veins-the structural framework of the leaf Margin-the edge of the leaf

4 Leaves-External

5 Vein Pattern

6 Leaf Arrangement Alternate Opposite Whorled

7 Leaf Type Compound Simple

8 Leaf Type Awl Scale Needle

9 Leaf Shapes Cordate Elliptical Ovate Spatulate Deltoid Lanceolate Linear Star

10 Leaf Margin

11 Internal Parts Upper and lower epidermis - is the skin of the leaf that prevents the loss of too much moisture. Stomates - are the small openings under the leaf for breathing or transpiration. Guard cells - surround the stomates and regulate the open and close of the stomates. Chloroplasts - are small green particles that contain chlorophyll, give leaves their green color and are necessary for photosynthesis.

12 Functions of the Leaf Photosynthesis is a process by which plants capture sunlight and use it to convert carbon dioxide and water into food. Respiration converts sugars and starches into energy. Transpiration is the release of water vapor from the leaves of plants. It also cools the plant.

13 Misc. Leaf Terms Sessile - describes leaves without a petiole (example zinnia). Bracts - are modified leaves (example poinsettia). Needles and scales - modified leaves (example pine tree). Glabrous leaves or stems - have a smooth non-hairy feel (example southern magnolia). Pubescent leaves or stems - have a hairy feel (example African violet).

14

15 Stems Movement of Materials Support of the leaves and reproductive structures Food storages Reproduction with stem cuttings or grafting

16 Stems-External Lenticels breathing pores found on stems and branches Bud scale scars where terminal buds have been located Leaf Scars Where leaves were attached

17 External Parts, continued Terminal bud found on the end of a stem Axillary or lateral bud located at the axil of the leaf Lateral buds on side of stem

18 Internal Parts Xylem is the tissue that transports water and nutrients up from the roots to the stems and leaves. Phloem is the tissue that transports food down from leaves to the roots.

19 Internal Parts, continued Cambium is a thin, green, actively growing tissue located between the bark and wood and produces all new stem cells. Bark is old inactive phloem. Heartwood is old inactive xylem. Sapwood is new active xylem.

20

21 Cotyledons Monocots are plant stems that have vascular bundles each bundle contain both xylem and phloem. They produce one seed leaf. Examples are grasses and corn. Dicots are plant stems that have a phloem layer and a xylem layer separated by cambium. They produce two seed leaves. Examples are trees and many vegetable plants.

22 Stems-Internal Dicot: example: trees Monocot : examples: corn, grasses

23 Functions of Stems Translocation move water and minerals from roots up to leaves & move food/nutrients from leaves down to the roots Xylem and phloem cells help with this process.

24 Stems-Internal (Translocation) Xylem-tissue that transports water and nutrients up from the roots to stems and leaves Phloem-tissue that transports food down from leaves to roots Phloem Phloem Xylem

25 Functions of Stems, Leaves & Roots Transpiration loss of water through the leaves or stems of plants Transpiration exchange gases as oxygen and carbon dioxide Occurs in stomas and lenticels

26 Thorns & Prickles Thorn Prickle

27 Modified Stems Stolon Cladophyll Tuber

28

29 Root Functions Anchor the plant and hold it upright Absorb water and minerals from the soil and conduct them to the stem Store large quantities of plant food Asexual Reproduction or reproduce some plants

30 External Parts Root cap-indicates growth of new cells Root hairs-absorb moisture (water) and minerals

31 Internal Parts Much like stems in that they have a phloem, cambium, and xylem layer Phloem-the outer layer that carries food down the root Xylem-the inner layer that carries water and minerals up to the stem

32 Root Types Tap Root: Long root with few branched ones Fibrous Roots: Many branched shallow roots, are easier to transplant

33

34 Functions of Flowers Produce seeds used for sexual reproduction Attract insects for pollination (Pollination is the transfer of pollen from anther to stigma.) Produce fruit to protect, nourish and carry seeds

35 External Flower Parts Sepals-Green parts that cover and protect flower bud before it opens Petals-are really leaves that are modified to attract insects for flower pollination, the pretty part that we call flowers

36 Internal Flower Parts Stamens are the male flower parts. The anther is a sac-like structure that contains pollen and the male sex cells. The filament is a short stalk that holds up the anther.

37 Internal Flower Parts Pistil is female parts of the flower. The stigma is the sticky part on top of the style where insects leave pollen. The style holds up the stigma and connects it to the ovary. The ovary if fertilized becomes a fruit. The ovules are the eggs or female sex cells that become seeds if fertilized.

38 Corolla Petal Female Stamen Anther Style Pistle Filament Ovary Sepal Calyx

39 Flowers

40 Parts of the Stamen Filament-short stalk that holds up the anther Anther-a sac-like structure that contains pollen, the male sex cells

41 Parts of the Pistil Stigma-sticky part on top of style where insects leave pollen Style-holds up the stigma and connects it to the ovary Ovary-if fertilized becomes a fruit or seed coat Ovules-the eggs or female sex cells that become seeds if fertilized

42 Complete-vs-Incomplete Complete flowers have both male and female parts Incomplete flowers have only male or female parts

43 Monoeciuos All male or all female flowers on plant Examples: Hollies or Ginkgo Male Female

44 Dioecious Male and female, imperfect flowers on same plant Examples: Squash & Pumpkin

45 Flower Types Panicle Corymbs Umbel

46 Flower Types Spike Head

47 Additional Info Fertilization - is when pollen travels down the style, joining the sperm and the ovule. Pollination - is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma. Cross-pollination - is the transfer of pollen from the stamen to the stigma of one flower to a flower on another plant. Self-pollination - is the transfer of the pollen to the stigma of a flower on the same plant.

48 Additional Information Corolla - is all auxiliary parts of the flower not including reproductive organs. The collective term for all petals of a flower. Calyx - is the external usually green or leafy part of a flower. It is also the collective term for all sepals of a flower. Receptacle - is the enlarged tip of a stem on which a flower is born.

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50 Fruit The fruit serves as protection for the seeds. The function of the fruit is to help with seed dispersal. The juvenile stage is when a plant first begins growing from a seed.

51 Plant Parts-Fruit Cones Nut (acorn) Clusters or drupes (raspberry) Capsules (willow) Samara (maple)

52 Types of Fruits Pome - is a fleshy fruit which has a central core that usually has five seeds and is surrounded by a thick outer layer. Examples are apples and pears. Drupe - is a fleshy fruit which has one seed enclosed in a hard stony material. Examples are plum, peach and cherry.

53 Berry - is an entire ovary that is fleshy and often juicy with thin skin. Examples of a berry are tomato and grape. Modified berry - is like a berry but with a tough covering. Examples are grapefruit and cucumber. Aggregate fruit - are compound fruit composed of many tiny drupes clustered on a single receptacle. Examples are blackberry and raspberry.

54 Fruits and Nuts Cones Acorns Cluster Drupe

55 Fruits and Nuts Aggregate Capsule Samara Pome

56 Video Links (1) Travelling (2) Growing (3) Flowering (4) Social Struggle (5) Living Together (6) Surviving

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