Chapter 7 Part III: Biomes

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1 Chapter 7 Part III: Biomes

2 Biomes Biome: the major types of terrestrial ecosystems determined primarily by climate 2 main factors: Temperature and precipitation Depends on latitude or altitude; proximity to ocean; mountains; and air and ocean circulation patterns Similar traits of plants & animals for biomes of different parts of world; because of similar climate & evolutionary pressures (convergent evolution)

3 Climate and Animal Size Organisms with a smaller size have a higher surface area to volume ratio, because volume increases by the cube of the radius, whereas surface area increases by the square. Animals that live in cold climates often have larger body sizes so that they retain heat.

4 Biomes Earth's major biomes. tropical rain forest tropical deciduous forest tropical scrub forest tropical savanna desert chaparral boreal forest (taiga) temperate grassland arctic tundra temperate deciduous forest

5 Vegetation Patterns

6 Biomes Precipitation & temperature are the major factors influencing the distribution of biomes.

7 North American Biomes Red Text = Soil Types

8 Biomes Latitude and Altitude have similar effects on general locations of biomes. This view does not take into account global air circulation patterns. Fig. 7 13

9 Desert Biomes Tropical Desert Temperate Desert Polar Desert

10 Characteristics: Desert Biomes typically < 25 cm (10 in) annual precipitation; sparse, widely spaced, mostly low vegetation cover 30% of land surface, especially at 30 N and 30 S latitude; largest deserts on interiors of continents; plants either are typically deep rooted shrubs with small leaves, succulants, or short lived species that flourish after rain; animals are typically nocturnal & have physical adaptations for conserving water & dealing with heat.

11 Grassland, Tundra, & Chaparral Biomes Zimbabwe Kansas Alaska