Bharsar student

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1 Bharsar student

2 7. Insect Pests f Fruit, Plantatin, Medicinal and Armatic Crps (HPI 104) 3 (2+1) General ecnmic classificatin f insects; eclgy and insect-pest management with reference t fruit, plantatin, medicinal and armatic crps; pest surveillance. Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, injury, integrated management f imprtant insect pests affecting trpical, subtrpical and temperate fruits, plantatin, medicinal and armatic crps like ccnut, areca nut, il palm, cashew, caca, tea, cffee, cinchna, rubber, betel vine senna, neem, hemp, belladnna, pyrethrum, camphr, cstus, crtalaria, datura, discrea, mint, pium, Slanum khasianum and Tephrsia.. Strage insects distributin, hst range, bieclgy, injury, integrated management f imprtant insect pests attacking stred fruits, plantatin, medicinal and armatic crps and their prcessed prducts. Txiclgy insecticide residue prblems in fruit, plantatin, medicinal and armatic crps and their tlerance limits. Practical: Study f symptms f damage, cllectin, identificatin, preservatin, assessment f damage and ppulatin f imprtant insect pests affecting fruits, plantatin, medicinal and armatic crps in field and strage Bharsar student

3 Curse Overview Intrductin Annual lss due t insects pests alne causes Rs lakh crres in India. Indiscriminate usage f pesticides and unscientific apprach f insect pest management and leads t utbreak f newer pests, secndary insect pests prblem, resurgence resistance, residues in fd chain etc. hence an integrated pest management tl are t be taught t the graduates and farming cmmunity regarding envirnmentally friendly, eclgically sustainable, scially acceptable, safer pest management strategies is very very essential. Overall aim f the curse T understand the lss caused by varius insects, their ec-bilgy, in details n different hrticultural crps T develp the skills n varius IPM strategies T understand the use f newer mlecules f pesticides, varius trap, bicntrl agents, applicatin methds fr ec-friendly pest management. Intended learning utcmes f the curse Knwledge Skills T develp knwledge n bilgy, eclgy damage symptm, lsses and caused by varius insects n hrticultural crps T imprve the skill n usage f IPM tls fr scientific pest management Intellectual skills T develp the ability t knw the reasns fr utbreak, damage, transmissin f diseases n different crps. T develp intellectual skill n timing f pesticide applicatin, dsage, equipment selectin, fr effective pest management. T understand the cnsequences f pesticide residues, its impact n envirnment, and methds t vercme the prblem. Prfessinal and practical skills Prfessinally skilled fr mdern scientific pest management. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

4 Syllabus The candidate will be a suitable persn fr crrect diagnstic service t slve varius pest management issues. Thery: General ecnmic classificatin f insects; eclgy and insect-pest management with reference t fruit, plantatin, medicinal and armatic crps; pest surveillance. Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, injury, integrated management f imprtant insect pests affecting trpical, sub-trpical and temperate fruits, plantatin, medicinal and armatic crps like ccnut, areca nut, il palm, cashew, caca, tea, cffee, cinchna, rubber, betel vine senna, neem, hemp, belladnna, pyrethrum, camphr, cstus, crtalaria, datura, discrea, mint, pium, Slanum khasianum and Tephrsia.. Strage insects distributin, hst range, bieclgy, injury, integrated management f imprtant insect pests attacking stred fruits, plantatin, medicinal and armatic crps and their prcessed prducts. Txiclgy insecticide residue prblems in fruit, plantatin, medicinal and armatic crps and their tlerance limits. Practical: Study f symptms f damage, cllectin, identificatin, preservatin, assessment f damage and ppulatin f imprtant insect pests affecting fruits, plantatin, medicinal and armatic crps in field and strage Reference Athisamy, M. and Venugpal, M. S Effect f Azspirillum and rganic amendments n the incidence f majr pests f rice. In. : Abstracts f Natinal sympsium n Organic farming held at a Agrl. Cllege & Res. Instt. Madurai, Tamil Nadu, Oct , 1995, p Fuche, C., Gaskell,M., Kike, S.T., Mitchell, J. and Smith, R Insect Pest Management Fr Organic Crps. Publicatin 7251 by the Regents f the University f Califrnia, Divisin f Agriculture and Natural Resurces. Website address: Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

5 Grainge, M and Ahmed, S Hand bk f plants with pest cntrl prperties. Jhn wiley and sns, New Yrk pp. Mhan, S., Balasubramanian, G., Gpalan, M. and Jayaraj, S Slar heat treatment. A nvel methd t check rice weevil and red flur beetle infestatin in srghum during strage. Madras Agric. J., 74: Mhan, S., Devadss, C.T., Jayaraj, S. and Mhanasundaram, M Bigas fumigatin t cntrl pulse beetle, Callsbruchus chinenss. Bull. Grain Tech., 27 : Mhankumar, N. Sundara Babu, P. C. and Venugpal, M. S Effect f rganic and inrganic frms f nutritin n the ccurrence f rice gall midge, and its parasitid In. : Abstracts f Natinal Sympsium n Organic farming held at Agrl. Cllege & Res. Instt. Madurai, Oct , 1995, p Murthy, R. L. N. and Venateswarulu, P., Intrducing ecfriendly farming techniques and inputs in cttn. In : Prceedings f the wrkshp n Ec-friendly cttn, 1998 held at Agrl. Cllege and Res. Instt., Madurai, Tamil Nadu, Oct , 1995 p Rabindra, R. J., Transfer f Plant Prtectin Technlgy in Dry crps. In : Integrated Pest and Disease Management (Ed) S. Jayaraj. Prc. Natl. Seminar, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Cimbatre pp Rajasekaran. G., Pappiah, C. M. and Lgeswaran, G Studies n the effect f FYM, Azspirillum, Phsphbacteria, inrganic and inrganic surces n leaf hpper and pd brer in bhendi (Abelmschus esculenus) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

6 C. V. Arka Anamika. In. : Abstracts f Natinal Sympsium n rganic farming held at Agrl. Cllege and Res. Instt., Madurai, Tamil Nadu, Oct , 1995, p Sathiyanandam, V. K. R. and Janarthanan, R Influence f rganic surces n grundnut leaf miner incidence. In : Abstracts f Natinal sympsium n Organic farming held at Agrl. Cllege & Res. Instt., Madurai, Tamil Nadu, Oct , P Swezey, S.L Cnversin f cttn prductin t certified rganic management in the nrthern San Jaquin Valley: transitin phase plant grwth and yield ( ). Prceedings-Beltwide-Cttn-Cnferences- San-Antni-TX-USA-January Vlume-1: Swezey, S.L. and Gldman, P Cnversin f cttn prductin t certified rganic management in the nrthern San Jaquin valley: plant develpment, yield, quality, and prductin csts. Prceedings-Beltwide- Cttn-Cnferences-Nashville-Tennessee-USA-January Vlume-1: Uthamasamy, S Wide hybridisatin and Embry Rescue Techniques in the develpment f pest resistant crp plants. In: Mdern trends in Integrated Pest Management. Eds. R.J.Rabindra, N.Natarajan, R.Balagurunathan, C.Durairaj, K.Ramaraju and M.R.Srinivasan. TNAU Publicatin. pp Wu, G., Chen, Z., Dng, MS, Ji, L. H. and Shi, J Influence f interplanting crn in cttn fields n natural enemy ppulatin and its Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

7 effect n pest cntrl in Suthern Shaanxi, Chinies J. Bi Cntrl., 73, Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

8 Lecture N. 1 Principles f Applied Entmlgy Definitin-Applied Entmlgy Ecnmic entmlgy is the study f insects that are variusly related t the welfare f mankind. A study f thse insects which are variusly related t the welfare f mankind (Psitively r negatively) is referred as Applied Entmlgy and is almst need t knw abut varius management methds t curtail the activity f injurius insects and t encurage the actins f beneficial insects. Relatinship f insects t man Insects frm a majr categry cmprising abut 2/3 f animal kingdm; affect variusly the wellbeing f man. Man gets benefits frm insects in many ways; withut them, human sciety culd nt exist in its present frm.e.g. 2. Withut pllinating services f bees and ther insect, we wuld have few vegetables, few fruits, n cffee, n tbacc and few flwers. 3. Insects prvide us hney, beeswax, silk and many ther useful prducts. 4. Many insects species are parasites and predatrs and keep the crp pests under check. 5. Many f them cntrl weeds. 6. Many f them act as scavengers and make the wrld little cleaner. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

9 7. Insects are the sle r majr item f fd fr many birds, fish and ther animals (including man in sme part f the wrld). 8. Sme species have used in the treatment f certain diseases, in heredity, evlutin, scilgy etc., 9. Insects have aesthetic value. Study f insects is a hbby fr sme peple. On the ther hand, many insects are abnxius r destructive. 11. They attack varius grwing plants, feed n them, injure them and kill them r intrduce disease int them. 12. They attack man s pssessins-hme, clthing; fdgrains and destry them r cntaminate them. 13. They attack man and animals cause annyance because f their presence, durs, bites r stings and many are vectrs f disease f man and animals. Ecnmics classificatin f insects Based n their relatin t man, insects may be classified int tw general grups, beneficial and injurius. Sme insects may be cnsidered natural because man des nt feel their effects. Beneficial Insects: Cmmercial prducts derived frm insects A. Hney Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

10 Hney is used extensively as fd and in the manufacture f many prducts. B. Beeswax Bees wax is used extensively by industry in making candles, sealing wax, plishes and certain type f inks, mdels, dental impressins, csmetics and ther prducts. C. Silk The silk industry is an ancient ne. Several types f silkwrms are utilized fr prductin f cmmercial silk, but the mst imprtant is Bmbyx mri (Mulberry silkwrm). D.Shellac It is prduced frm the secretins f the lac insects Laccifer lacca, a type f scale insect ccurring n palas, Ber, kusum banyan, etc. These insects frm encrustatins f 6 t 13 mm thick n the twing f the hst plant. These are cllected, grund and prcessed t get shellac. E. Dyes and ther materials Several insects have been used in the manufacture f dyes. The cchineal insect, Dactylpius cccus, a scale insect smewhat similar t mealy bugs, is used fr the prductin f cchineal dyes. These insects feed n Opuntia cacti (prickly pear). The dye btained frm these insects is crimsn in Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

11 clur and is prduce frm the dried bdies f insects. Dyes have als been made frm ther types f scale insects and frm certain cynipid galls. F. Insects as medicine Certain insects have a real medicinal value. Allantin is a substance islated frm secretins f fly maggts and it has prperties f healing deep wunds. Cantharidin is a substance fund in the blister beetle, Lytta vesicatria and is useful internally treating certain urinary diseases and externally as a vesieeant and cunter irritant. Specific Medicine Apis is extracted frm hneybees by diagnsing the excited bees in alchl, and is used against certain disease like urinary irritatin, diphtheria etc. The bee venm cures rheumatism and arthritis and is available fr hypdermic injectin. G. Use f insect galls The galls cntain certain valuable prducts. Sme f the galls are f medicinal value: the Alepp gall f ak has astringent and tnic prperties and has been used fr abut 25 centuries in Eurpe and West Asian Cuntries. Other insect galls cntain dyes and give inks f permanent nature. The Alepp gall is used fr dyeing wl and hair and ink frm it had been used fr writing imprtant recrds in Manasteries in Western Cuntries. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

12 Other useful insects 1. Insects and pllinatin The majrity f higher plants are crss-pllinated. They depend n wind and insects fr pllinatin. While wind pllinatin may be a chance, insect aided pllinatin is smewhat a sure prpsitin. Wind pllinated crp prduces large quantities f dry pllen while the insect pllinated crp prduces less pllen, which is usually sticky and adheres t the bdies f insects that visit fr the flwer. Sme species f plants depend slely n a single f species f insect r type f insect fr pllinatin e.g.a. Smyrnafig pllinatin by fig wasp.b. Rsaceus plants (apple, pear, cherry, strawberry) chiefly depend n hneybees. Many rchard fruits are mainly insect pllinated. Mst imprtant insect pllinatr is hneybee. The value f pllinating insects t man is enrmus. Every time the bees cllect Rs. 100 wrth f hney, they make Rs.2000 wrth f seeds and fruits by pllinating the fllws. 2. Entmphagus insects The check (cntrl) exerted upn insect pests by entmlphagus (r insect eating animals) insect is very imprtant factr in keeping dwn the ppulatin f pest species. A classical example f successful cntrl f an insect pest by a predatr is the cttny cushin scale, Icerya purchase, a serius pest f rchard in Califrnia, by a lady bird beetle (Vedalia beetle) Rdlia cardinals intrduced frm Australia. In less than 2 years the scale Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

13 insect was cmpletely cntrlled. There are several parasitids and predatrs, which check the pest ppulatin. 3. Insect as weed killers Many insects feed and destry nxius weed plant, e.g.1. Prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) was intrduced int Australia and by 1925 had spread ver 25mil acres. In 1925, the larvae f mth, Cactbalastis cactrum were intrduced int Australia frm Argentina. Nw it is almst eradicated with abut just 1% f the area it ccupied in Hypericum perfratum L., Klamathe weed r gat weed was intrduced int Califrnia in 1900 and by 1940 spread ver 2 1/2 mil acres. Chrysmelid, Chryslina quadringemina prved effective and nw it is a minr prblem. 4. Insects as scavengers Insect scavengers are thse that feed n decmpsing plants r animals r dung. They cnvert these materials int simpler substances, which are returned t the sil and are available t plants. They als help t remve the unhealthful materials frm man s surrundings. Wd bring beetles, termites, carpenter ants and ther wd feeders cnvert fallen trees and lgs t sil. Dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) and dungflies enhance the decmpsitin f dung. Carrin-feeding insects (blwflies), skin beetles (Dermestids) are helpful in remval f carrin frm landscape. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

14 5. Insects imprve sil fertility a. Sil enriched by the excretins and dead bdies f insects. b. Sil insects imprve the physical prperties f sil and add its rganic cntent eg. Spring tails, ants, mle crickets, cicadas (nymphs), termites, beetles, flies etc. 6. Insects as fd f man and animals Many animals utilize insects as fd. Man himself is smetimes insectivrus. Many fresh water fish feed n mayflies, stneflies, caddish flies, msquit larvae, varius aquatic beetles etc. Birds that feed largely r entirely upn insects have practical value as predatrs f insect pests. Eg. Gulls (aquatic bird) checked a cricket utbreak in Utah. Other vertebrates are tads, frgs; lizards, bats etc. Man in many parts f the wrld utilizes insects as fd. Grasshppers, lcusts, crickets, cicadas, large ants, eggs f sme large water bugs, grubs f cckchafer beeltes, caterpillars f sme Saturnid mths, and larvae and pupae f bees and wasps are eaten by man in different parts f the wrld. Termites are cnsumed in sme parts f ut cuntry. 7. The use f insects in scientific research The fruit flies, Drsphila spp. Have been extensively used in genetic studies. These insects have 1. Shrt life cycle. 2. Large chrmsmes salivary chrmsmes. 3. Great number f easily recgnizable hereditary Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

15 variatins and 4. Drsphila sp can be easily reared in large numberat lw cst. Insect have been used as experimental animal in studies f behavir. Studies n scial insects have prvided much interesting and valuable infrmatin n scial rganizatin and behavir. 8. The aesthetic value f insects Fr many peple, study f insect prvides a stimulating hbby as the study f birds, flwers etc. Artists, jewelers and designers have utilized the beauty f insects fr patterns. Sme f the butterflies, mths and beetles have prvided basic patterns in many types f art. Harmful insects Mst types f plants are attacked and injured by insects. The injury is caused by feeding r vipsiting n the plant r serving as vectrs f plant disease resulting in yield lss r cmplete lss f the plant. 1. Injury by feeding Phytphagus insects cause damage resulting in defliatin (eg. Leaf eating caterpillars), desapping (sucking pests e.g.aphids, thrips, leaf and planthppers) etc. Injury by vipsitin: e.g.peridical cicadas cause wilting f twings when the eggs are aid. Cwbug n many plants. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

16 Injury by disease transmissin:mre than 200 plant diseases are transmitted by insects. e.g. Bhendi yellw vein clearing transmitted by whitefly. 2. Insects attacking stred prducts Many insects damage stred prduce by feeding, tunneling r cntaminating them.eg. rice mth, ptat tuber mth, red flur beetle. Pests f wd: All srts f wden structures, such as buildings, furniture, fence; insects damage psts etc. e.g. termites, Pests f fabrics: Fabric pests such as dermestid beetles and clthes mths cause damage t furs, clthing, blankets, rugs etc. 3. Insects attacking man and animals Insects attack man and animals directly in fur ways. Annyance: Bt flies and face flies cause great annyance t man and cattle. Venmus insects: Many insects inject txins int man and animals that cause irritatin, swelling, pain and smetimes paralysis. e.g. Bees, Wasps Parasitic insects: Many parasitic insects live in r n the bdies f man r animals causing irritatin, tissue damage r even death. e.g. Chewing lice f birds, sucking lice n mammals. Disease transmissin: Many insects brne disease have a high mrtality rate in man and animals. Insects transmit diseases in tw. A) As mechanical Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

17 vectrs (huseflies, blwflies-typhid, chlera etc). B) As bilgical vectrs (Anpheles Malaria). Symptms and types f damage caused by insect and mite pests Any insect that feeds n any part f a plant is termed as a pest. The types and symptms f damage caused t the plants vary accrding t the feeding habit and muthparts f insects. The damages caused by the insects are gruped int direct and indirect damages. Direct damages Injuries caused by biting and chewing insects, piercing and sucking insects, internal feeders, subterranean rt feeders and strage pests fall under this categry. s caused by insects having biting and chewing type f muth parts: 37. Defliatin (eg) Hairy Caterpillars 38. Scrapping and skelenizatin (eg)epilachna in brinjal 39. Feeding n terminal buds (eg) Brinjal sht brer 40. Nt ching the edges f leaves (eg) Ash weevil n brinjal 41. Sht hles n leaves (eg) Flea beele, Trtise beetle 42. Windwing (eg) Spdptera in Banana 43. Irregular hles n leaves (eg) Grass hpper 44. Leaf rlling, twisting and webbing (eg) Mangleaf twisting weevil Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

18 45. Feeding n flwers and buds (eg) Mringa bud wrm 46. Flwer webbing (eg) Jasmine webber 47. Partial feeding n grain r seeds (Eg.) lab lab pd brer caused by insects having piercing and sucking type f muth parts: 48. Chlrsis (eg.) aphids n Grundnut 49. Speckling (eg.) Banana tingids 50. Silvering (eg.) Onin thrips 51. Msaic (eg.) Bhendi aphids 52. Hpper burn (eg.) Bhendi jassid 53. Crinkling and curling f leaves (eg.) chilli thrips 54. Upward and dwnward curling f leaves (eg.) Chilli aphids 55. Dwnward cupping f leaves (eg.) Brinjal aphids 56. Elngatin f petiles (Eg) Chilli yellw mite 57. Distrtin and clustering f leaves (eg.) Mealy bug n ccnut 58. Tissue prliferatin (Eg.) Mealy bug n Hibicus 59. Sht drying (eg.) Tea msquit bug n neem 60. Flwer and fruit drp/shedding (eg) Mang hppers 61. Scab/crky/ utgrwth (eg.) Tea msquit bug n guava 62. Fruit ratting and discluratin (eg.) Citrus Fruit sucking mth 63. Pd/grain shriveling (eg) Pd bug n lablab caused by internal feeders Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

19 64. Stem, sht, bll, fruit and capsule bring (eg.) Pmegranate fruit brer 65. Leaf mining (eg.) Citrus leaf miner 66. Gall frmatin (eg.) Mang leaf gall 67. Frthing and gummsis (eg) Spittle bug n jack 68. Ozing ut f sap (eg.) Ccnut red palm weevil 69. Flwer discluratin (eg.) Jasmine bud wrm s caused by subterranean pests 70. Remval f swn seeds (eg) Ants n amaranthus 71. Wilting f plants due t feeding n rts (eg) Rt grub n cauliflwer 72. Tunnelling in vines and tubers (eg) Ptat tuber mth 73. Bring, tunneling and emptying f pds (eg) Sweet ptat weevil 74. Chlrsis and devitalisatin (eg) Rt mealy bug caused by stred prduct pests 75. Internal feeding f grains (eg) Pulse beetle 76. Surface scrapping f grains (eg) Crcyramth 77. Caking f flur (eg) Red flur beetle Indirect damages 78. Ovipsitin injury (eg) Cicada, Cwbug 79. Making harvest difficult (eg) Red antsn mang, lablab Aphids 80. Cntaminatin and lss f quality (eg) Brinjal fruit brer 81. Making nests r cases ut f plant parts (eg) Leaf cutter bee Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

20 82. Insect carriers (eg) Hmpterans (Mealy bug) carried by ants 83. Transmissin f plant disease by insects Virus (1) Whitefly (eg) Bhendi Vein clearing (2) Thrips (eg) Tmat sptted with (3) MLO (Micrplasma like Organisms) Leaf hppers (eg) Brinjal little leaf. Intrductin-Field f entmlgy The field f entmlgy may be divided int 2 majr aspects. 2. Fundamental Entmlgy r General Entmlgy 3. Applied Entmlgy r Ecnmic Entmlgy Fundamental Entmlgy Fundamental Entmlgy deals with the basic r academic aspects f the Science f Entmlgy. It includes mrphlgy, anatmy, physilgy and taxnmy f the insects. In this case we study the subject fr gaining knwledge n Entmlgy irrespective f whether it is useful r harmful. Applied Entmlgy r Ecnmic Entmlgy Applied Entmlgy r Ecnmic Entmlgy deals with the usefulness f the Science f Entmlgy fr the benefit f mankind. Applied entmlgy cvers the study f insects which are either beneficial r harmful t human beings. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

21 It deals with the ways in which beneficial insects like predatrs, parasitids, pllinatrs r prductive insects like hney bees, silkwrm and lac insect can be best explited fr ur welfare. Applied entmlgy als studies the methds in which harmful insects r pests can be managed withut causing significant damage r lss t us. In fundamental entmlgy insects are classified based n their structure int families and rders etc. in applied entmlgy insects can be classified based n their ecnmic imprtance i.e., whether they are useful r harmful. Assessment f insect ppulatin and damages in hrticultural crps Need 1. T knw the extent f pest lad and their damage. 2. T wrkut ecnmic injury level (EIL) and ecnmic threshld level (ETL). C) T estimate yield lss. d) T decide the timing f cntrl measures in rder t avid indiscrimate use f insecticide. EIL: Cst f cntrl measures = Lss by insect ETL: Level at which, cntrl measures t be taken t avid the insect ppulatin / damage reaching EIL. 1. Mang Select five trees (ne at the center and fur frm the crners f the field) and assess the pest ppulatin / damage as fllws. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

22 2. Citrus: Select five trees (ne at the centre and fur frm the crners f the field) and assess the pest ppulatin/damage as fllws. 3. Pmegranate Select five trees (ne at the centre and fur frm the crners f the field) and assess the pest damage as fllws. 4. Brinjal Select 50 plants at randm frm ne acre leaving the brders, and recrd the bservatins n pest ppulatin and/r damage at weekly interval starting frm 7 days after planting (DAT) up t last picking f the fruits. 5. Bhendi Select 50 plants at randm frm ne acre leaving the brders, and recrd the abservatins n pest ppulatin and / r damage at weekly interval starting frm 7 days after planting (DAT) up t last picking f the fruits. 6.Tmat Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

23 Select 50 plants at randm frm ne acre leaving the brders, and recrd the bservatins n pest ppulatin and/r damage at weekly interval starting frm 7 days after planting (DAT) up t last picking f the fruits. 7. Rse Select 10 plants at randm and assess the pest ppulatin/damage as fllws. 8. Jasmine Select five plants (ne at the centre and fur frm the crners f the field) and assess the pest ppulatin/damage n fllws. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

24 Lecture - 2 Ecnmic classificatin f insects Ecnmic classificatin f insects Insects can be classified as fllws based n their ecnmic imprtance. This classificatin us accrding t TVR Ayyar. Insects f n ecnmic imprtance There are many insects fund in frests, and agricultural lands which neither cause harm nr benefit us. They are classified under this categry. Human beings came int existence 1 millin years ag. Insects which cnstitute 70-90% f all animals present in this wrld came int existence millin years ag. Insects f ecnmic imprtance A. Injurius insects a) Pests f cultivated plants (Crp pests) Each cultivated plant harbrs many insects pests which feed n them reduce the yield f the3 crp. Field crps and hrticultural crps are attacked by many insect species. (eg) cttn bllwrm, Rice stem bres. b) Strage pests Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

25 Insects feed n stred prducts and cause ecnmic lss. (eg) Rice weevil, Pulse beetle. c) Pest attacking cattle and dmestic animals Cattle are affected by pests like Hrse fly, Fleshfly, Flese and Lice. They suck bld and smetimes eat the flash. d) Huse hld and disease carrying insects Huse hld pests include cckrach, ants, etc. Disease carrying insects are msquites, huseflies, bed bugs, fleas etc. B. Beneficial insects a) Prductive insects i) Silk wrm The silk wrm filament secreted frm the salivary gland f the larva helps us in prducing silk. ii) Hney bee Prvides us with hney and many ther byprducts like bees wax and ryal jelly. iii) Lac insects The secretin frm the bdy f these scale insects is called lac. Useful in making vanishes and plishes. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

26 iv) Insects useful as drugs, fd, rnaments etc, (a) As medicine eg. Sting f hney bees- remedy fr rhenmatism and arthritis Eanthridin - extracted frm blister beetle useful as hair tnic. (b) As fd - fr animals and human being. Fr animals- aquatic insects used as fish fd. Grass hppers, termites, pupae f mths. They have been used as fd by human beings in different parts f the wrld. (c) Ornaments, entertainers Artists and designers cpy clur f butterflies. Beetles wrm as necklace. Insect cllectin is a hbby (d) Scientific research Drsphila and msquites are useful in genetic and txiclgical studies respectively. (II) Helpful insects (i) Parasitids These are small insects which feed and live n harmful insects by cmpleting their life cycle in a hst and kill the hst insect. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

27 Eg.Egg, larval and pupal parasitids (ii) Predatrs These are large insects which capture and devur harmful insects. Eg.Cccinellids, preying mantids. (iii)pllinatrs Many crss pllinated plants depend n insects fr pllinatin and fruit set. Eg. Hney bees, aid in pllinatin f sunflwer crp. (iv)weed killers Insects which feed n weeds kill them thereby killers. Eg. Parthenium beetle eats n parthenium. Cchineal insect feeds in Opuntia dillenii. (v) Sil builders Sil insects such as ants, beetles, larval f cutwrms, crickets, cllum bla, make tunnels in sil and facilitate aeratin in sil. They becme gd manure after death and enrish sil. (vi) Scavengers Insects which feed n dead and decaying matter are called scavengers. They imprtant fr maintaining hygine in the surrundings. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

28 Eg. Carrin bettles, Rve beetles feed n dead animals and plants. d) Huse hld and disease carrying insects Pests which cause damage t belngings f human being like furniture, wl, paper etc. Eg. Cckraches, furniture beetle, sliver fish etc. Pests which cause painful bite, inject venms. Eg. Wasps, bees sting us. Hairy caterpillar nettling hairs are pisnus. Msquites, bugs bite, piece and suck bld frm us. Disease causing Msquit- Malaria, Filariasis,dengue fever. Husefly- Typhid, Chlera, Leprsy, Anthrax Insect eclgy and balance f life Insect eclgy Websters dictinary meaning Ttality (r) Pattern f relatin between rganisms and their envirnment. A German bilgist Ernst Haeckel (1869) prpsed the term eclgy. This deals with ttal relatinship f an animal t bth its rganic and inrganic envirnment. Insect eclgy Science f insect in relatin t their envirnment. Habitat eclgy Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

29 Study f habitat and its effects n the rganism. Auteclgy: Study f an individual, its behaviur and the influence f envirnment n its life cycle. Syn eclgy Study f a grup f rganism which are fund as a unit. It is als called Cmmunity eclgy. Ecsystem A self cntaining habitat in which living rganisms and the physichemical envirnment interact in an exchange f energe and matter t frm a cntinuing cycle. Bitic balance It is the cnditin f equilibrium in the ppulatin f animals. It is nt a static ne but scillating. The ppulatin level is determined by I. Reprductive ptential and II. Envirnmental Resistance. I. Reprductive ptential The ability f an insect t multiply in a given time in the absence f envirnmental resistance. Factrs that affect the reprductive ptential are a) initial ppulatin by fecundity. c) Length f develpmental perid and d) sex rati. II. Envirnmental resistance Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

30 The sum ttal f all factrs in n envirnment that tends t reduce the rate f multiplicatin. Factrs that affect the envirnmental resistance are a) Physical b) nutritinal, c) hst plant and d) bitic. a) Physical factrs i) Temperature influence the rate f develpment and level f distributin zne f effective temperature aestivatin hibernatin. ii) Light Certain life stages respnd t light phtperidicity, iii) Misture influence distributin and develpment, iv) Climate average physical cnditins in a lcality influence rate and develpment. b) Nutritinal factrs i) Availability f fd regulate ppulatin abundance. ii) kind and quality f fd influence life cycle. iii) Hst selectin mnphagus, plyphagus chemical factrs in hst selectin. c) Hst Plant assciated factrs rapidity f grwth, fliage characteristics, taste factrs etc. d) Bitic factrs i) Cmpetitin within and amng different species (Inter and intra specific). ii) Parasites and predatrs parasites like fungi, bacteria, prtz, nematdes and varius arthrpds predatrs like birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibins and insects check the ppulatin. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

31 iii) Human ppulatin trend Rapidly grwing wrld ppulatin grwth rate prjected wrld ppulatin Indian ppulatin resurces. Bitic factr Bitic factrs f the envirnment tend t mdify the activities f insects. Individuals within a ppulatin enter int varied interactins with each ther besides interacting with the adjacent ppulatin. These interactins may be psitive (r) negative accrding t whether it prduces beneficial r harmful effects n the interacting individual (r) ppulatin. In the psitive interactin, the individuals live adjusting with each ther (Mutusalim, cmmensalisms). The negative interactin leads t cmpetitin, parasitism and predatin. i. Cmpetitin The active demand by tw r mre individuals f the same species f ppulatin. (Intra specific cmpetitin) (r) members f tw r mre species at the same trphic level (Inter specific cmpetitin) fr a cmmn resurce (r) requirement that is actually limiting. Bth intra specific and inter specific cmpetitin cntribute t the density and diversity f a ppulatin. a) Inter specific cmpetitin Tw cmpeting species can t exist in a same place fr a lng time. Inter specific cmpetitn leads t cmpetitive displacement. (eg) Mediterranian Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

32 fruit fly in Hawai in The accidental intrductin f riental fruit fly replaces the Mediterranian fruit fly. Cmpetitive displacement between Nsema apis and mite Acarapis wdi in Hneybee. Triblium(red flur beetle) eliminate ryzalphilus (saw tthed beetle) bth are grwn in same flur. b) Intra specific cmpetitin If the cmmn resurce is abundance, n prblem in the individual and if it is limited cmpetitin ccurs and superir abilities will survive in the end. (eg) a)aphid dispersal. b) Canniblsim in American bllwrm, Helicverpa armigera. ii. Parasites and predatr Interactin between predatr and prey are different frm the parasite and hst relatinship in that the predatr and prey maintain an equilibrium mre dynamic than the parasite and its hsts. The parasites in general, when the rate f parasitizatin is high cause death and resultant eliminatin f the hsts. But a predatr never eliminates the prey cmpletely. Parasite includes fungi, bacteria, prtza nematdes and ther arthrpds. Predatr includes insect predatrs, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians that check the ppulatin. Abitic factr (physical factrs) a) Temperature Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

33 It has gt a prfund influence n the life cycle f insects. a) Temperature influences n the rate f develpment (r) number f generatin (eg) Temperature is an imprtant factr in the life f the bed bugs. The number f generatins passed thrugh during a year is directly dependent n the ambient temperature. As many as twelve generatins ccurs in the trpical and tw in cld climate. Fr the sugarcane stem brer, Chil infuscatellus, the larval perid extend ver days in summer and days in winter. b) Temperature influences the fecundity and rate f egg prductin. (eg) Cabbage Diamnd backmth lay mre number f eggs at 18 C (larval temperature) than 22 C. c) Temperature influences the rate f migratin and dispersal. (eg) In Desert lwest (Schisticeva gregaria), migratin f swarms ccurs at 17 C t 20 C. Zne f effective temperature. Nrmal life activities g n smthly at a specific temperature (r) at a specific range f temperature. This is called the ptimum temperature. The rate f chemical reactin within tissues is mdified by temperature. Metablic prcesses are influenced by temperature and increase with it upt a maximum and suddly decline at the upper lethal temperature. The extreme temperature alters the insect and the insect entes int diapauses (resting stage). If the resting stage is due t lw temperature, than it is called hibernatin. If the resting stage is due t high temperature, it is called Aestivatin. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

34 b) Light The radiant energy, termed light is ne f the mst imprtant eclgical factrs affecting many aspects f the insect life. Several vital phenmena f the insect bilgy (eg) feeding, grwth, develpment, diapuse, survival and ethlgy are prfundly influenced by light. Phtperidism: Daily and seasnal duratin f light has prfund effect n the prductin f sexual frm in Aphids. Shrt day length is influencing sexual frms, while lng day length is influencing asexual frms (parthengenetic) viviparus reprductin. Phtperids als influence grwth, metablism and daily rhythm f activity (feeding, flying, mating and vipsitin). The light influences n the inceptin and cmpletin f diapauses. Daily rhythm f activity: It has been bserved that many species f insects are nt equally active thrughut the 24 hr f the day. Sme are primarily ncturnal (dark active); ther are diurnal (day active) and still ther which are referred t as crepuscular (dusk active) are active mainly at dawn and dusk. c. Relative humidity Termites are a grup f insects fr which atmspheric humidity is an imprtant eclgical factr. They usually mve twards a zne f high humidity, when subjected t the slightest desiccatin. Humidity is high, rice brwn plant hpper multiplicatin is mre. Certain entmgenus Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

35 fungi requires very high humidity fr multiplicatin and spread (eg) white hal fungus, Verticillum lecanii attack n cffee green bug. d. Rainfall Fr nrmal emergence f adults rainfall is a must (als it is essential fr pupatin) fr insect like cutwrms, Helicverpa armigiera, Spdptetra litura. If it is excess, grubs like white grubs will cme ut f envirnment where they are subject t predatin. Excess rainfall cntrl aphids and Diamnd backmth. e. Wind It helps mre in the dispersal f insect species besides interfering with their nrmal feeding, mating and multiplicatin. (eg) with the help f wind current Helicrerpa adult mth fly upt 90 km. Anther examples is the spreads f eriphyid mite in ccnut. f.sil type Type f sil play a rle in multiplicatin f insects. (eg) wirewrms multiply even in heavy clay sil (pr drainage) with lesser drainage, Whereas white grub multiply very well in lse sandy sil (light) with better drainage. g)water Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

36 Standing (stagnated) water helps in multiplicatin f insect like msquites. Running streams are preferred by black flies and caddish flies. h) Trpgraphic factrs Besides muntain, large areas under water viz., sea etc als act as physical fr the spread f the insect. Eclgy related terminlgy i. Habitat is the place where the rganism lives. ii. Ppulatin dentes grups f individuals f any kind f rganism. Insect ppulatins are grups f individuals set in a frame that is limited in time and space. iii. Cmmunity in the eclgical sense includes all the ppulatins f a given area. Cmmunity can als be defined as interacting web f ppulatins where individuals in a ppulatin feed upn and in turn are fed upn by individuals f ther ppulatins (Fig. 1) iv. Ecsystem Ecsystem r eclgical system is the functining tgether f cmmunity and the nnliving envirnment where cntinuus exchange f matter and energy takes place. In ther wrds ecsystem is the assemblage f elements, cmmunities and physical envirnment. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

37 Ecsystem is the ultimate unit fr study in eclgy as they are cmpsed f living rganisms and the nnliving envirnment. Examples f natural ecsystem: Pnds, lakes and frests ecsystem (Fig.2) v. Bisphere is the term used fr all f the earth s ecsystems functining tgether n the glbal scale. Living Genes Cells Organs Organisms Ppulatins Cmmunities cmpnents + Nnliving cmpnents Matter Energy Bisphere = Bisystems Gene Cell Organ Organism Ppulatin Ecsystem Figure 3. Flw f matter and energy in an ecsystem Agr ecsystem is largely created and maintained t satisfy human wants r needs. It is nt a natural ecsystem but is man made. Agr ecsystem is the basic unit f pest management - a branch f applied eclgy. A typical agrecsysyetm (Fig. 4) is cmpsed f i. mre r less unifrm crp-plant ppulatin ii. Weed cmmunities iii. Animal cmmunities (including insects) iv. Micrbitic cmmunities v. and the physical envirnment the react with. Unique features f Agrecsystem Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

38 Dminated by plants selected by man N species diversity and n intraspecific diversity. Genetically unifrm Phenlgical events like germinatin, flwering ccur simultaneusly Lack f tempral cntinuity - due t varius agricultural peratins carried ut by man like plughing, weeding, pesticide applicatin etc. Plants cntain imprted genetic material Nutrients are added Outbreak f pests, weeds and diseases ccur frequently Balance f Nature Balance f Nature is defined as the natural tendency f plant and animal ppulatin resulting frm natural regulative prcesses in an undisturbed ecsystem (envirnment) t neither decline in numbers t extinctin nr increase t indefinite density. In unmanaged ecsystems, a state f balance exists r will be reached, that is species interact with each ther and with their physical envirnment in such a way that n average, individuals are able nly t replace themselves. Each species in the cmmunity achieves a certain status that becmes fixed fr a perid f time and is resistant t change which is termed as the balance f nature. When man begins t manage creating new ecsystem (agrecsystem) where natural ecsystem existed previusly, the balance is altered. The exceptinally strng frces react in ppsitin t ur impsed change tward a return t the riginal system (e.g. utbreak f a pest is ne f the Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

39 frces). S insect pests are nt eclgical aberratins. Their activities cunter wants and needs f human ppulatins. Factrs that determine insect abundance i) Bitic ptential It is the innate ability f the ppulatin t reprduce and survive. It depends n the inherited prperties f the insect i.e., reprductin and survival. Ptential natality is the reprductive rate f the individuals in an ptimal envirnment. Survival rate depends n the feeding habits and prtectin t yung nes (Eg. Viviparity). Generally insects with high reprductive rate tend t have lw survival rate and vice versa. Insect pests with high reprductive rate and lw survival rate are called r strategists named after the statistical parameter r, the symbl fr grwth rate cefficient. Such pests succeed because f sheer numbers. Eg. Aphids. K strategists reprduce slwly but effectively cmpete fr envirnmental resurces and s their survival rate is high. (K letter dentes flattened prtin f grwth curve) Eg. Cdling mth f apple. Birth rate r natality is measured as the ttal number f eggs laid per female per unit time. Factrs determining birth rate are fecundity, fertility and sex rati. Death rate r mrtality dentes the number f insects dying ver a perid. Example f High reprductive rate Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

40 A single mth f Earias vitella (Bhendi fruit brer) lays abut 200 eggs per female. Life cycle is cmpleted in 1 mnth After 1 mnth 200 adults 100 male female 100 x 200 = 20,000 eggs After 2nd mnth 10,000 x 200 = 2,000,000 eggs After 1 year 2,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 adults (i.e., 2 fllwed by 24 zeres) If a single mth can prduce this much, they will cver abve earth surface in 1 year. But in reality nly a fractin f prgeny cmpletes life cycle due t envirnmental resistance. Envirnmental resistance is the physical and bilgical restraints that prevent a species frm realizing its Bitic ptential. Envirnmental resistance may be f 2 types. 1. Bitic factrs - includes a) Cmpetitin (interspecific and intraspecific) b) Natural enemies (predatrs, parasites and pathgens) 2. Abitic factrs a) Temperature b) Light c) Misture and water d) Substratum and medium Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

41 Biresurces in ecsystem Ecsystem cmprises f bilgical cmmunities and nn-living envirnment. Eg. Agr ecsystem, pnd ecsystem, etc.). Biresurces refers t the bidiversity f varius rganisms living in that ecsystem. Eg. The different pests f cttn, its natural enemies, hyperparasitids, micrbes, etc. are referred t the biresurces in cttn ecsystem. The ecsystem shuld have mre biresurces. Such ecsystem will be mre stable. Insecticides will deplete the biresurces in ecsystem and make it less stable and prne t pest utbreak. Natural cntrl will be high when biresurces (e.g. Parasitids and Predatrs) are mre. Ppulatin dynamics and rle f bitic factrs Attributes f a ppulatin i. Density: Ppulatin size per unit area ii. Birth rate (Natality): Rate at which new individuals are added t the ppulatin by reprductin iii. Death rate (Mrtality): The rate at which individuals are lst by death. iv. Dispersal: The rate at which individuals immigrate int and emigrate ut f the ppulatin. v. Dispersin: the way in which individuals are distributed in space. It may be f 3 types. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

42 a) Randm distributin b) Unifrm distributin c) Clumped distributin vi. Age distributin: the ppulatin f individuals f different ages in the grup. vii. Genetic characteristics: adaptive ness, reprductive fitness, persistence. viii. Ppulatin grwth frm: the way in which ppulatin changes / grws as a result f natality, mrtality, and dispersal. Ppulatin dynamics Ppulatins grw in tw cntrasting ways. They are i. J- shaped grwth frm (Fig. 1a) ii. S- Shaped r sigmid grwth frm (Fig. 1b) N K Density Time Fig. 1a. J- Shaped grwth frm Fig. 1b. S - Shaped grwth frm. In the J - shaped grwth frm, the ppulatin density increases in expnential r gemetric fashin; fr example 2,4,8,16,32 and s n until the ppulatin runs ut f sme resurce r encunters sme limitatin (limit N, Fig. 1a). Grwth then cmes t a mre r less abrupt halt and density declines rapidly. Ppulatins with this kind f grwth frm are unstable. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

43 Their reprductive rate is high and survival rate is less and s they are r strategists. A factr ther than density regulates the ppulatin. (Eg. Aphids). In the S-shaped grwth pattern (Fig. 2) the rate f increase f density decreases as the ppulatin increases and levels ff at an upper asymptte level K, called the carrying capacity, r maximum sustainable density. Their reprductive rate is less and survival rate is mre. S they are K strategists. This pattern has mre stability since the ppulatin regulates itself. (Eg. Hymenpterans). The ppulatin grwth rate r change is wrked ut using the frmula, Nt = N0e (b-d) t - Et + It Where Nt = number at the end f a shrt time perid N0 = number at the beginning f a shrt time perid e = base f natural lgarithm = b= birth rate d= death rate t= time perid E= emigratin I = immigratin. Life table: Life tables are tabular statements shwing the number f insects dying ver a perid f time and accunting fr their deaths. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

44 Lecture N. 3 Pests-Categries, causes fr utbreak f pests Definitin-Pest Any rganism detrimental t man his prperty (r) Any frm f plant r animal life r any pathgenic agent injurius r ptentially injurius t plants, plant prducts, livestck r man. Definitin-Insect pests Insects sufficiently numerus t cause ecnmic lss is called insect pest. Categries f pests 1. Regular pests: Occurring mre frequently n a crp having clse assciatin with the crp. (eg) Brinjal sht and fruit brer. 2. Occasinal pests: Occurring infrequently with n clse assciatin with a particular crp (eg) Snake gurd semilper. 3. Seasnal pests: Occurring during a particular part f the year. (eg) Red Hariy Caterpillar (RHC) in grundnut. 4. Pesistent pests: Occurring n a crp almst thrughut the year (eg) thrips n chillies. 5. Spradic pests: Occurring in a few islated lcalities (eg) ccnut slug caterpillar. 6. Epidemic pests: Occurring in severe frm in a regin r lcality at a particular seasn (eg) RHC in grundnut in Bhavan Taluk. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

45 7. Endemic pests: Occurring regularly and cnfined t a particular area r lcality (eg) rice gall midge in Madurai dist. Causes fr utbreak f pests 1. Destructin f frest r bringing frest area under cultivatin shift t cultivated crps. (eg) Hairy caterpillar attack n crp plants near frest areas. 2. Indiscriminate use f pesticides leads t destructin f natural enemies, pest resistance,pest resurgence. (eg) Synthetic pyrethrids n sucking pests. 3. Intensive cultivatin (eg) Diamnd backmth n cauliflwer in plains and extensive cultivatin (eg) mnculture f rice leads t ut break f leaf flder. 4. Intrductin f new crps (eg) gurkin crp leads mre fruit fly incidence and imprved strains (eg) many high yielding varieties are mre susceptible t insects. 5. Imprved agrnmic practices (eg) higher N, clse spacing, weed cntrl etc. imprved crp grwth and reduced cmpetitin fr fd t the insects. 6. Intrductin f new pest in a new area (eg) apple wlly aphid. 7. Accidental intrductin f freign pests (eg) ptat tuber mth, cyst nematde f ptat, spiraling white fly n guava. 8. Large scale strage f fd grains (eg) utbreak f stred prduct pests, rat prblem. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

46 Pest management cncept Histry The term pest management cmparatively new, althugh the ideas frm which it is derived have been develped ver many decades. 2. In the late 19th century, S.A. Frbes f the University f Illinis suggested an eclgical apprach and cmbinatins f cntrl measures fr insect cntrl. 3. The value f mnitring pest ppulatin by sampling was realized by the early 20th century. 4. During the 1940s R.F.Smith develped an utline f Supervised cntrl in Califrnia. 5. B.R. Bartlett in 1956 cined the term integrated cntrl. 6. Shrtly after wrd V.M.Stern R.F.Smith, R.Van den Bsch and K.S.Hagen published n article n the integrated cntrl cncept. 7. In 1961, the Australian entmlgists, P.W.Geier and L.R. Clark cined the pharse Pest Management fr prgrammes in which cntrl methds fit int the bilgy f the pest species. 8. Jhansn 1978 in his article Principles f insect cntrl has utlined a brief summary f the cncepts n which pest management is based. 8) Brader (1979) quted mst suitable definitin. Pest management is a system that, in the cntext f the assciated envirnment and the ppulatin dynamics f the pest species, utilizes all suitable techniques and methds in n cmpatible manner as pssible and maintains pest ppulatins f level belw thse causing ecnmic injury. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

47 Aims (r) bjectives 1. T reduce the crp damage. 2. T prevent the insect t use the crps as breeding and feeding site by suitable technique. 3. T utilize tw r mre cntrl techniques tgether in an integrated fashin. 4. T make maximum use f natural mrtality factrs. 5. T apply specific cntrl measures nly as and where necessary. Pest management strategies A pest management strategy is the verall plan t eliminate a pest prblem. The particular strategy develped depends n the particular life system f the pest and crp invlved. 2. D nthing: When pest densities are belw the ecnmic threshld, d nthing is the stratergy t fllw. Otherwise a net lss ccurs frm pest management. 3. Reduce pest ppulatin number: Usually emplyment in a therapeutic manner when densities actually reach the ecnmic threshld r in a preventing manner based n a histry f prblem. 4. Reduce the crp susceptibility t pest injury. This is mst effective and envirnmentally desirable strategy. The tactics invlved are HPR (hse plant resistance) and eclgical management. 5. Cmbine reduced ppulatin numbers with reduced crp susceptibility cmbinatin f bjectives f all the abve strategies t prduce a pest Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

48 management prgramme with several tacties. The use f multiple strategies and tacties is a basic principle in develping insect pest management prgrammes. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

49 Lecture N. 4. Methds f pest cntrl 1. Natural cntrl The check in ppulatin is due t natural agencies like climatic, Natural enemies, Tpgraphic, Resistance f plants t insects. 2. Applied cntrl Planned and rganized by man t eliminate r reduce the number f insects and the damage. This includes Prphylactic r preventive measures and Curative r direct measures. Prphylacitc: Field sanitatin, Crp rtatin, resistant varieties, Preventive treatment. Curative: 3. Cultural methds tillage, time f planting, pruning, fertilizatin, water management sanitatin and trap crps. 4. Grwing resistant varieties. 5. Mechanical methds hand destructin, exclusin and trapping 6. Physical methds heat, cld, humidity, energy and sund 7. Bilgical methds parasitids, predatrs and pathgens 8. Chemical methds attractants, repellents, insecticides, sterilants and grwth inhibitrs. 9. Genetic methds male sterile techniques. 10. Regulatry methds quarantines, legislatin Integrated pest management Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

50 Integrated pest management is defined as the Optimizatin f pest cntrl in an ecnmically and eclgically sund manner. It is a judicius cmbinatin f feasible pest management cmpnents t keep insects belw ecnmic injury level. Cmpnents f pest management 1. Bi-eclgy f pests Knwledge n the life cycle f the pest gives nt nly an idea abut the duratin and develpment f the insect, but als it enables t identify the weak link in the insect s grwth t direct the management technlgy (S. litura egg mass and larvae remain tgether n the under surface f leaves which facilities the cllectin and destructin f the larvae (r) spray chemicals with less quantity. 2. Pest Surveillance and Mnitring This can be dne thrugh light / phermne trap / sticky trap, which help the timely applicatin f pest suppressin strategies. 3. Cultural cntrl It is cncerned with the use f farming r cultural practices assciated with the crp prductin t make envirnment less favurable fr the survival, grwth and reprductin f pest species. It is used fr suppresining pest ppulatin bth by direct effect killing f the pests r by indirect effect by prviding cnditin favurable fr the natural Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

51 enemies f pests. This includes crp rtatin, crp refuge destructin, tillage, time f planting, pruning, fertilizatin, water management, sanitatin, trap crps. 4. Grwing resistant varieties The phenmenn f plant resistance is inherited quality that enables a plant t avid, tlerate r recver frm the effects f vipsitin r feeding that wuld cause greater damage t ther gentypes f the sme species under similar envirnmental cnditins. 5. Mechanical methds This invlves use f mechanical frce r manual labur either fr destructin r exclusin f pests. 6. Physical methds This methd envisages use f physical factrs fr eradicatin f insect pests. Mdificatin f physical factrs in the envirnment t minimize r prevent pest prblems is making the envirnment t minimize r prevent pest prblems is making the envirnment unsuitable fr the entry and survival f insect. 7. Bilgical methds Bilgical cntrl f pest may be defined as the eradicatin (r) suppressin f insects by encuragement, artificial intrductin r Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

52 increase f their natural enemies such as parasites, predatrs and disease causing rganism. De Bach (1964) defined the bilgical cntrl as the the actin f parasite, predatrs r pathgens in maintaining anther rganisms ppulatin density at a lwer average than wuld ccur in their absence. 8. Chemical methds Chemical cntrl includes the use f varius chemicals that bring abut cntrl f pest either by txic prperties that cause death t the insect r by ther effects like changing the behaviur, imparting sterility, impairing develpment (r) causing metablic disrders t the insects. 9. Genetic methd (r) Sterility methds This methd envisages the use f sterile insects t bring dwn the ppulatin f pests (eg.male sterile technique-male pupae are sterilized with cbalt 60 and released. Here insects are used against the members f their wn species t reduce ppulatin levels and fr this reasn, the apprach ften is called autcidal cntrl. 10. Regulatry methds i. Preventing entry and establishment f freign plant and animal pest in a cuntry. ii. Eradicating, cntaining r suppressin pests already established in a limited area. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

53 11. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Refers t an eclgical apprach in Pest Management in which all available techniques are cnslidated in unified prgramme, s that pest ppulatins can be managed in such a manner that ecnmic damage is avided and side effects are minimized. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

54 Lecture N. 5 Integrated pest management 1. Basis fr IPM It is estimated that lsses caused by insects accunts t nearly Rs.50, 000/- crres annually. When the cncept f green revlutin came, the areas f assured irrigatin were identified and technlgies were develped t increase prductin in the assured irrigatin areas. Anther change was the intrductin f high yielding crp varieties. The varieties had very high ptential and with the high inputs f fertilizer, water and pesticides they culd yield substantially very high yields. But with the intrductin f high yielding varieties, there were many prblems f pests and diseases. The applicatin f ptential synthetic pesticides culd cntrl the pests and diseases in the initial stage. The farmers entice enrmus mnitry return. S the farmers still intensified the cultivatin, they went in fr higher inputs, they culd get higher yield fr 2 r 3 years. But, at ne stage, the pest became t react i.e. there is always a cmpetitin between plant, pest and human. The pests vercme the stress and able t prduce bitypes and became resistant. The insecticides that initially cntrlled the pest were nt able t cntrl the pest subsequently. Then the farmers increased the dsage and interval is shrtened and cmbinatin f pesticides was used. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

55 All these means lead t aggravatin f pests. The farmers and Scientists wanted t evlve new methds and strategies. Nw peple thught t evlve new methds which are eclgically sund, safe i.e. input shuld be apprpriate, pesticide shuld be prper, als intrduced cultural methds, physical methds, need based methds based in ETL, hw resistant varieties can be intrduced, hw bilgical agents can be intrduced and ther nn cnventinal methds including btanicals, attractants repellents, etc. S they wanted t integrate the pssible methds either fr a single pest r fr all pests f a crp. This is the basis fr IPM IPM definitin Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a system that, in the cntext f assciated envirnment and ppulatin dynamics f the pest species, utilizes all suitable techniques and methds in as cmpatible a manner as pssible and maintains pest ppulatins at levels belw thse causing ecnmic injury. FAO (1967). Tls r cmpnents f integrated pest management Inputs/Requirements IPM Cmpnents f IPM Eclgy f pest Pest surveillance and mnitring ETL Physical methds f pest cntrl Mechanical methds Mechanical methds Cultural methds Hst plant resistance Bilgical methds Parasitids Virus Predatrs Fungi Micrbes Bacteria Btanicals Prtzva Chemical cntrl methd Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

56 Genetic/Bitechnlgical apprach Behaviural methd Phermne Allelchemical Legal methd 2. Cmpnents f rganic pest management The fllwing cmpnents may be included in rganic methd f pest management 1. Eclgy based pest management and Habitat diversificatin 2. Use f resistant varieties 3. Wide hybridizatin 4. Physical methds f pest management 5. Mechanical methds f pest management 6. Use f plant prducts / btanicals 7. Use f insect phermnes 8. Bilgical cntrl f pests 9. Use f synthetic rganics permissible fr use in rganic agriculture 10. Using farmers wisdm in rganic farming Eclgy based pest management Varius ec-friendly tactics f pest management have t be integrated s as t avid the use f chemical pesticides. The knwledge f interactin amng plant, pest, natural enemies and envirnment is essential fr effective pest management. When the balance f nature is disturbed by man made interventins, nature strikes back in the frm f pest utbreaks. Sme examples f pest utbreaks are as fllws Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

57 2. Whiteflies in brinjal 3. Helicverpa armigera in bhendi 4. Slug caterpillar in ccnut 5. Eriphyid mite n ccnut Mrever the pest status changes ver years due t interactin f varius bitic and abitic factrs. One has t thrughly understand the reasns fr utbreak f pests and their changing status and plan the management practices accrdingly s as t prevent further utbreaks Habitat diversificatin Habitat diversificatin makes the agricultural envirnment unfavurable fr grwth, multiplicatin and establishment f insect pest ppulatins. The fllwing are sme appraches by which the pest ppulatin can be brught dwn Intercrpping system Intercrpping system has been fund favurable in reducing the ppulatin and damage caused by many insect pests due t ne r mre f the fllwing reasns. Pest utbreak less in mixed stands due t crp diversity than in sle stands Availability f alternate prey Decreased clnizatin and reprductin in pests Chemical repellency, masking, feeding inhibitin by durs frm nn-hst plants. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

58 Act as physical barrier t plants. The fllwing table gives a few examples f intercrpping system where reductin in damage level was nticed Table 1. Effect f intercrpping system n pest levels Sl. N. Crp Sle crp Intercrp Pest reduced 1. Cauliflwer nin Diamnd back mth 2. Cauliflwer Mustard Diamnd back mth 3. Onin Agathi Thrips 4. Banana Marigld Nematdes 5. Brinjal Slanum nigrum Whiteflies Interplanting maize in cttn fields increased the ppulatin f Araneae, cccinellidae and Chryspidae by % cmpared with cntrl fields. Maize als acted as a trap crp fr H. armigera reducing the secnd generatin eggs and damage t bhendi. Hence it is highly imprtant that apprpriate intercrpping systems have t be evlved where reductin in pest level ccurs Trap crpping Crps that are grwn t attract insects r ther rganisms like nematdes t prtect target crps frm pest attack. This is achieved by Either preventing the pests frm reaching the crp r Cncentrating them in a certain part f the field where they can be ecnmically destryed Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

59 Table 2. List f successful examples f trap crp Sl. N. Main Crp Trap crp Pest 1. cauliflwer Mustard Diamnd back mth 2. Tmat African marigld Helicverpa 3. Bhendi Castr Spdptera Grwing mustard as trap crp 2 rws per 25 cabbage rws fr the management f diamnd back mth. First mustard crp is swn 15 days prir t cabbage planting r 20 days ld mustard seedlings are planted. Grwing castr alng the brder f cttn field and irrigatin channels act as indicatr r trap crp fr Spdptera litura. Planting 40 day ld African tall marigld and 25 day ld tmat seedlings (1:16 rws) simultaneusly reduces Helicverpa damage. Grwing trap crps like marigld which attract pests like American bllwrm t lay eggs, barrier crps like maize/jwar t prevent migratin f sucking pests like aphids and guard crps like castr which attracts Spdptera litura in cttn fields was reprted by Murthy and Venkateshwarulu (1998) Fertilizer management Plant grwth is dependent n the nutritinal status f the sil which in turn has indirect effect n pests. High levels f N fertilizer always favur insects and makes plants mre susceptible t insect infestatin (Rathre and Lal, 1994). On the ther hand lwer ptassium supply favurs the Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

60 develpment f insects, while ptimum and high K has depressant effects (Dale, 1988). The fllwing table (Table 3) shws the rle f nutrient management n pest levels. Table 3. Effects f hst plant nutritin n insect pests Sl. N. Hst plant Insect Respnse 1. Rice Thrips, GLH, Whrl maggt, Leaf flder High K applicatin reduces pest incidence 2. Leaf flder, gall midge, High N levels increases BPH, Yellw stem brer, WBPH pest ppulatin and damage 3. Wheat Cutwrm (Mythimna separata) Increased N increases incidence 4. Srghum Shtfly High P reduced incidence High N increased incidence 5. Cttn Pink bll wrm, leafhpper 6. Chickpea Helicverpa armigera N increased infestatin while P and K reduced Planting dates and crp duratin Planting dates shuld be s adjusted that the susceptible stage f crp synchrnizes with the mst inactive perid r lwest pest ppulatin. The plantings shuld be als based n infrmatin n pest mnitring, as the data varies with lcatin. Crp maturity als plays an imprtant rle in pest avidance. The fllwing table (table 4) shws the imprtance f planting dates n pest ppulatin and damage Table 4. Rle f planting dates n pest ppulatin and damage Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

61 Sl. N. Hst plant Insect Respnse Reference 1. Rice Leaf flder Early palnted rice (upt Dhaliwal et al. (1988) 3rd week f June) suppressed ppulatin 2. BPH Planting in end f July Krishnaiah et al. (1986) in Kharif and Early in Rabi escapes attack in AP 3. Gallmidge Lwest incidence if planted in Aug r Oct Uthamasamy and Karuppuchamy (1986) 4. Srghum Shtfly Advancing swing date Ktikal and Panchbavi (Sept - Oct) decreased (1991) incidence 5. Cttn Leafhpper Higher incidence in late Dhawan et al. (1990) swn crp 6. Chickpea H. armigera Fr every 10 day delay in swing 4.02% increase in pd damage Devendra Prasad et al. (1989) 7. Tmat Whitefly Incidence less if planted Saikia abd Muniappa (B.tabaci) within Jul- Nv (1989) 8. Chillies Thrips Late planted crp severely affected by thrips and leaf curl virus Bagle (1992) Planting density Plant nutrient status, interplant spacing, canpy structure, etc., affect insect behaviur in searching fd, shelter and vipsitin site. It als affects natural enemy ppulatin. The effect f plant density n pest ppulatin is shwn in Table 5. Table 5. Effect f plant density n pest ppulatin Sl. Spacing/ Crp N. density 1. Rice Dense planting Insect Respnse Reference Leaf flder, BPH High incidence Kushwaha and Sharma (1981) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

62 2. Chickpea Dense plant ppulatin 3. Less dense ppulatin 4. Sugarcane Dense seed rate H.armigera High incidence Aphis craccivra High incidence Tpsht brer Lw incidence Early sht brer High incidence Kalde and Krishnaiah (1991) Yadav (1987) Lal et al (1989) Singla and Duhra, Destructin f alternate hst plants Many insects use a wide range f cultivated plants especially weeds as alternate hsts fr ff seasn carry-ver f ppulatin. Mattesn et al. (1984) reprted that weeds arund the crp can alter the prprtin f harmful and beneficial insects that are present and increase r decrease crp damage. Table 6. Alternate hsts t be remved t reduce damage by pests Sl. N. Crp Pest 1. Grundnut Thrips (Calithrips indicus) Alternate hst t be remved Achyranthus aspera Reference Mhan Daniel et al. (1984) 2. Rice Gallmidge Wild rice (O.nivara) 3. GLH Leersia hexandra Echinchla clnum E.crusgalli Kalde and Krishnaiah (1991) C.dactyln 4. WBPH Chleres barbata 5. Srghum Earhead midge Grassy weeds Prem Kishre (1987) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

63 Destructin f ff types and vlunteer plants, thinning and tpping, pruning and defliatin and summer plughing are ther cultural methds which can reduce pest lad in field Water management Availability f water in requisite amunt at the apprpriate time is crucial fr prper grwth f crp. Hence, water affects the assciated insects by many ways such as nutritinal quality and quantity, partitining f nutrients between vegetative grwth and reprductin etc. The fllwing table shws the effect f irrigatin n pest ppulatin / damage. Table 7. Effect f irrigatin n pest ppulatin / damage. Sl.N Crp Insect Respnse Reference 1. Rice Mealy bug Cntinuus pnding f Gpalan et al. (1987) 5cm water reduced incidence 2. Rice Casewrm Draining f water t Thmas (1986) and BPH field capacity reduces incidence 3. Fruit tree Termite Cpius irrigatin Butani (1987) nursery reduces incidence 4. Grundnut Aphids Cpius irrigatin increased incidence Ra et al. (1991) Crp rtatin Sustainable systems f agricultural prductin are seen in areas where prper mixtures f crps and varieties are adpted in a given agr- Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

64 ecsystem. Mncultures and verlapping crp seasns are mre prne t severe utbreak f pests and diseases. Fr example grwing rice after grundnut in garden land in puddled cnditin eliminates white grub Organic manure Applicatin f press mud in 12.5 t/ha had a better influence n leaf miner with lwer leaflet damage at per cent and 2.48 larval numbers per plant during summer It was per cent and 2.72 numbers during kharif, 1991 (Sathiyanandam and Janarthanan, 1995). Rajasekar et al. (1995) reprted that farm yard manure, Azspirillum and Phsphbacteria has n significant influence n the cntrl f leaf hpper and fruit brer in bhendi. The incidence f paddy plant and leafhpper was lw in Azspirillum cmbined with farmyard manure (Athisamy and Venugpal 1995). Applicatin f rganic manure lwered the rice gall midge incidence (5.28%) (Mhankumar et al., 1995) Use f resistant varieties. Hst plant resistance frms an imprtant cmpnent f nn-chemical methd f pest management. Several resistant varieties f crps have been evlved against majr pests, thrugh intensive breeding prgrammes. Develpment f varieties with multiple resistances t several pests / diseases is essential Physical methd f pest cntrl Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

65 The fllwing are sme examples f the use f physical methds f insect cntrl Use f activated clay at ne per cent r vegetable il at ne per cent has been fund t effectively cntrl damage by Callsbruchus chinensis in stred pulses. Slar heat treatment f srghum seeds fr 60 secnds using slar drier kills rice weevil and red flur beetle withut affecting germinatin f seeds. Bigas fumigatin fr 5 days perid caused mrtality f eggs, grubs, adults f pulse beetle C.chinensis (Mhan et al., 1987; 1989) Drying seeds (belw 10% misture level) prevents insect develpment. Cld strage f fruits and vegetables t kill fruit flies (1-2 C fr days) Mechanical methd f cntrl Mechanical destructin a. Hand picking f caterpillars b. Hking f rhincers beetle adult with irn hk c. Sieving and winnwing fr stred prduct insect cntrl d. Shaking plants- t disldge casewrm in rice -t disldge June beetles frm neem trees Mechanical exclusin a. Wrapping f fruits against pmegranate fruit brer. b. Banding with grease - against mang mealy bug c. Trenching - fr larvae f red hairy caterpillar Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

66 d. Tin barrier - arund ccnut tree trunk t prevent rat damage e. Rat prf structure in strage g dwns Appliances based n mechanical cntrl methd a. Light trap b. Yellw sticky traps - fr attracting aphids and jassids c. Bait trap - fish meal trap fr srghum shtfly d. methyl eugenl trap - fr fruit flies e. Prbe trap - fr stred prduct insects f. Phermne trap - fr varius adult insects g. TNAU autmatic insect remval bin - fr stred prduct insects Use f btanicals in pest management Grainge and Ahmed (1988) listed abut 2400 plant species with pesticidal prperties (insecticide, acaricide, nematicide, fungicide etc. which are distributed in 189 plant families). Neem il at 2% and neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) at 5% with liquid sap 0.05% have been prven affective against majr pests f rice, sucking pests f cttn and vegetable. Neem cake applied at 250 kg/ha at last plughing befre swing has been fund effective against cttn stem weevil and sil insects f many ther crps. Neem seeds cntain mre than 100 cmpunds amng which azadirachtin has been fund t be bilgically mst active. The bilgical Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

67 effects f neem prducts are insect grwth regulatin, feeding deterrent and vipsitin deterrent effect. Cmmercial Neem frmulatins are available in market which cntain varying levels f azadirachtin (frm 0.03% t a maximum f 5%). In India mre than 50 firms are manufacturing neem frmulatins which are available in different brand names. A few examples are given belw Sl. N. Brand name Azadirachtin cntent 1. Nimbecidine 0.03% 2. Neem guard 0.03% 3. Bineem 0.03% 4. Jaineem 0.03% 5. Neem gld 0.15% 6. Frtune-aza 0.15% 7. Ecneem 0.3% 8. Achk 0.5% 9. Neem azal TS 1.0% 10. Neem azal F 5.0% In additin t Neem which belngs t Meliaceae, plants belnging t Annnaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Labiatae, Rutaceae and many ther families have been fund t pssess insecticidal activity. Research in this field will prvide valuable infrmatin that will help in managing insect pests with plant prducts Phermnes in Pest Management Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

68 Phermnes are chemical substances released by insects which attract ther individuals f the same species. Sex phermnes have been used in pest management in the fllwing ways a. Mnitring b. Mating disruptin c. Mass trapping These methds can be successfully included in rganic methd f pest management. Sex phermnes f the fllwing insects are cmmercially available in market. Table 9. Cmmercially available sex phermnes fr insects Sl. N. Cmmn Name Scientific name 1. American bllwrm Helicverpa armigera 2. Pink bllwrm Pectinphra gssypiella 3. Sptted bllwrm Earias vitella 4. Spiny bllwrm Earias insulana 5. Tbacc cutwrm Spdptera litura 6. Early sht brer f sugarcane Chil infuscatellus 7. Yellw stem brer f rice Scirpphaga incertulas 8. Diamnd back mth Plutella xylstella 9. Mang fruit fly Bactrcera drsalis 10. Meln fruitfly Bactrcera cucurbitae Aggregatin phermnes f red palm weevil and Rhincers beetle f ccnut are als available in market. Different types f phermne traps such as sleeve type trap, delta and sticky traps are als manufactured and Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

69 sld by different firms. In additin t the abve many new phermnes f field and strage pests are being manufactured by cmmercial firms and will be available t farmers sn Bilgical cntrl Management f pests and disease causing agents utilizing, parasitids, predatrs and micrbial agents like viruses, bacteria and fungi is termed as bilgical cntrl. It is an imprtant cmpnent f IPM. The three imprtant appraches in bilgical cntrl are a. Imprtatin: Imprtatin is als called classical methd f bilgical cntrl where bi-cntrl agents are imprted t cntrl a pests f extic rigin. b. Cnservatin: This is a methd f manipulating the envirnment t prtect the bi-cntrl agents c. Augmentatin: Augmentatin aims at mass prductin f natural enemies / micrbial agents and field release. Genetic imprvement f bicntrl agents t have superir traits als cmes under this categry. The ICAR and State Agricultural Universities play an imprtant rle in identifying ptential bi-cntrl agents. The cmmercial bi-cntrl labratries mass prduce the agents and distribute amng the farmers. There are at least 20 bi-pesticides prductin labratries in Tamil Nadu managed by c-perative and private sectrs. The fllwing are the bicntrl agents mass prduced in Tamil Nadu. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

70 Table 10. Bi-cntrl agents cmmercially prduced in Tamil Nadu Sl. N. Bicntrl agents Pests managed I. Parasitids Egg parasitids 1. Trichgramma sp. Brers, bllwrms 2 Telenmus remus Spdptera litura Egg larval parasitid 3 Chelnus blackburni Cttn bllwrms Larval parasitids 4. Bracn brevicrnis Ccnut black headed caterpillar 5. Gnizus nephantidis Ccnut black headed caterpillar 6. Elamus nephantidis Ccnut black headed caterpillar 7. Bracn kirkpatrici Cttn bllwrms 8. B.hebetr Cttn bllwrms Pupal parasitids 9 Brachymeria spp. Ccnut black headed caterpillar 10 Tetrastychus Israeli Ccnut black headed caterpillar 11. Trichspilus pupivra Ccnut black headed caterpillar II. Predatrs 12. Chrysperla carnea (Green Sft bdied hmpteran insects lacewing) Cryptlaemus mntruzieri Mealy bugs (Australian lady bird beetle) III Insect Pathgens 13. NPV f Helicverpa armigera H. armigera (Virus) 14. NPV f S.litura (Virus) S.litura 15. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacteria) Lepidpteran insects 16. Beauveria bassiana (Fungus) Many insect pests IV. Fungal Antagnists 17. Trichderma viride Rt rt and wilt causing fungi 18. Trichderma harzianum (Rhizctnia slani, Macrphmina phaselina, Fusarium sp.) in pulses, cttn, ilseeds, vegetables 19. Pseudmnas flurescence Rt rt causing fungi in varius crps V. Weed killers 20. Nechetina bruchi and Water hyacinth (Aquatic weed) Nechetina eichhrnae (beetles) 21. Zyggramma biclrata (beetle) Parthenium weed Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

71 Even thugh many cmmercial bi-cntrl labratries are invlved in prductin f these agents, they are hardly sufficient t cver less than ne percent f the ttal cultivated area. Hence there is a vast scpe fr imprvement. Table 11. Crp wise pest management practices using bi-agents/ btanicals Sl. N. Crp Pest Bi-agent 1. Rice Stem brer Trichgramma japnicum 5 cc/ha/release n 30 and 37 DAT 2. Leaf flder T.chilnis 5 cc/ha/release n 58, 65 and 72 DAT Neem seed kernel extract 5% spray 3. Gall midge Platygaster ryzae 1 parasitised gall/ 10 m2 Earhead bug Neem seed kernel pwder, Ntchi leaf pwder, Prspis leaf pwder 4. Srghum H. armigera HaNPV spray at 1.5 x 1012 POB/ha 5. Pulses H. armigera HaNPV spray at 1.5 x 1012 POB/ha NSKE 5% spray Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki 1.5 l/ha 6. Grundnut S. litura SlNPV spray at 1.5 x 1012 POB/ha 7 Red hairy caterpillar AaNPV spray at 1.5 x 1012 POB/ha 8. Gingelly Sht webber NSKE 5% spray 9. Ccnut Rhincers beetle Metarhizium anispliae fungus incrprated in manure pits Oryctes baculvirus infected adults may be released Neem seed kernel pwder + sand (1:1) in the 10. Black headed caterpillar base f three inner mst leaves Release f Gnizus nephantidis 3000 adults/ ha under the ccnut tree Release bracnid, bethylid, eulphid and ichneumnid parasitids frm January. 11. Termites Neem il 5% spray upt 2m height f trunk 12 Mealybugs Neem il 3% spray n leaves 13. Cttn S. litura SlNPV spray at 1.5 x 1012 POB/ha Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

72 14. H.armigera HaNPV spray at 3.0 x 1012 POB/ha at 7 and 12th week after swing Trichgramma spp. egg 6.25 cc/ha thrice at 15 days interval frm 45 DAS Chelnus blackburnii (egg larval parasitid) and Chrysperla 1,00,000 /ha at 6,13 and 14th week after swing 15. Sugarcane Early sht brer 16. Internde brer Release 125 gravid female f Sturmipsis inferens Granulsis virus n 25 and 50 DAP 1.1 x 105 IBS/ml T. chilnis egg parasitid 2.5 cc/release, 6 releases at frtnightly interval frm 4th mnth 17 Tbacc S. litura SlNPV spray at 1.5 x 1012 POB/ha NSKE 5% spray 18. Citrus Leafminer NSKE 5% spray 19. Grapes Mealybug Cryptlaemus mntruzieri (beetles) 10 per vine Fish il insecticidal sap 25g/lit 20. Sapta Budwrm NSKE 5% spray 21. Tmat S.litura and H. armigera (Fruit brers) SlNPV and HaNPV at 1.5 x 1012 POB/ha B.t. 2 g/lit T. chilnis 50000/ha/release NSKE 5% spray 22. Brinjal Sht and fruit brer Aphids Chrysperla carnea Ist instar larva 10,000 /ha 23 Bhendi Fruitbrer Trichgramma 1,00,000 /ha Chrysperla carnea Ist instar larva 10,000 /ha B.t. 2 g/lit 24. Chillies S.litura and H. armigera (Fruit brers) 25. Cabbage, Cauliflwer Diamnd back mth SlNPV and HaNPV at 1.5 x 1012 POB/ha B.t. 2 g/lit T. chilnis 50000/ha/release B.t. 2 g/lit, NSKE 5% Diadegma semiclausum (parasitid) 50,000/ha 3. Bitechnlgical appraches Bitechnlgy has prvided new avenues fr management f insect pets and it hlds great ptential t be included in IPM system. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

73 The lw txicity f prteinase inhibitrs and Bt alpha-endtxin as cmpared t cnventinal insecticides wuld reduce the selectin pressure nd may slw dwn the develpment f resistance. Since all plant parts including grwing pints wuld remain cvered with txins, dependence n weather fr efficacy f the sprays wuld be eliminated. Since txins will always be there, s there will be n need f cntinuus mnitring f pests. Transgenic plant wuld als prvide prtectin t thse plant parts which are difficult t be treated with pesticides. Thus, transgenics may prve useful fr cntrlling bllwrms and brers which are difficult t cntrl by means f insecticides. The cst f applicatin in the frm f equipment and labur will be nil r negative. The develpment cst is nly fractin f the cst f develpment f cnventinal pesticides. There wuld be n prblem f cntaminatin in the frm f drift and grundwater cntaminatin. Insecticidal activity wuld be restricted t thse insects which actually attack the plants. Transgenic plants wuld be safe t nn-target species and human beings. Transgenic plants will have inbuilt resistance t varius insects replacing sme f the current pesticide usage with prtectin which is intrinsically Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

74 bidegradable, thus reducing the use f chemical insecticides and minimizing the prblem f envirnmental pllutin. 4. Insecticide status in pest management Insecticides applicatin remains ne f the effective, quick methds and mst widely used pest cntrl tactics. When prperly used they prvide an efficient, fast, reliable and cst-effective means f pest cntrl. The draw backs r risks in their use include develpment f resistance, destructin f natural enemies, pisning f man and animals, envirnmental pllutin and increasing csts. Hence, it is highly needed t switch ver t newer insecticide mlecules t prvide n efficient, fast and reliable means f pest management Criteria fr newer insecticide mlecules The newer insecticide mlecules shuld have the fllwing criteria fr their envirnmental safety with effective cntrl. Safer t natural enemies Lw mammalian txicity Effective management with lw dse Brad spectrum N / Lw residues Phyttnic effect Suitable frmulatin Suitable methd f applicatin Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

75 4.2. Grups f new generatin insecticides The new generatin insecticides are gruped int 10. Nenictinids / Nitrquanidines 11. Synthetic pyrethrids 12. Insect grwth regulatrs 13. Organic insecticides 14. Organphsphates 15. Carbamates 16. Insecticide cmbinatins 1. Nenictinids The nenictinids includes i) Imidaclprid Cnfidr 200 SL, Cauch 600 FS, 70 WS ii) Acetamiprid Pride 20 SP iii) Thiamethxam Actara 25 WG, Cruiser 70 WS 2. Insect grwth regulatrs Diflubenzurn - Dimilin 25 WP ' Teflubenzurn - Nmlt 15 SC Fluenxurn - Cascade 10 DC Navalurn - Rimn 10 EC All these insecticides are nn-systemic in their actin and are cming Under Benzphenyl urea grup f insecticides and when applied, these insecticides are fund t be causing inhibitin f chitin frmatin which Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

76 causes abnrmal enddcuticles and abrtive multing. These insecticides are effective chewing insects and defliatrs. 3. Carbmates Indxacarb - Avaunt 14.5 SC Thicarb - Larvin 75 WP Carbsulfan - Marshal 25 EC These carbamate insecticides are cntact and stmach pisn in their actin and are targeted against sucking and chewing insects especially in cttn 4. Synthetic pyrethrids Lamda cyhalthrin - Karate 5 EC, Kungf 2.5 EC Beta cyfluthrin - Bulldck 0.25 SC These tw synthetic pyrethrids are cntact and stmach pisn in actin and effective against sucking and chewing insects. Lamda cyhalthrin is als having phyttnic effect. 5. Organic insecticides i. Spinsad - Tracer 45 SC, Success 2.5 SC ii. Abamectin - Vertimec 1.9 EC iii. Cartap hydrchlride - Caldan 50 SP i. Spinsad It is extracted frm actinmycetes Saccharplyspra spmsa. The insecticide frmulatin cntains tw cmpnents as spinsyn A+D. It is a cntact and stmach pisn targeted against Helicverpa armigera. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

77 ii. Abamectin It is extracted frm bacteria, Streptmyces avermectilis. This insecticide is having cntact and translaminar actin and it is used as an Acaricide in rnamentals. iii. Cartap hydrchlride It is extracted frm a marin annelid, Zumbricnereis heterpda,. This insecticide is having systemic cntact and stmach pisn and causes paralysis f CNS. It is effective against chewing and sucking pests. 6. Organphsphates i. Prfenfs - Curacrn 50 EC ii. Triazphs - Hstathin 40 EC i. Prfenfs It is cntact and stmach pisn insecticide and als having translaminar in actin. It is mainly targeted against sucking pests, bllwrms and mites in different crps. ii. Triazphs It is an effective acaricide and targeted against sucking and chewing insects. It is cntact and stmach pisn 5. Future needs Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

78 India's cnsumptin f bi-agents like entmphages, btanical and micrbial pesticides, phermnes etc is less than ne per cent f the ttal pesticide cnsumptin cmpared t 12 per cent glbally Hence we must strengthen ur usage f bi-agents in the IPM techniques suitable in all majr crps. Use f pest avidance tactics, enhancement f bilgical pest suppressin and adptin f ther nn-chemical methds f pest management wuld certainly be able t imprve ur capabilities in slving much f the pest prblems. Abut 70 per cent f ur peple depend n agriculture fr their livelihd and mre than 80 per cent f them are small and marginal categry. Hence, IPM cmpnents shuld be cst effective and envirnment friendly t suit the situatins f the abve categry. Such a gal can be reached thrugh farmer participatry mde in IPM technlgy develpment and transfer. There is very high demand fr sme prmising bi-cntrl agent and that practically there is a wide gap between the demand and supply. This is rather a dicey situatin, which may need t unhealthy practices. Hence t cater the need f farmers, unemplyed farm graduates may be encuraged t start cmmercial insectaries. Peridical Knw-hw and d-hw training's have t be rganized by the ICAR and State Agricultural Universities. Survey and surveillance f insect pests have t be carried ut at every village level n all crps using pest mnitring devices viz., light traps, phermne traps baits, fad lures, trap crps, clur and sticky traps etc. frecasting and Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

79 frewarning f insect pests have t be strengthened with satellites and cmputer predictin mdels. Mre than 500 different crp plant varieties were identified as surce f resistance against insect pests. Hwever their usage in the field level is far frm satisfactry. Hence this lab t land gap has t be bridged. Plant resistance shuld be the base f IPM and all ther methds have t be pyramided ver it. The mst recent intrductin f B.t transgenic plants cnferring resistance t certain insect pests like cttn bll wrms has expanded the scpe f IPM. Such plants where minimum use f insecticides is made help in cnserving bilgical cntrl agents and serve as imprtant IPM tl. Withut a strng cmmitment t interdisciplinary research, it is dubtful that Integrated Pest Management will becme a reality. Hence all allied fields f Agriculture shuld jin hand in hand t slve pest prblems with mre invlvement is very essential. Unfrtunately, tday, the decisin n the pesticide applicatin lies with the dealers, wh in their interest advise farmers t use a large number f applicatins f a variety f chemical pesticides and their mixtures, whether required r nt r whether efficacius r nt. Prescriptins frm Plant prtectin fficials r frm Entmlgists f the manufactures can frm a better base fr purchase f plant prtectin chemical just like a prescriptin frm a dctr fr purchase f medicines. This wuld als help remve the scial stigma f adherence t past practices f cntinuing with hazardus and nt s efficacius chemical pesticides. Dealer training and impsitin Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

80 f qualificatins fr dealers shall definitely create a psitive change twards IPM. Each crp/pest and farm level situatin is unique and it is nt likely that there culd be an "Off the shelf" available IPM slutin t each crp/pest crisis. There fre, fine tuning based n scientific studies and research becmes imperative. It is definitely a knwledge intensive activity. The mst imprtant steps t make IPM mvement unstppable and its benefits self-evident are: Validatin f apprpriate nn-chemical methds in farmer fields, based n dependable ETL. Extensive transfer f Knwledge package "thrugh farmer trainings, Large scale availability f high quality nn-chemical pest/disease interventin inputs. Future needs f IPM greatly depend n research educatin, training and marketing imprvements, and they can be re-riented as fllws. Allmne Imprtant definitins A chemical substance, prduced r acquired by an rganism, which, when it cntacts an individual f anther species in the naturl cntext, evkes in the receiver a behaviural r physilgical reactin adaptively favrable t the emitter; cf. kairmne. Antifeedant Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

81 A natural r synthetic chemical substance which acts either t inhibit the stimulatin f gustatry receptrs which nrmally recgnize suitable fd, r t stimulate receptrs which elicit a negative respnse t deterrent chemicals. Bilgical cntrl Bilgical pests suppressin in its narrw, classical sense, usually restricted t the intrductin, by man, f parasitids, predatrs, and / r pathgenic micrrganisms t suppress ppulatins f plant r animal pests; cf. bilgical insect pest suppressin, natural cntrl. Integrated pest suppressin An apprach t cmpatible utilizatin f all available frms f pest suppressin, including mechanical, bilgical, chemical, and natural cntrl, in a systematic fashin, with the primary gal f safe, effective, and ecnmical pest ppulatin reductin. It may be directed at a single imprtant pest species by cmbining a variety f measures against the species, r at a cmplex f pests, integrating the individual prtective measures applied against each, s as nt t interfere ne with the ther. Micrbial pathgen Generally, a micrrganism which causes disease in its hst; mre specifically, a term used in preference t micrbial insecticide t dente a micrrganism used by man t suppress insect pest ppulatins. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

82 Parasite An animal species which lives n r in a larger animal, the hst, feeding upn it, and frequently destrying it. A parasite needs nly ne r part f ne hst t reach maturity; cf. parasitid, predatr. Phermne A phermne is defined as a chemical r a mixture f chemicals that is released t the exterir by an rganism and causes ne r mre specific reactins in a receiving rganism f the same species. Predatr An animal which feeds upn ther animals (prey) that are usually smaller and weaker than itself, frequently devuring them cmpletely and rapidly. A predatr mst ften is required t seek ut and attack mre than ne prey t reach maturity; cf. parasite, parasitid. Resistance The relative amunt f inherited qualities which allw an rganism t influence r reduce the damage dne t it by its enemies. Trap crp Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

83 A small planting f a susceptible and highly attractive hst, planted early in the seasn, r remved in space frm the main crp, in rder t divert attack and infestatin by pets and allw fr their easy destructin. Methds and adpted fr cntrlling pests The cntrl f insect pests falls under fllwing heads a. Legislative By which the Gvernment prevents the imprt f infested with insects, which if intrduced int this cuntry, wuld becme lcal pests (e.g. ptat tubers with nematdes). b. Bilgical methd The successful cntrl f a pest species by means f anther living rganism that is encuraged and disseminated by man is called s. It is inexpensive and as lng-term cntrl, causes n pllutin and pses n risk t human health. Bilgical agents are available in nature abundantly. Several pathgens including viruses such as nuclear plyhedrsis virus (NPV) and granulsis (GV), bacteria like Bacillus thuringiensis, fungi like Metarhizium, prtza like Schizgregarine cause diseases in insects t destry them. This methd has been successfully used t cntrl many imprtant pests in a number f ecnmic crps. The ther bilgical methd f cntrl invlves the use f parasitids and predatrs. A parasitid is an rganism which cmpletes its life n a single hst and ultimately kills it. A predatr n the ther hand is a free living- Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

84 rganism and kills the hst (prey) immediately and requires mre than ne prey individuals t cmplete its life. If the parasitid attacks the egg stage f the hst, it is then called egg parasitid, (e.g.) Trichgramma chilnis n bhendi brer. When they attack at the larval stage f the hst, it is then called larval parasitid, (e.g.) Apanteles plutella n diamnd back mth caterpillars in cruciferus vegetables. The predatry grup f insects capture and cnsume anther insects as their fd (e.g.) green lace-wing, Chrysperla carnea whse grubs and the maggts f Syrphid flies dramatically exert cntrl ver several aphids in many crps. The adults and grubs f ladybird beetles such as Cccinella septempunctata. Menchilus sexmaculatus, Brumicles suturalis and Scymnus nubilus play imprtant rle in the ppulatin regulatin f several sucking pests and defliating insects. c. Cultural methds The cntrl f insects thrugh adptin f rdinary farm practices in apprpriate time in such a way that the insects are either eliminated r reduced in ppulatin is called the cultural methd f cntrl. Prper crp rtatin r tillage peratins may help t keep dwn the insect ppulatin. Sme early crps are swn in narrw strips arund a majr crp t serve as a trap fr the pests that might be cmmn t bth. Fr instance, swing f mustard in every twenty fifth rw f cabbage crp will help preventing higher incidence f diamnd back mth in cabbage and cauliflwer and Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

85 the preferred mustard plants can be cut and destryed when the pest appears. This practice is called trap crpping. d. Mechanical methd Mechanical cntrl is ne by which the insect ppulatin is directly hit by mechanical devices r manual peratins. Mechanical devices include using fly and maggt traps, setting light and bnfires t attract adult mths and beetles. Manual methds invlve hand picking f egg masses, larvae and killing them. Mechanical exclusin cnsists the use f devices by which insects are physically prevented frm reaching the prduce (e.g.) wrapping f individual pmegranate fruits with butter paper envelpes t save frm the attack f Anar butterfly, Virachla iscrates. e. By use f insecticide Insecticide is a substance r mixture f sub stances used fr killing, repelling r therwise preventing insects. The insecticide is referred as a 'repellent' if it prevents the pest species in attacking its hst, an 'attractant' if the pest species is attracted t surce, trapped and an 'antifeedant' if it inhibits feeding n the hst. The insecticides are available in any ne f the fllwing frmuatins: 1. Dusts The txicant is diluted by mixing with r by impregnatin a suitable finely divided carrier. The carrier may be rganic flur clay. The txicant in a Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

86 dust frmulatin ranges frm 0.5 t 25% (e.g.) endsulfan 4D, malathin 5D. 2. Granular r Pelleted insecticides In a granulatin the particle is cmpsed f a base such as an inert material r vegetable carrier impregnated r used with the txicant which is released frm the frmu latin in its intact frm r as it disintegrates giving cntrlled release particles in the frmulatin generally pssess a size range f 0.25 mm t 2.38 mm diameter. The frmulatins cntain 2 t 10% cncentratins f the txicant (e.g.) carbrfuran 3G, Phrate 10 G. 3. Wettable pwders It is a pwdered frmulatin which yields a rather stable suspensin when diluted with water. The active ingredients such a frmulatin ranges frm 15 t 95% (e.g) BHC 50 WP, sulfur 25 WP. 4. Emulsifiable cncentrate The frmulatin cntains the txicant slvent fr the txicant and an emulsifying agent (e.g.) endsulfan, EC, dimethate 30 EC, fenvalerate 20 EC. 5. Cncentrated insecticide liquid Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

87 The txicant at highly cncentrated level is disslved in nn-vlatile slvent. An emulsifying, agent is nt added here (e.g.) mncrtphs 36 WSC, Phsphamidn 85 WSC. 6. Fumigants A chemical cmpund which is vlatile at rdinary temperatures and sufficiently txic is knwn as a fumigant (e.g.) Ethylene di brmide, Methyl brmide, Aluminium Phsphide etc. 7. Fungicide Fungicide is any substance that is used t kill fungi and their spres. They are als available in dust, wettable pwder, emulsiable cncentrates r granular frmulatins. Plant prtectin appliances The imprtant methds f applying pesticides are dusting and spraying. The dusting peratin allws the dust particles when falling free either slwly t settle dwn due t gravity r drift fr lng distance due t wind. The appliances that are used fr applying dust frmulatins f pesticides are called dusters. They are either manual r pwer perated. The spray fluid may be slutin, an emulsin, r a suspensin txicant. T achieve an effective cntrl f pest, the txicant is well distributed and t meet this requirement the spray fluid is blwn dwn t fine drplets. The spraying machines may be either hand perated r pwer perated nes. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

88 Cmmnly emplyed manual perated sprayers are (i) knap- sack sprayer (hydraulic r pneumatic), sprayer and pneumatic hand sprayer. Rcker sprayers are useful fr tall trees and pneumatic hand sprayers are helpful t spray in gardens. The pwer perated mist blwers are useful in field cver mre area in a limited time. A spray vlume f 150 t 200 water is necessary t ne hectare f land with pwer spray with lw pressure high vlume sprayers but with lw press vlume sprayers like knapsack sprayers require abut water t cver ne hectare. Insecticides shuld be applied in the mrning r evening hurs when the weather is calm r else they will fall n unwanted areas and als may nt hit the target. Befre applicatin insecticides, it must be ensured that there are n pllinatrs (like-bees) in the area; fr the same reasn insecticides shuld nt be applied during blssms when bees are likely t be at wrk. After applicatin f insecticides a time lag (7 10 days in case f rganphsphrus cmpunds and days in case f rganchlrine cmpunds) shuld be given befre cnsuming the prduce. During this perid, the insecticides will get degraded and becme nn-txic. Nn-insect pests Besides the different kinds f insects which damage crps, mites, rats, birds and nematdes cause damage t crp plants. A. Mites Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

89 Mites pssess fur pairs f legs as against insects which d have nly three pairs f legs. In recent years the mites have becme majr pests. They cause damage by way f sucking the cellular materials by frming severe defrmities. The, chemicals which are used t cntrl the mites are knwn as 'acaricides'. Sulphur, ethin, dicfl, phsalne are cmmnly used as acaricides at the rate f 15ml per 10 litres f water. B. Plant nematdes Plant nematdes are small rganisms which live sil arund the rts f plants. They are abut 0.1 t 1.00 mm in length. They are cnfined t the tp 20 t 25 cm f sil, smetimes even t a depth f 3 t.4 m. They are spread frm ne field t anther thrugh perclating water and agrnmic practices like plughing and weeding which invlve transprt f sil. Mst f the symptms f damage by plant parasitic nematdes are nn-specific and ften likely be cnfused with thse caused by ther pathgens r sil factrs like pr drainage, lack f sil nutritin etc. Sme f the cmmnly bserved symptms are: 6. Stunting and wilting 7. Leaf curl 8. Brwning r brnzing f leaves 9. Distrtin f leaves, stems 10. Brwn lesins in rts 11. Knt-like galling f rts Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

90 Cntrl f plant parasitic nematdes is difficult, but nevertheless, necessary fr btaining prfitable yields. Crp rtatin with a nn-hst crp r applicatin f large quantities f green leaves r grasses as mulches r summer fallwing and use f resistant varieties will reduce the incidence t sme extent. Cmmnly used nematicides are DD mixture, dibrmethane, dibrm chlrprpane, thinazin and aldicarb. In Tamil Nadu, nematde infectin is a devastating prblem in banana, citrus, ptat and in vegetable crps like tmat, chillies and brinjal. Integrated pest management (IPM) IPM is a new system apprach which has been necessitated primarily ut f the grwing cncern abut the undesirable side effects f large scale use f rganic insecticides and ften failure f the same t prvide fr suppressin f pests at ecnmic level. Attempts t ttally suppress the pests by insecticides may lead t the fllwing prblems: Develpment f resistance t chemicals in pest ppulatin utbreak f secndary pests resurgence f treated ppulatins unacceptable residues n fd and frage prducts and assciatin legal cmplicatins destructin f beneficial insect predatrs, parasites and pllinatin hazards t persnnel invlved in insecticide applicatin, dmestic animals and wild life; and Expense f pesticides, invlving the cst f materials, labur and maintenance f equipments. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

91 Thus in any IPM prgramme, the eclgical factrs are explited, the cntrl methds are s designed that they are cmpatible with natural mrtality factrs in rder t ptimize cntrl. Pest Surveillance and Mnitring Pest surveillance is the watch kept n a pest fr decisin-making. Objectives The bjectives f the pest and disease surveillance prgramme in Agricultural and Hrticultural crps are t: a. Detect species f pest r pathgen present b. Assess levels f ppulatin / damage / infectin c. Study the influence f weather and seasnal parameters n pests and diseases. d. Knw new species f pests and diseases. e. Mnitr the behaviur f pests under changing crpping pattern / new varieties. f. Find ut natural enemy ppulatin g. Watch the behaviur f pests under changing crpping pattern/new varieties h. Assess resistance/susceptibility/break-dwn f resistance in crps t pests and diseases. i. Mnitr build-up f resistance in pests and pathgens t pesticides Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

92 j. Mark endmic areas/pest calendar k. Launch timely plant prtectin measures n need-basis, l. Reduce cst f cultivatin m. Avid cntaminatin t ec-system, and n. T frewarn farmers Methdlgy fr Surveillance The surveillance prgramme encmpasses (i) fixed plt survey and (ii) rving survey. The fixed plt and rving surveys invlve the in-situ assessment f pests and diseases in the standing crp. The supprting methdlgy includes bservatins n the activity f pests by setting up light traps, phermne traps, spre trap, etc. The weather parameters f the respective areas are als recrded t study their influence n the pests and diseases. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

93 Lecture N.6 Insecticides, classificatin and their mde f actin Intrductin Insecticides are agents f chemical r bilgical rigin that cntrl insects Despite the availability f several ecfriendly technlgies fr pest management, farmers rely mstly n the chemical pesticides because f their availability, immediate and spectacular effect increased use f these cmpunds all ver the wrld as well as in India Classificatin f pesticides based n target rganisms 1. Insecticides eg. endsulfan, malathin 2. Rdenticides eg. Zinc phsphide, warfarin 3. Acaricides eg. dicfl, azinphs methyl 4. Avicides eg. TMTD, anthraquinne 5. Mlluscides eg. metaldehyde, trifenmrph 6. Nematicides eg. DD, ethylene dibrmide 7. Fungicides eg. Cpper xychlride, manczeb 8. Bactericides eg. Streptmycin sulphate, auremycin 9. Herbicides eg. 2,4-D, butachlr Classificatin f insecticides 1. Based n chemical nature A. Inrganic insecticides eg. Arsenic & Flurine cmpunds Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

94 B. Organic insecticides 10. Hydrcarbn ils 11. Animal rigin eg. Neristxin 12. Plant rigin eg. Nictine, pyrethrum, rtenne, neem 13. Synthetic rganic cmpunds i. Dinitr phenls eg. DNOC ii. Organthicyanates eg. thanite iii. Chlrinated hydrcarbns eg. endsulfan iv. Organphsphrus cmpunds eg. phsphamidn v. Carbamates eg. carbfurn, aldicarb vi. Synthetic pyrethrids eg. cypermethrin 2. Based n mde f entry Stmach pisn eg. B.t Cntact pisn eg. Chlrinated hydrcarbns Fumigant eg. DDVP, Lindane Systemic pisn eg. Methyl demetn, Dimethate 3. Based n mde f actin A. General classificatin 18. Physical pisn eg. inert dusts 19. Prtplasmic pisn eg. heavy metals like mercury and cpper, flurine and arsenics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

95 20. Respiratry pisn eg. hydrgen cyanide, carbn mnxide 21. Nerve pisn eg. rganphsphates, carbamates B. Matsumura s classificatin 22. Physical pisn eg. inert dusts. Disslves wax layer & rearrange them cracking. 2. Prtplasmic pisn eg. heavy metals like mercury and cpper, flurine and arsenics Denatures prtplasm. 3. Metablic inhibitrs i. Carbhydrate metablism inhibitrs eg. Sdium fluracetate Inhibits TCA cycle. ii. Respiratry metablic inhibitrs eg. Rtenids, arsenicals Inhibitrs f ET chain Inhibitrs f xidative phsphrylatin iii. Amine metablism inhibitrs eg. Frmamidines Induces accumulatin f bigenic amines ctpmine Blcks Na+ channel and als K+ current Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

96 iv.mixed functin xidase inhibitrs eg. Synergists v. Insect hrmnes eg. Juvenile hrmne analgues Affects synthesis f natural JH vi. Chitin synthesis inhibitrs eg. Diflubenzurn Affects depsitin f chitin in endcuticle Affects ther cnstituents f endcuticle 4. Nn metablic inhibitrs (r) neuractive agents i. Effect f permeability eg. HCH, DDT ii. Antichline esterases eg. OP s, carbamates iii. Agents fr nerve receptrs eg. Nictenids 5. Hrmne mimics eg. methprene 6. Stmach pisn eg. Bt C. Insecicides mde f actin grups Grup Primary target grup Chemical subgrups 1A 1B Acetyl chline esterase inhibitrs Carbamates Organphsphates 2A 2B 2C GABA-gated chlride channel antagnists Cycldienes Plychlrcyclalthanes Fiprles 3A Sdium channel Pyrethrids, pyrethrins 4A 4B 4C mdulatrs Ach receptr agnist/antagnists Chlrnictinyls Nictine Cartap, bensultap 5A Ach receptr mdulatrs spinsyns 6A 6B Chlride channel activatrs Avermectin, emamectin Milebemycin 7A 7B 7C Juvenile hrmne mimics Methprene, hydrprene Fenxycarb pyriprxifen Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

97 8A 8B Unknwn r nn specific actin (fumigants) Methyl brmide Phsphine generating cmp. 9A 9B (selective feeding blckers) Pymetrzine Crylite 10A (mite grwth inhibitrs) Clfentezine, hexythiazx 11A Micrbial disrupters f B.t. tenebrinis 11B insect midgut membranes B.t. israelensis 11C 11D 11E (including Bt crps) B.t. kurstaki, B.t. aizawi B.t. sphericus B.t. tlwrthi 12A 12B 13A Inhibitrs f xidativephsphrylatin, Disrupters f ATP frmatin Uncupler f xidative phsphrylatin via disruptin f H prtn gradient Organtin miticides Diafenthiurn Chlrfenapyr 15A Chitin bisynthesis Acyl ureas inhibitrs 16A Ecdysne agnists Tebufenzide and related 17A Hmpteran chitin bisynthesis inhibitrs Buprfezin 18A Unknwn dipteran specific Cyrmazine mde f actin 19A Octpminergic agnist Amitraz 20A Site II electrn transprt Hydramethylnn inhibitrs 21A Site I electrn transprt inhibitrs Rtenne, METI acaricides 22A Vltage dependent sdium Indxacarb channel blcker Newer insecticide mlecules 1. Avermectin insecticides - abamectin, emamectin, ivermectin 2. Macrcyclic lactne insecticides - spinsad 3. Nictinid insecticides - imidaclprid, thiamethxam, thiaclprid, acetamiprid, chlthianidine 4. Oxadiazine insecticides - indxacarb Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

98 5. Thiurea insecticides - diafenthiurn 6. Urea insecticides - flucfurn, sulcfurn 7. Pyrrle insecticides - chlrfenapyr 8. Pyridazinnes - pyridaben 9. Quinazlines - fenazaquin 10. Pyrazle insecticides - ethiprl, chlfenfer, fiprnil 11. Benzylureas - teflubenzurn, flufenzurn, diflubenzurn Miscellaneus insecticide classes Methxyacrylates Fluacrypyrin Naphthquinnes acequincyl Nereistxin analgues thicyclam, cartap Pyridine azmethine pymetrzine Pyrimidanines pyrimiifen Tetrnic acids spirmesifen, spirdiclfen Benzenedicarbxamides flubendiamide Insecticide frmulatins Frmulatin invlves prcessing f the technical grade insecticides fr better strage, handling, measure, applicatin and efficacy tgether with safety Depending upn the mde f applicatins, dry and liquid frmulatins are cmmn frms They may als be classified as slid, liquid and gaseus frmulatins Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

99 Classificatin 1. Slid frmulatins Dust, wettable r water dispersible pwder, granules, capsules, baits etc. 2. Liquid frmulatins Slutin, emulsifiable cncentrate, ultra lw vlume frmulatins, suspensin etc. 3. Gaseus frmulatins Fumigant, aersl, fams, smkes, mists and fg. EC - Emulsifiable cncentrate CG - Encapsulated granule CS - Capsule suspensin DC - Dispersible cncentrate DP - Dispersible pwder EG - Émulsifiable granule EO - Emulsin, water in il EW - Emulsin, il in water ES - Emulsin fr seed treatment FG- Fine granule SC- Suspensin cncentrate SE- Susp- emulsin SG- Water sluble granule SL- Sluble cncentrate SP- Water sluble pwder SS- Water sluble pwder fr seed treatment SU- Ultra-lw vlume suspensin TB- Tablet Different frmulatins FS - Flwable cncentrate fr seed treatment G - Granule GC - Macrgranule GL - Emulsifiable gel GP - Fl-dust GW - Water sluble gel OL - Oil miscible liquid OP -Oil dispersible pwder WDP- Water dispersible pwder WG- Water dispersible granules WP- Wettable pwder WS- Water dispersible pwder fr slurry treatment WSC Water sluble cncentrate Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

100 Cmpatibility f insecticides Simultaneus r sequential applicatin f insecticides, fungicides, fertilizers etc in a single crpping seasn advantageus Main reasn fr cmbinatins f pesticides - saving f time, equipment wear and tear and cst f applicatin prblems assciated with this practice i. physical incmpatibility (agglmeratin, phase separatin etc.) ii. chemical incmpatibility (degradatin f active ingredient, change in ph) iii. bilgical incmpatibility (reductin in biefficacy f ne by ther, phyttxicity) Cnsider the fllwing befre cmbinatin f pesticides is resrted t D nt mix tw insecticides, as they will hasten the develpment f resistance in pests D nt mix the incmpatible pesticides D nt mix the pesticides, as a matter f rutine. Apply insecticidefungicide cmbinatin nly when bth the target insect and plant pathgen are abve ETL level. Tests f cmpatibility Cmbinatins may either prve phyttnic r phyttxic smetimes Physical and chemical tests undertaken fr testing f insecticide quality and frmulatins Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

101 9. Acidity and alkalinity test 10. Emulsin stability test 11. Wettability test 12. Sieve test 13. Bulk density test 14. Suspensability test Cmpatibility f insecticides Vs. Fungicides Benmyl Carbendazim COC Cuman-L Dithane - M45 Manczeb Captan 1. Chlrinated hydrcarbns Dicfl C C C Endsulfan C 2. Organ phsphates Chlrpyriphs C C C Dichlrvs C C C C Dimethate I I C C C C Malathin C C C C Methyl-demetn C C Mncrtphs C C I C C C Phsphamidn C C C C C 4. Pyrethrids cypermethrin C C C I Cmpatibility f insecticides Vs. Plant nutrients (Fertilizers) and Herbicides Brax Urea Zinc sulphate Atrazin Alachlr Metachlr Chlrfenvinphs I Diazinn C I I Endsulfan C Fenitrthin C Methyldemetn C Mncrtphs C Phenthate C Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

102 Phrate C C I Prfenfs C Cmpatibility f insecticides Vs. Bipesticides (Insect Pathgens) Bt Ha NPV Sl NPV Chlrpyriphs Dimethate C Endsulfan C C C Fenitrthin C C Methyldemetn I Mncrtphs C Phrate Phsalne C Phsphamidn C Quality cntrl f pesticides Quality cntrl f pesticides The effectiveness f the pesticides in pest cntrl prgrammes largely depends n the quality which in turn is the functin f physic chemical prperties f the active ingredients and the characteristics f the frmulatins The establishment, implementatin and the mnitring f the standards f the quality f pesticides are very imprtant facets f imprved agricultural prductin The Insecticides Act, 1968 The Insecticides Rules, 1971 The main bjective f the Act is t regulate the imprt, manufacture, sale, transprt, distributin and use f pesticides with a view t prevent risk t human beings and animals and fr matters cnnected therewith. Bureau f Indian Standards (BIS) Pesticide Industries Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

103 Gvernment (Central and State) Precautins and directins fr drawing samples d nt take sample in an expsed place. See that the tls used fr sampling are dry and clean. Take necessary precautins regarding txicity effect f samples being drawn. Avid cntaminatin during and after sampling. Cntainers receiving samples - clean, dry and air tight. See that the size f the cntainer receiving samples is such that it is nt cmpletely filled by the sample. Seal the cntainer with the sample air tight and furnish details regarding sampling, date f manufacture, name f the manufacturer etc. Stre the sample in a prper place. Scale f sampling All samples f a same batch cnsidered as ne lt and samples bearing different batch numbers cnsidered as separate lts. Samples frm each lt are t be drawn and tested. The number f cntainers t be chsen fr sampling depends n the size f the lt. Physical tests A. Dust and wettable pwder frmulatins Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

104 20. Sieving Test fr particle size requirement 21. Test fr bulk density 22. Sieve test after accelerated strage 23. Cmpensability test 24. Wettability test B. Emulsin cncentrate r emulsifiable cncentrate 25. Emulsin stability test 26. Cld test, flash pint test and heat stability test C. Granules 27. Attritin test 28. Water runff test, wet test fr encapsulatin and liquid hlding capacity Chemical tests 29. Test fr acidity/ alkalinity 30. Active ingredient cntent Dispsal f pesticides All unused pesticides and cntainers must be dispsed ff carefully Imprper dispsal f pesticide wastes and pesticides cntainers can result in incidents f animal pisning r envirnmental cntaminatin Pesticide wastes may range as fllws Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

105 Accidental spillage Left ver frm excess spray mixtures Unsld pesticide materials d cntainers Pesticides which lst their expiry dates Wrng applicatin Dispsal techniques Dispsal f spilled pesticides Dn't wash with much f water Sprinkle mist sand r saw dust Remve the cntaminated sil and burry Wash the cntaminated flr with lime r 10% sdium bicarbnate Dispsal Burial under sil Burial site must be carefully chsen The area shuld be marked ut and identified such that leakage f buried pesticide will nt cntaminate water bdies. Shuld be buried 50 cm belw Lime may be mixed t enhance degradatin prcess Dispsal f cntainers Misuse f cntainers shuld be avided Empty and clean the cntainers befre dispsal Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

106 Drain the pesticide in a vertical psitin fr 30 secnds Rinse with water thrice Make the cntainer unusable by puncturing and defrming Shuld be buried Paper and fibre cntainer shuld be burnt in pen air Herbicide cntainers shuld nt be burnt in the vicinity f crps When burning dn't respire the smke Glass cntainers shuld be brken and buried Pesticide dispsal technlgy The diversity in chemical prperties f pesticides and their frmulated prducts and the quantity and cmpsitin f pesticide wastes cmplicate the dispsal technlgy N single treatment system can be universally applied I. Chemical detxificatin and dispsal methds 59. Acid r base hydrlysis, xidatin, reductin r irradiatin 60. Other methds such as fixatin, wet scrubbing, Chlrinlysis, neutralisatin, precipitatin, in exchange and slvent extractin fr treating industrial pesticide prductin plant effluents and ther industrial wastes. II. Physical detxificatin and dispsal methds 1. Incineratin Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

107 This is the best methd f detxificatin and dispsal f nn-metallic txicants. 2. Ocean incineratin In this the incineratr is taken int the sea in a ship and hazardus chemicals are cmbusted. 3. Deep well injectin and grund burial and use f chemically mdified peat are ther physical dispsal methds III. Bilgical detxificatin and dispsal methds 63. Sil incrpratin 64. Land fills 65. Activated sludge system 66. Enzymatic treatment. Biratinal insecticide Biratinal pesticide Any type f insecticide active against pest ppulatins, but relatively inncuus t nn-target rganisms, and, therefre, nn-disruptive t bilgical cntrl (Stansly et al.1996). An insecticide can be inncuus by having lw r n direct txicity, r by having systemic r by mving rapidly int the leaf thrugh the leaf surface, r by having shrt field residual, thereby minimizing expsure f natural enemies t the insecticide. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

108 an insecticide can be inncuus t ne natural enemy r even sme life stages f ne natural enemy but can be txic t anther natural enemy r ther life stages The biratinal nature f pesticides depends upn the time, pest and crp upn which they are used It needs gd safety n nn-target pest Chemical Actin Cmmn Name Target Pest Systemics (nictinids) Imidaclprid Thiamethxam Acetamiprid Whiteflies, aphids Whiteflies, aphids Whiteflies, aphids Insect Grwth Regulatrs Miscellaneus Pyriprxyfen Buprfezin Tebufenzide Methxyfenzide Nvalurn Pymetrzine Spinsad Indxacarb Emamectin benzate Chlrantraniliprle Whiteflies, aphids Whiteflies Leps. Leps. Whiteflies, Leps. Aphids, whiteflies Leps., leafminers Leps. Leps., leafminers Leps., leafminers S.N. Chemical name 1. Flubendiamide 480 SC 2. Flubendiamide 480 SC 3. Flubendiamide 480 SC 4. Flubendiamide 480 SC 5. Flubendiamide 480 SC 6. Flubendiamide 480 SC Pesticide 2007 Dse Trade name Crp Pest (a.i. ha-1) Fame 24g cabbage Diamnd back mth 48g Tmat Helicverpa armigera 60g Chillies Fruitbrer 48g Redgram Maruca testulalis, Excelastis atmsa Helicverpa armigera 48g cttn bllwrms 24g rice Leaf flder Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

109 7. Fiprnil 80 WG 50g Rice Stem brer and leaf flder 8. Fiprnil 5SC Regent 50g Rice Stem brer and leaf flder 9. Fiprnil 80 WG 50g Grapes Thrips 10. Fiprnil 80 WG 50g Chillies Thrips 11. Imidaclprid 200 SL Cnfidar 50g Grapes Grapevine flea beetle 12. Imidaclprid 200 SL Tatamida 25g Cucumber Sucking insects 13. Imidaclprid 200 SL 50g Tbacc Sucking pests 14. Imidaclprid 17.8 SL 15g kra Sucking pests 15. Imidaclprid 17.8 SL 25g kra Sucking pests 16. Imidaclprid 17.8 SL 50g Cttn Sucking pests 17. Imidaclprid 70 WG Admire 24.5g Cucumber Aphids, leaf hppers 18. Triazphs 20EC Hstthin 600g cttn Bllwrms 19. Triazphs 40EC 200g Chillies Sucking pests 20. Spirtetramat g Chillies Sucking pests OD 21. Spirtetramat 150 OD 75g Cttn Sucking pests 22. Emamectin benzate Prclaim 11g Cttn & Helicverpa armigera 5 SG Bhendi 23. Emamectin benzate - 15g Bhendi Fruit brer 5 EC 24. Emamectin benzate - 15g cttn Bllwrms 5 EC 25. Emamectin benzate 20g Bhendi Fruit brer 1.9 EC 26. Emamectin benzate 1.9 EC 20g cttn Bllwrms 27. Thiamethxam 25 WG 25g cttn Sucking pests 28. Thiamethxam 25 WG Actara 25g rice GLH & BPH 29. Indxacarb 14.5 SC Isacarb, 75g Cttn Bllwrms Avaunt 30. Indxacarb 14.5 SC 25g Cabbage Diamnd back mth 31. Indxacarb (KN 128)15 4g cabbage Diamnd back mth EC 32. Indxacarb (KN 128)15 75g Cttn Bllwrms EC 33. Spinsad 2.5 SC Success 18.75g Cabbage Diamnd back mth 34. Spinsad 45 SC Tracer 75g Chillies Fruit brers 35. Bifenthrin 10 EC Talstar 50g Rice Leaf flder 36. Spirmesifen 240 SC Obern 120g Okra Red spidermite 37. Spirmesifen 240 SC Obern 96g Tea Tetranychid mite 38. Buprfezin 25 SC 200g cttn Sucking pests 39. Buprfezin 25 SC 200g rice GLH & BPH Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

110 40. Buprfezin 25 SC Applaud 25 SC 325g Grapes Mealybugs 41. Ethiprle 10 SC 50g Rice BPH, WBPH 42. Thiaclprid 24 SC Alant 50g Rice BPH, WBPH 43. Prpargite 570 EC Omite 570g Okra Red spider mite 44. Fenazaquin 10 EC Magister 100g Okra Red spider mite 45. Fenpyrximate 5 SC Senda, 30g chillies mite Mitigate 46. Chlrpenapyr 10 SC Intrepid 100g Cabbage Diamnd back mth 47. Diafenthiurn 50 WP 0.16g Cardamm Sht and capsule brer, thrips 48. Diafenthiurn 50 WP Pegasus 0.1g Cardamm thrips 49. Acetamiprid 20 SP Pride 50g Cttn Sucking pests 50. Abamectin 1.9 EC Abamectin 22.5g Cttn Bll wrms 51. Chlrantraniliprle 20 Cragen 40 g chillies Fruit brers SC 52. Chlrantraniliprle 20 SC Cragen 40 g tmat Fruit brers 53 Chlrantraniliprle 20 SC Cragen 40 g Red gram Pd brer cmplex 54. Chlrantraniliprle 20 SC Cragen 10 g Cabbage Diamnd back mth 55 Lambdacyhalthrin Icn 62.5g/1000sq.ft Husehld Msquit 10%WP 56 Lambdacyhalthrin 5 CS Karate Zen 25 g Brinjal, kra,tmat New mlecule f pesticide and their dsage against key pests Brers S.N. Chemical name Dse Trade name (a.i. ha -1 ) CROP PEST 1. Flubendiamide 480 SC Fame 24g cabbage Diamnd back mth 2. Flubendiamide 480 SC 48g Tmat Helicverpa armigera 3. Flubendiamide 480 SC 60g Chillies Fruitbrer 4. Flubendiamide 480 SC 48g Redgram Maruca testulalis, Excelastis atmsa Helicverpa armigera 5. Flubendiamide 480 SC 48g cttn bllwrms 6. Flubendiamide 480 SC 24g rice Leaf flder 7. Fiprnil 80 WG 50g Rice Stem brer and leaf flder Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

111 8. Fiprnil 5SC Regent 50g Rice Stem brer and lder 9. Fiprnil 80 WG 50g Grapes Thrips 10. Fiprnil 80 WG 50g Chillies Thrips 11. Imidaclprid 200 SL Cnfidar mida 50g Grapes Grapevine flea e 12. Imidaclprid 200 SL 25g Cucumber Sucking insects 13. Imidaclprid 200 SL 50g Tbacc Sucking pests 14. Imidaclprid 17.8 SL 15g kra Sucking pests 15. Imidaclprid 17.8 SL 25g kra Sucking pests 16. Imidaclprid 17.8 SL 50g Cttn Sucking pests 17. Imidaclprid 70 WG Admire 24.5g Cucumber Aphids, leaf s 18. Triazphs 20EC Hstthin 600g cttn Bllwrms 19. Triazphs 40EC 200g Chillies Sucking pests 20. Spirtetramat 150 OD 60g Chillies Sucking pests 21. Spirtetramat 150 OD 75g Cttn Sucking pests 22. Emamectin benzate 5 SG Prclaim 11g Cttn & Helicverpa Bhendi armigera 23. Emamectin benzate 5 EC - 15g Bhendi Fruit brer 24. Emamectin benzate 5 EC - 15g cttn Bllwrms 25. Emamectin benzate 1.9 EC 20g Bhendi Fruit brer 26. Emamectin benzate 1.9 EC 20g cttn Bllwrms 27. Thiamethxam 25 WG 25g cttn Sucking pests 28. Thiamethxam 25 WG Actara 25g rice GLH & BPH 29. Indxacarb 14.5 SC Isacarb, Avaunt 75g Cttn Bllwrms 30. Indxacarb 14.5 SC 25g Cabbage Diamnd back mth 31. Indxacarb (KN 128)15 EC 4g cabbage Diamnd back mth 32. Indxacarb (KN 128)15 75g Cttn Bllwrms EC 33. Spinsad 2.5 SC Success 18.75g Cabbage Diamnd back mth 34. Spinsad 45 SC Tracer 75g Chillies Fruit brers 35. Bifenthrin 10 EC Talstar 50g Rice Leaf flder 36. Spirmesifen 240 SC Obern 120g Okra Red spidermite 37. Spirmesifen 240 SC Obern 96g Tea Tetranychid mite 38. Buprfezin 25 SC 200g cttn Sucking pests 39. Buprfezin 25 SC 200g rice GLH & BPH 40. Buprfezin 25 SC Applaud 25 SC 325g Grapes Mealybugs 41. Ethiprle 10 SC 50g Rice BPH, WBPH 42. Thiaclprid 24 SC Alant 50g Rice BPH, WBPH Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

112 43. Prpargite 570 EC Omite 570g Okra Red spider mite 44. Fenazaquin 10 EC Magister 100g Okra Red spider mite 45. Fenpyrximate 5 SC Senda, Mitigate 30g chillies mite 46. Chlrpenapyr 10 SC Intrepid 100g Cabbage Diamnd back mth 47. Diafenthiurn 50 WP 0.16g Cardamm Sht and capsule brer, thrips 48. Diafenthiurn 50 WP Pegasus 0.1g Cardamm thrips 49. Acetamiprid 20 SP Pride 50g Cttn Sucking pests 50. Abamectin 1.9 EC Abamectin 22.5g Cttn Bll wrms 51. Chlrantraniliprle 20 Cragen 40 g chillies Fruit brers SC 52. Chlrantraniliprle 20 Cragen 40 g tmat Fruit brers SC 53 Chlrantraniliprle 20 Cragen 40 g Red gram Pd brer SC cmplex 54. Chlrantraniliprle 20 Cragen 10 g Cabbage Diamnd back SC mth 55 Lambdacyhalthrin Icn 62.5g/1000sq.ft Husehld Msquit 10%WP 56 Lambdacyhalthrin 5 CS Karate Zen 25 g Brinjal, kra,tmat Brers Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

113 Lecture N.7 Methdlgy fr Surveillance Definitin-Pest Surveillance Pest surveillance is the watch kept n a pest fr decisin-making. Objectives The bjectives f the pest and disease surveillance prgramme in Agricultural and Hrticultural crps are t: a. Detect species f pest r pathgen present b. Assess levels f ppulatin / damage / infectin c. Study the influence f weather and seasnal parameters n pests and diseases. d. Knw new species f pests and diseases. e. Mnitr the behaviur f pests under changing crpping pattern / new varieties. f. Find ut natural enemy ppulatin g. Watch the behaviur f pests under changing crpping pattern/new varieties h. Assess resistance/susceptibility/break-dwn f resistance in crps t pests and diseases. i. Mnitr build-up f resistance in pests and pathgens t pesticides j. Mark endmic areas/pest calendar k. Launch timely plant prtectin measures n need-basis, Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

114 l. Reduce cst f cultivatin m. Avid cntaminatin t ec-system, and n. T frewarn farmers Methdlgy fr Surveillance The surveillance prgramme encmpasses (i) fixed plt survey and (ii) rving survey. The fixed plt and rving surveys invlve the in situ assessment f pests and diseases in the standing crp. The supprting methdlgy includes bservatins n the activity f pests by setting up light traps, phermne traps, spre traps, etc. The weather parameters f the respective areas are als recrded t study their influence n the pests and diseases. The bservatins n the pests and diseases cver their alternate cultivated hst crps and weed hst plants. A. Fixed Plt Survey Tw fields f abut 1 acre in size are selected in tw different villages in the jurisdictin f each Agricultural Officers. Five micr plts each f the size f ne square metre area are fixed in each field. These micr plts are laid ne each in fur quarters f the field and ne in the middle. The micr plts shuld be fixed abut 10 metres away frm the bunds. The bservatins fr mst f the pests are cnfined t five micr plts in each field. B.Rving Survey Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

115 The rving survey is cnducted every week at the rate f tw fields in each f the fur villages in the jurisdictin f each Agricultural Officers (T&V). In each field, bservatins are recrded frm the suth west crner by a diagnal walk. Surveillance prgramme - three kinds The reprts invlved in the surveillance prgramme are f three kinds. White card reprt r Nrmal reprt This is a weekly reprt in which the pest and disease situatins are reprted regularly. Yellw card This is a special reprting system wherever pest r disease is nticed at 50% f the ecnmic threshld level but still nt attained ETL status. The infrmatin is immediately passed n fr alerting the Jint Directr f Agriculture (T&V), his subject matter specialists, and the scientists. Red card This reprting system is adpted when a pest r a disease has reached the critical ecnmic threshld level where immediate actin prgramme has t be launched fr cntrlling the pest r disease. Survey Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

116 Regular survey activity is necessary fr successful surveillance prgrammes. Surveys may be qualitative r quantitative. Qualitative survey aims at pest detectin, emplyed with newly intrduced pests and ften precedes quantitative survey. Quantitative survey attempts t define numerically the abundance f an insect ppulatin in time and space; useful fr future ppulatin detectin and assessment f damage ptential. Sampling Sampling requires that we take a representative part f the ttal ppulatin and base ur estimate n that part. Sampling technique is the methd used t cllect infrmatin fr a single sample. Sampling prgramme describes when sampling is t begin, lcatin f samples, number f samples and hw ften samples shuld be taken. Cmmn sampling techniques are In situ cunts, knck dwn, netting, trapping, extractin frm sil, indirect technique. Decisin making Definitins Decisin making is the key stne in insect pest management prgrammes; it indicates the curse f actin t be taken in any pest situatin. Ecnmic : is the amunt f injury, which justifies the cst f artificial cntrl measures. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

117 Gain Threshld: is the tem used t express the beginning pint f ecnmic damage. Management cst (Rs. /acre) Gain Threshld = = kg/acre Market value f the prduct (Rs. /kg) Ecnmic Injury Level (EIL): is defined as the lwest number f insects that will cause ecnmic damage r the minimum number f insect that wuld reduce yield equal t gain threshld. Ecnmic Threshld (ET): Indicate the number f insects (density r intensity) / damage when management actin shuld be taken t prevent ppulatin/ damage reaching EIL. Market value/crp value: is ne f the mst variable factrs and accunts fr much f the change in EILs. The relatinship between EIL and market value is inverse. Management Csts: The cst f managing a pest ppulatin must be estimated befre prfitability f an actin can be assessed. Life table Life table is a cndensed tabulatin f certain vital statistics f insect ppulatin, which prvides a frmat fr recrding, and accunting fr all ppulatin change is the life cycle f a species. S the cnstructin f life table is an imprtant cmpnent in the understanding f the ppulatin Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

118 dynamics f a species. But it takes cnsiderable time and manpwer t btain realistic results. If carried ut crrectly life table remain the mst imprtant analytical technique available fr identifying key mrtality cmpnents in an insect pest s life cycle. Age specific life tables are mre cmmnly used in entmlgy than time- specific life tables. The frmer are based n the fate f a real chrt thrughut a generatin, while the latter are based n the fate f an imaginary chrt. Age specific life table prvides a means f identifying the ptential rle f parasitids and predatrs in the regulatin f pest ppulatin. The data required t cnstruct a life table fr key factr analysis are a series f successive samples taken frm each life stage f a generatin. The first step in cnstructing a life table is t btain an estimate f the ptential natality (Number f individual entering pstvarial stage). This is calculated frm an estimate f the mean fecundity per female, which is multiplied by the number f female f reprductive age. Mrtality refers t the ttal mrtality btained in a ppulatin. Utility f life tables 1. Calculatin f replacement rate: A valid life table can be determining whether a ppulatin is grwing, declining, r remaining stable. 2. Simulatin: Once a valid life table is cnstructed fr n insect ppulatin, it may be used t stimulate the ut cme f management decisins. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

119 3. Determinatin f key factrs: Key factr analysis has prved t be a valuable aid in identifying the envirnmental factrs mst clsely related t intergeneratinal ppulatin trend. Limitatin Life table analysis is nly as valid as the accuracy f the sampling techniques used t btain initial data. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

120 Lecture N.8 Bilgical cntrl in pest management Intrductin Use f natural enemies t suppress pest species. The Natural enemies are Predatrs, Parasitids and Pathgens. Classical bilgical cntrl is cttny cushin scale Icerya purchase in 1889 with Ralia cardinalis beetle (Miracle f Entmlgy). The steps invlved in bilgical cntrl are 2. Cnservatin and encuragement f indigenus natural enemies. 3. Imprtatin f extic natural enemies. 4. Augmentatin (mass rearing and release). Qualities f an effective natural enemy: 1) Gd hst searching capacity. 2) Hst specificity. 3) Wider adaptability 4) High dispersal ability 5) Amenability t culturing. 6) Ability t withstand cmpetitin. 7) Ability t utnumber the pest. 8) High survival capacity. Parasite Parasitids Parasitids An animal species, which lives n r in a larger animal, the hst, feeding upn it, and frequently destrying it. A parasite needs nly ne r part f hst t reach maturity. Parasitid Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

121 An insect parasite f an arthrpd; parasitic nly in its immature stages, destrying its hst in the prcess f its develpment, and free living as an adult. Types f parasitids 1. Based n the develpmental site in the hst a. Ectparasitid An insect parasite which develps externally n its arthrpd hst. (eg). Bracn brevicrnis n ccnut black headed caterpillars. b. Endparasitid An insect parasitid which develps within the bdy f its arthrpd hst. (eg) Eribrius trchanteratus n ccnut black headed caterpillar. 2. Based n hst specificity a. Mnphagus parasitid Highly hst specific attacking a single hst species. E.g. Parasierla nephantidis (Gnizus) (Bethylide) n Opisina arensella (ccnut black headed caterpillars). b. Oligphagus parasitid (Stenphagus): Attacking a grup f related hst species. c. Plyphagus parasitid: Attack a wide variety f hst species. (eg) Trichgramma Spp. (Trichgrammatidae) n eggs f many Lepidpteran species. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

122 3. Based n the hst a. Primary parasitid: A parasitid parasitizing a pest. It is beneficial (eg) Trichgramma sp. b. Secnday parasitids: A parasitid attacking anther parasitid. It is harmful (eg.) Opisina arensella (pest) Bracn brevicrnis (Primary parasitid) Pleurtrpis sp. (secndary parasitid). c. Tertiary parasitid: A parasitid attacking secndary parasitid. It is beneficial. (eg) Trichspilus cerulescens All parasitids whse hsts are parasitids are called as hyperparasitids (Parasitids f Parasitids). 4. Based n the number f parasitids develping frm a single hst insect a.slitary parasitid: One prgeny alne is capable f cmpleting its develpment in r n its hst (eg) Eribrus trchanteratus. b. Gregarius parasitid: Several prgeny are capable f cmpleting its develpment in r n a single hst. (eg) Bracn brevicnis. A further extensin f gregaiusness is Plyembryny in which several individuals develp frm a single egg. (eg) Platygaster. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

123 5. Based n the stage f hst insect attacked Order: Hymenptera (90% f parasitid cming under this rder) I.Egg parasitid a. Trichgramma chilnis: Trichgrammatidae Eggs f sugarcane internde brer, cttn bllwrm, rice leaf flder. b. T. japnicum: Trichgrammatidae Eggs f rice stem brer c. Telenmus rwani : Scelnidae Eggs r rice stem brer d. T.remus : Scelnidae Eggs f tbacc caterpillar II. Egg-Larval parasitid a. Chelnus blackburni: Bracnidae Eggs f cttn sptted bllwrm. III. Larval parasitid a. Bracn hebetr: Bracnidae Larvae f ccnut black headed caterpillar b. B.brevicrnis :Bracnidae Larvae f ccnut black headed caterpillar c. Cmpletis chlridae: Ichneumnidae Larvae f H. armigera d. Ctesia plutella :Bracnidae Larvae f diamndback mth e. Eribrus trchanteratus: Ichneumnidae Larvae f ccnut black headed caterpillar f. Gnizus nephantidis : Bethylidae Larvae f ccnut black headed caterpillar g. Platygaster ryzae: Platygasteridae Larvae f rice gall midge. IV. Larval Pupal parasitid a. Istima javensis: Ichneumnidae Pre pupal parasite f tp sht brer f sugarcane. V.Pupal parasitid a. Brachymeria nephantidis; Chalcidae Pupae f ccnut black headed caterpillar. b. Tetrastichus israeli: Eulphidae Pupae f ccnut black headed caterpillar. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

124 c. Trichspilus pupivra: Eulphidae Pupae f ccnut black headed caterpillar. d. Xanthpimpla punctata : Ichneumnidae VI. Nymphal and adult parasitid a. Aphelinus mali : Aphelinidae Aphids b. Encarsia frmsa: Aphelinidae Cttn whitefly Order: Diptera (10% f parasitid cming under this rder) I. Larval parasitid a. Sturmispsis inferens: Tachinidae: Larvae f sugarcane early sht brer. b. Spaggssia bassiana: Tachinide: Larvae f ccnut black headed caterpillar. II. Larval pupal parasitid a.eucelatria bryani: Tachinidae : Larvae f H.armigera Types f Parasitism Parasitism is a relatinship between tw species in which ne, the parasite, btains its nutritinal requirements frm the bdy material f the ther, the hst. Simple parasitism: There is a single attack f the parasitid n the hst irrespective f the number f eggs laid. (eg) Parasierla nephantidis n Opisina arensella. Super parasitism: Many individuals f the same species f the parasitid attack a single hst, (eg) Trichspilus pupivra n Opisina arensella. Multiparasitism: Parasitism by different species f parasitids n the same hst at a time. (eg) Eribrus trchanteratus, Bracn brevicrnis and Parasierla nephantidis attacking Opisina arensella. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

125 Hyperparasitism: Parasitids attacking anther parasitids. (eg) Pleurtrpis sp. (Hyperparasitid) n Bracn brevicrnis (Primary parasitid) Cleptparasitism: Attack by a parasitid n a hst previusly parasitized by anther parasitid. (eg) Eurytma pini n Pine sht mth Autparasitism (Adelphparasitims): A special type r parasitism in which the female develps as a primary parasitid, but the male is a secndary parasitid thrugh females f its wn species. (eg) Encarsia frmsa a parasitid f white fly. Adaptatins in parasitiids Egg is laid n the hst plant f the hst by the parasitid. Egg f the parasitid is ingested int the bdy system f the hst. (eg) Tchinid fly. Parasitic larva finds its hst when it mves in search f fd. (eg) Tachinid maggt. Eggs are laid n the uter surface f the hst. The parasitic grubs remain utside and feed n the hst. (eg) Bethlid n Opisina. Eggs may be laid utside. The hatching grubs bre the bdy wall f the hst and feed inside the hst. Eggs are laid and develpment ccurs inside the hst. Adult parasites are highly efficient in lcating the hst. They psses sense rgans t lcate the hsts. Ovipsitr is suitably develped fr prper egg placement. Plyembryny several individuals develp frm a single egg. Because f this, the larger hst is thrughly explited. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

126 Phresy One rganism is utilized by anther fr transprt. (eg) A chalcid parasitid attaches itself t ant and gets transprted t ants nest fr parasitizing the ant grubs. Ideal qualities f a parasitid High hst searching capacity This is ne f the primary requisite particularly in a situatin f lw hst density. Having a narrwly limited hst range s that when the pest ppulatin is reduced lw densities, the parasite is able t maintain itself n alternate hsts. Alternate hsts may accmmdate the parasite ppulatin during seasns when pest may accmmdate the parasite ppulatin during seasns when pest is nt available r when the pest is cntrlled by chemical insecticides. Hwever, the available hst range shuld nt be s large that the parasite ppulatin hst range shuld nt be s large that the parasite ppulatin dissipates itself upn ecnmically harmless species. Having a life cycle cnsiderably shrter than that f the pest when the pest ppulatin cnsists f verlapping generatins and having a life cycle synchrnized with that f the pest when the pest ppulatin is cmpsed f a single develpment stage at any time. Ptential rate f increase (high fecundity) t keep the pest ppulatin under check. Able t survive in all habitats ccupied by the pest i.e. the natural enemy shuld have adaptability t a bard range f climatic variatins. Able t be cultured easily in the labratry Able t quickly reduce the pest ppulatin Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

127 Absence f superparasitism and multiparasitism. Parasitids f agricultural imprtance Trichgramma sp. egg parasitid f sugarcane intermde brer. Chelnus balckburni egg larval parasitid f ptat tuber mth Bracn brevicrnis Larva parasitid f ccnut blackheaded caterpillar (BHC) Parasierla nephantidis Larva parasitid f ccnut BHC Eribrus trchanteratus Larva parasitid f ccnut BHC Eucelatria bryani Larval parasitid f American bllwrm Helicverpa armigera Sturmipsis inference Larval parasitid f sugarcane sht brer Eucarcelia illta Larval pupal parasitid f H.armigera Trichspilus pupivra Pupal parasitid f ccnut BHC Tetrastichus israeli Pupal parasitid f ccnut BHC Mass culturing f parasitids It includes the mass culturing f the hst insects and the parasitids. Eggs and larvae f rice mth, Crcyra cephalnica are widely used n hsts fr many parasitids. Mass prductin techniques f imprtance parasitids and their hst insects are given belw. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

128 Lecture N.9 Pesticide Applicatin Methds Pesticide applicatin methds The desired effect f pesticide can be btained nly if it is applied by an apprpriate methd in apprpriate time. The methd f applicatin depends n nature f pesticide, frmulatin, pests t be managed, site f applicatin, availability f water etc. 1. Dusting Dusting in carried ut in the mrning hurs and during very light air stream. It can be dne manually r by using dusters. Sme times dust can be applied in sil fr the cntrl f sil insects. During is cheaper and suited fr dry land crp pest cntrl. 2. Spraying Spraying is nrmally carried ut by mixing EC (r) WP frmulatins in water. There are three types f spraying. 3. Granular applicatin Highly txic pesticides are handled safely in the frm f granules. Granules can be applied directly n the sil r in the plant parts. The methds f applicatin are Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

129 a) Bradcasting: Granules are mixed with equal quantity f sand and bradcasted directly n the sil r in thin film f standing water. (eg) Carbfuran 3%G 1.45kg/8 cent rice nursery in a thin film f water and impund water fr 3 days. b) In furrw applicatin: Granules are applied at the time f swing in furrws 3 g per meter rw fr the cntrl f srghum shtfly. c) Side dressing: After the establishment f the plants, the granules are applied a little away frm the plant (10-15 cm) in a furrw. d) Spt applicatin: Granules are 5 cm away and 5 cm deep n the sides f plant. This reduces the quantity f insecticide required. e) Ring applicatin: Granules are applied in a ring frm arund the trees. f) Rt zne applicatin: Granules are encapsulated and placed in the rt zne f the plant. (eg) by mixing it with equal quantity f sand in the central whrl f crps like srghum, maize, sugarcane t cntrl internal brers. h) Pralinage: The surface f banana sucker intended fr planting is trimmed. The sucker is dipped in wet clay slurry and carbfuran 3G is sprinkled (20-40 g/sucker) t cntrl burrwing nematde. 4. Seed pelleting/seed dressing The insecticide mixed with seed befre swing (eg.) srghum seeds are treated with chlrpyriphs 4ml/kg in 20 ml f water and shade dried t cntrl shtfly. The carbfuran 50 SP and imdaclprid is directly used as dry seed dressing insecticide against cttn sucking pests. 5. Seedling rt dip Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

130 It is fllwed t cntrl early stage pests (eg) in rice t cntrl sucking pests and stem brer in early transplanted crp, a shallw pit lined with plythene sheet is prepared in the field. T this 0.5 kg urea in 2.5 litre f water and 100 ml chlrpyriphs in 2.5 litre f water prepared separately are pured. The slutin is made upt 50 1 with water and the rts f seedlings in bundless are dipped fr 20 min befre transplanting. 6. Sett treatment Treat the sugarcane setts in 0.05% malathin fr 15 minutes t prtect them frm scales. Treat the sugarcane setts in 0.05% Imidaclprid g/ha r 7 g/l dipped fr 15 minutes t prtect them frm termites. 7. Trunk/stem injectin This methd is used fr the cntrl f ccnut pests like black headed caterpillar, mite etc. Drill a dwnward slanting hle f 1.25 cm diameter t a depth f 5 cm at a light f abut 1.5m abve grund level and inject 5 ml f mncrtphs 36 WSC int the stem and plug the hle with cement (r) clay mixed with a fungicide. Pseud stem injectin f banana, an injecting gun r hypdermic syringe is used fr the cntrl f banana aphid, vectr f bunchy tp disease. 8. Padding Stem brers f mang, silk cttn and cashew can be cntrlled by this methd. Bark f infested tree (5x5 cm) is remved n three sides leaving bttm as a flap. Small quantity f absrbent cttn is placed in the expsed area and 5-10 ml f Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

131 Mncrtphs 36 WSP is added using an ink filler. Clse the flap and cver with clay mixed with fungicide. 9. Swabbing Cffee white brer is cntrlled by swabbing the trunk and branches with lindane 1 per cent suspensin. 10. Rt feeding Trunk injectin in ccnut results in wunding f trees and rt feeding is an alternate and safe chemical methd t cntrl black headed caterpillar, eriphyid mite, red palm weevil. Mncrtphs 10 ml and equal quantity f water are taken in a plythene bag and cut the end (slant cut at 45) f a grwing rt tip (dull white rt) is placed inside the insecticide slutin and the bag is tied with rt. The insecticide absrbed by rt, enter the plant system and cntrl the insect. 11. Sil drenching Chemical is diluted with water and the slutin is used t drench the sil t cntrl certain subterranean pests. (eg) Chlrpyriphs / dimethate used against cutwrms, silmealy bug. 12. Capsul placement The systemic pisn culd be applied in capsules t get txic effect fr a lng perid. (eg) In banana t cntrl bunchy tp vectr (aphid) the insecticide is filled in gelatin capsules and placed in the crwn regin. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

132 13. Baiting The txicant is mixed with a bait material s as t attract the insects twards the txicant. A) Spdptera. A bait prepared with 0.5 kg mlasses (jiggery), 0.5 kg carbaryl 50WP and 5 kg f rice bran with required water (3 litres) is made int small pellets and drpped in the field in the evening hurs. B) Rats: Zinc phsphide is mixed f 1:49 rati with fd like ppped rice r maize r chlam r ccnut pieces (r) warfarin can be mixed at 1:19 rati with fd. Ready t use cake frmulatin (Brmdilne) is als available. C) Ccnut rhincers beetle: Castar rtten cake 5 kg is mixed with insecticide. 14. Fumigatin Fumigants are available in slid and liquid frms. They can be applied in the fllwing way. Sil: T cntrl the nematde in sil, the liquid fumigants are injected by using injecting gun. Strage: Liquid fumigants like Ethylene dibrmide (EDB), Methyl brmide (MB), carbn tetrachlride etc. and slid fumigant like Aluminium phsphide are recmmended in gdwns t cntrl stred prduct pest. Trunk: Aluminium phsphide ½ t 1 tablet is inserted int the affected prtin f ccnut tree and plugged with cement r mud fr the cntrl f red palm weevil. I. Preparatin f spray slutin 1) Quantity f insecticide required. The requirement f quantity f cmmercial frmulatin f the insecticide can be calculated by the frmula. Vlume f spray fluid x Strength f the spray slutin desired (%) = Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

133 Strength f cmmercial frmulatin (%) 2. Strenth f the finished spray slutin: T calculate the strength f a finished spray slutin when a knwn quantity f chemical is added t knwn quantity f water, the fllwing frmula may be adpted. Quantity f the insecticide used x Strength f the insecticide (%) = Quantity f finished spray slutin required 3. In case f granules Recmmended dse a.i./ha x 100 Quantity f chemical needed = x Area % a.i.f insecticide Pints t be cnsidered in spray fluid preparatin spraying Use gd quality water t prepare spray fluid Prepare spray fluid in clean drum r plastic buckets Fr mixing pesticide, use lng handled stir Always prepare spray fluid just befre use Spraying shuld be dne under ideal weather cnditins The walking speed f the peratr shuld be unifrm t ensure even cverage f spray chemicals in the targt area. Btanicals Amng the plant derivatives, neem il 0.5 t 3 per cent and neem seed kernel extract 5 per cent with teepl 0.05 per cent are quite effective against majr pest Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

134 f fruits crps, vegetables etc. Neem il (NO): t get a per cent slutin first mix 30 ml f neem il with 5 ml f sticking agent teepl until white emulsin is frmed. Then add ne litre f water and mix thrughly fr use f spray fluid. Neem seed kernel extract (NSKE): Fr the preparatin f 5 per cent NSKE, take 50 gm f pwered seed kernel and sak it the in small quantity f water, ver night. Filter thrugh muslin clth and make up the vlume t ne litre. Add ne ml f teepl per litre befre spraying high vlume sprayer. Neem leaf pwder: Pwder shade dried neem leaves and use as such t wrd ff stred prduct pests. Neem prducts are applied as high vlume sprays during early mrning r late evening hurs fr better efficacy with lw degradatin. The fllwing neem based pesticide frmulatins have been registered prvisinally under the Insecticides Act, 1968 fr the cntrl f insect pests f kra, red gram, cttn, Bengal gram, brinjal, cabbage, ptat, tmat, tbacc, rice, grundnut, fruit trees, etc. Frmulatin Neem triterpene emulsin (Kernel extract cntaining 0.03% azadirachtin) Neem il emulsin cntaining azadirachtin 0.03% Neem il based WSP cntaining azadirachtin 0.03% Azadirachtin technical cncentrate 10% w/w 0.15%) Neem il 93% EC cntaining 0.03% w/w azadirachtin Trade name Margcide CK 20 EC Margcide OK 20 EC Nimbecidine Achk Neemgld RD-9 Repelin 93 EC Other plant prducts Chrysanthemum Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

135 Pyrethrum based frmulatins are btained frm flwers f chrysanthemum. Tw frmulatins like Pyrethrum 0.2% D and Pyrethrum 1% EC are registered fr use against the pests f vegetables. Tbacc Waste tbacc extract, nictine 40% slutin and nictine sulphate 10% WDP registered fr research purpse. Ntchi leaf extract 10% mahua il 3%, pinnai il 3% pungam il 3% etc. are used in pest management. Vegetable edible ils are als used as seed dressing material (1:100) t avid the egg laying by pulse beetles in black gram, peas, lab-lab, green gram. II. Safe handling f pesticides 1. Strage f pesticide a. Strehuse shuld be away frm ppulated areas, wells, dmestic water strage, tanks. b. All pesticides shuld be stred in their riginal labeled cntainers in tightly sealed cnditin. c. Stre away frm the reach f children, away frm flames and keep them under lck and key. 2. Persnal prtective equipment: Prtective clthing that cver arms, legs, nse and head t prtect the skin. a. Glves and bts t prtect the skin. b. Helmets, gggles and facemask t prtect hair, eyes and nse. c. Respiratin t avid breathing dusts, mists and vapur. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

136 3. Safety in applicatin f pesticides Safe handling f pesticides (Fig.) invlves prper selectin and careful handling during mixing and applicatin. a) Pesticide selectin Selectin f a pesticide depend n the type f pest, damage, lsses caused, cst etc. Safety befre applicatin: i) Read the label and leaflet carefully. ii) Calculate the required quantity f pesticide. iii) Wear prtective clthing and equipment befre handling. iv) Avid spillage and prepare spray fluid in well ventilated area. v) Stand in the directin f the wind n back when mixing pesticides. vi) Dn t eat, drink r smke during mixing. vii) Dispse ff the cntainers immediately after use. b) Safety during applicatin i) Wear prtective clthing and equipment. ii) Spray shuld be dne in windward directin. iii) Apply crrect cverage. iv) D nt blw, suck r apply muth t any spray nzzle. v) Check the spray equipment befre use fr any leakage. c) Safety after applicatin: i) Empty the spray tank cmpletely after spraying. ii) Avid the draining the cntaminated slutin in pnds, well r n the grass where cattle graze. iii) Clean the spray equipment immediately after use. iv) Decntaminate prtective clthing and ft wear. v) Wash the hands thrughly with sap water, preferably have a bath. vi) Dispse ff the cntainers by putting int a pit. vii) Sprayed field must be marked and unauthrized entry shuld be prevented. First aid: In case f suspected pisning, call n the physician immediately. Befre calling n a dctr, first aid Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

137 treatments can be dne by any persn. Swallwed pisn: 1) during vmiting, head shuld be faced dwnwards. 2) Stmach cntent shuld be remved within 4h f pisning. 3) T give a sthing effect, give either egg mixed with water, gelatin, butter, cream, milk, smashed ptat. 4) In case f nictine pisning, give cffee r strng tea. Skin cntaminatin: 1) cntaminated clthes shuld be remved. 2) Thrughly wash with sap and water. Inhaled pisn: 1) Persn shuld be mved t a ventilated place after lsing the tight clths. 2) Avid applying frequent pressure n the chest. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

138 Lecture N.10 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Mang and Sapta MANGO I.Inflrescence feeders 1.Mang hppers- Idiscpus nivesparsus Leth, I.clypealis Leth and Amritdes atkinsni Leth. ( Cicadellidae : Hemiptera ) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm tender shts and inflrescence resulting in withering and shedding f flwer buds and flwers leads t wilting and drying f shts and leaves. The flwer stalks and leaves f infested trees becme sticky due t the depsitin f hney-dew secreted by the hppers that encurages the grwth f black sty muld n fliage and ther plant parts. The peak activity is cnfined during blssm and the lss ranges frm 25 t 60 %. During the ff - seasn, the hppers cngregate n newly develped shts and suck the sap, results in malfrmatin the leaves feeding n them. As a cnsequence, leaves becme malfrmed and undersized. The hppers take shelter in cracks and crevices n the barks during nnflwering seasn. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

139 Of these three species, A. atkinsni is the largest ne ccurring right thrugh the year and ther tw species have been bserved t be mstly present during the blming f the tree. The largest A. atkinsni has tw spts n scutellum while the smalll. clypealis has tw spts n scutellum and dark spt n the vertex, while the least sized 1. nivesparsus has three spts n scutellum. The adult hpper is light greenish-brwn with black and yellw markings, wedge shaped with brad head measures 3-4 mm in length. It inserts the eggs singly int the plant tissues f yung leaves, shts, flwer stalks and unpened flwers. A female lays abut 200 eggs. The eggs hatch in 4-7 days. The nymph with red eyes appeared while yellwish green t greenish brwn during the 5 instar ccupying 8-13 days. The ttal life cycle frm egg t adult takes 2-3 weeks fr cmpletin. Management Grw less susceptible varieties viz., Banganapalli, Chinnarasam and Alphnsa. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

140 Avid clse planting, as the incidence is very severe in vercrwded and neglected rchards. Spray tw runds, f acephate 75 SP at 1 g /litre r phasalne 35 EC at 1.5 ml / litre r carbaryl 50 WP at 42 g / litre f water, first rund at the time f new flesh panicle emergence and 2nd at tw weeks after the first spray. Spray wettable sulphur at 2 g / litre f water after spraying carbaryl t avid mite resurgence Cllect and destry affected inflrescence r sticky inflrescence t minimize ppulatin build-up. 2. Aphid-Txpetra dinae Vdg. (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm tender shts and inflrescence resulting drying up f the same plant parts and develpment f sty muld. Management Spray dimethate 30 EC 1.77ml r methyldemetn 25 EC 1 ml / litre water 3. Flwer webber-eublemma versiclr (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar webs tgether the flwer buds and inflrescence. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

141 It remains inside the web and feeds n the flral parts and als tunnels int the flwer stalks. Binmics The mth is purplish grey with an blique line n the wings. It lays eggs singly n the pedicels and sepals f flwer buds. The incubatin perid is 3-4 days. The full grwn larva is smth, greenish yellw with light brwn head and a pr - thracic shield measuring 20 mm in length. The larval perid is days. It pupates inside the inflrescence and emerges as adult in 8-9 days. The life cycle is cmpleted in days. Management Remve and destry affected flwers and tender shts. Spray dimethate 30 EC 0.06% r methyl demetn 25 EC 0.05% r Dimethate 0.03 %. 4.Hairy caterpillar Eurprctis fraterna M. Prthesia scintillans Wlk. (Lymantridae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar webs the inflrescence and feed n them causing shedding f flwer buds and flwers. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

142 Binmics The adult mth f E. fraterna is yellwish with pale transverse lines n the fre wings. The larva is reddish brwn with reddish head surrunded by white hairs and lng tufts f hair all ver the bdy and a lng preanal tuft. The adult f P. scintillans is yellwish with spts n the edges ffre wings. The larva is yellw clred with brwn head, a yellw stripe with a central red line n the bdy and tufts f black hairs drsally n the first three abdminal segments. 5. Lpers Thalassdes quadraria Guen. (Gemetridae : Lepidptera) The larvae web tgether the inflrescence and tunnel int the flwer stalk. Binmics The adult mth is greenish in clur. The larva pssessing the clur f new sht and assuming a typical pse n twing in ften mistaken fr a leaf petile. 6. Lper- Chlrclystis sp. (Gemetridae: Lepidptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

143 The larva enters in the flwer buds and damages the varies f newly pened flwers Binmics The adult mth is small and delicate with greyish wings bearing wavy lines. 7. Flwer gall midge-prcystiphra mangiferaae Felt. (Cecidmyiidae: Diptera) The maggt feeds n the internal cntent f the buds which becme cnical in shape, turn brwn and drp. The infestatin results in flwer drpping and malfrmatin f flwers. Binmics The adult fly is light range in clur. It lays eggs inside the flwer buds. The maggt feeds n stalks f stamen, anthers, and vary. It pupates inside the bud itself. The life cycle is cmpleted in days. 8. Flwer gall midge-ersmyia indica Felt. (Cecidmyiidae: Diptera ) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

144 The maggt infests the flwer buds, inflrescence stalk and develping fruits. The inflrescence becmes stunted and malfrmed. The infested bud des nt pen. Binmics The adult is yellwish in clur. It lays the eggs n inflrescence peduncle r at the base f develping fruit. The maggt is yellwish and it pupates in the sil. 9.Flwer gall midge-dasyneura amaramanjarae Grv.(Cecidmyiidae :Diptera) The maggt feeds n the vary and the nectaries f grwing bud which fail t prduce fruits. Several larvae are fund in single flwer. Binmics The adult flies insert the eggs int un pened flwer buds. A female fly lays abut eggs. The incubatin perid is hurs. The larva becmes full fed after three mults and drp dwn t the sil t underg diapause. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

145 The maggt hibernate in sil thus the carry ver f the pest t the next year is accmplished. When the favurable cnditin set in they pupate and emerge as adults. II. Brers 1.Stembrer-Batcera rufmaculata Dejean. (Cerambycidae: Lepidptera) The grubs feed by tunneling thrugh the bark f branches and main stem. The damage may als shw itself by the shedding f leaves and drying f terminal shts in early stage f attack. When the damage ccurs at the main stem, the whle tree succumbs. Binmics The adult is a large lngicrn beetle abut 5 cm lng and 1.6 cm brad and yellwish brwn in clur. It has tw pink dts and lateral spines n thrax. It lays eggs singly n the bark, r cracks and crevices n the tree trunk r branches hatch in abut 1-2 weeks. The grub is stut with well-defined segmentatin and yellw in clur. The grub makes zig - zag burrw beneath the bark. The grub feeds n the internal tissues and becme full fed in abut six mnths. It pupates inside the tunnel itself. The pupal perid is days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

146 Management Remve and destry the dead trees and affected branches frm the garden. Swab trunk with carbaryl 20 g/1. Use light trap 1 / ha t attract adult mths r beetles. Lcate bre hles, spike ut grubs using a needle r irn wire. Exclude the alternative hst, silk cttn frm mang rchards. Grw less susceptible varieties viz., Neelam, Humayudin, and Panchavarnam. Swab cal tar + Kersene (1 :2) n the basal part f the trunk up t 3 feet high after scraping the lse bark t prevent the female frm egg laying. Spike ut the grub if the bre hles are lcated, and add insecticide emulsin (mncrtphs 0.1 % at 20 ml / hle) a fumigant tablets (3 g Aluminium phsphide) r petrl and seal the hles with the mud. Fllw padding with mncrtphs 36 WSC 10 ml per tree saked in absrbent cttn when the trees are nt in bearing stage. Apply carbfurean 3-5 g per hle and plug with mud after remving the grub by using needle. Apply carbfuran granules in the sil at 75 g / tree basin. 2.Bark caterpillar-indarbela tetranis Mre and L.quadrintata Wlk. (Metarbelidae : Lepidptera ) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

147 The larva chews ut the bark resulting zig-zag galleries and silken webbed masses cmprising f chewed materials and excreta. Binmics Adult mth is pale brwn with fre wings having brwn spts and streaks and white hind wings. The larva is mm lng, stut and dirty brwn in clur. 3. Sht brer Clumetia transversa Walk. (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar bres int the tender shts frm tp t dwnwards make a characteristic tunnel t a depth f 5-6 inches. The damage resulted in stunting f whle seedling with individual twigs shwing a peculiar terminal bunchy appearance. Binmics The adult mth is greyish with dark grey wing having wavy designs. The eggs are laid singly and they hatch in 2-3 days. The larva is dark pink with dark brwn pr - thracic shield. It pupates in sil n the damaged sht. 4. Fruit brer-hyalspila leucneurella Rgnt. (Phycitidae: Lepidptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

148 The larva brers int the develping fruits and tunnel int the pulp. 6. Fruit fly - Bactrcera (= Dacus) drsalis Hend. ( Tephritidae : Diptera ) The maggt destry and cnvert the pulp int a bad smelling, disclured semi liquid mass unfit fr human cnsumptin. The infestatin results in fruit drp and start rtting frm inside. On cmplete rtting f the fruits, the damaged fruit develp yellw spts with black centers thrugh which liquid zes ut n pressing. Binmics The adult fly is brwn r dark brwn with hyaline wings and yellw legs. The female fly lays eggs in clusters f 2-15 just beneath the skin f the ripening fruits. A single female lays up t 200 eggs during vipsitin perid f ne mnth. The egg perid is days. The maggt feeds n pulp and becme full grwn in abut 7 days. It pupates 3-7 inches belw the sil. Management 1. Plugh the interspaces t expse the pupae during the ff - seasn. 2. Cllect and destry the fallen fruits. 3. Set up fly trap using methyl eugenl. Prepare methyl eugenl 1 ml/ 1 litre f water + 1 ml f Malathin slutin. 4. Take 10 ml f this mixture per trap and keep them at 25 different places in ne ha between 6 and 8 am. Cllect and destry the adult flies. 5. Cnserve parasitids like Optius cmpensates and Spalangia philippinensis. 6. Use bait spray cmbining mlasses r jaggery 10g/1 and ne f the insecticides, fenthin 100 EC 1 ml/1, malathin 50 EC 2 ml/1, dimethate 30 EC 1 ml/1, Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

149 carbaryl 50 WP 4g/1, tw runds at frtnightly intervals befre ripening f the fruits. 6. Mang nut weevil - Sternchetus mangiferae Fab. (Curculinidae: Cleptera) The grub tunnel in a zig - zag manner thrugh the pulp endcarp and the seed cat and they finally reach the ctyledns. As the fruit develps the tunnel get clsed. The grub feeds n the ctyledns and destry them. The adults wh emerge frm the pupae als feed n the develping seed and this may hasten the maturity f infested fruits. Binmics The adult weevil is stutly built, 6 mm lng, dark brwn in clur. It lays eggs singly n the marble sized fruits by scping ut the surface tissue and cver ver with a transparent secretin. The vipsitn puncture heals leaving minute spt. On a single fruit up t 15 eggs may be laid in a day. The egg perid is 7 days. The newly hatched ut grub is creamy, yellw apdus tunnel the fruit pulp and enter int ctyledns. The larval perid is days. It underges five larval instars and pupate inside the nut alng the cncave side. The pupal perid is 7 days. The ttal life cycle ccupies days. The adult ften remain inside the nut until they are thrwn away after cnsumptin f the pulp. The weevil hides in crevices f the tree trunk as they have lngevity f 10 mnths. Management Fllw prphylactic measures in Neelum and Bangalra varieties as these varieties are susceptible. Cllect and destry the fallen fruits, which cntain 85 % f the weevil Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

150 Spray emamectin benzate 1 ml / litre during marble stage and secnd spray at 15 days after the first spray. Take up insecticides spray directing twards the base f the trunks during the nn-flwering seasn. Tieing red ant clnies in mang rchards help t reduce the damage f nut weevil remarkably. III. Leaf feeders 1. Sht webber- Orthaga exvinacea Hmps. (Pyraustidae: Lepidptera) The larva webs tgether the leaves and feed n them. The infested leaves wither and dry up. In case f severe attack, a tree shws many webbed nests f leaves presenting n the whle a sickly appearance. 2. Leaf caterpillar-bmbtelia jcsatrix Guen. (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) The larva feeds n tender leaves causing defliatin. Binmics The adult mth has dark brwn fre wing. 3. Leaf caterpillar-euthalia garuda M. (Nymphalidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n leaves. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

151 Binmics The adult butterfly is brwnish black with white spts n wings. The caterpillar has the clur f lead and is nt easily detected n it 4. Slug caterpillar-parasa lepida Cramer. (Cchlididae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n the leaves gregariusly in the beginning, subsequently they disperse. It causes severe defliatin. Binmics The adult mth is stut with wing expanse f 4.0 cm and having green wings fringed with brwn patches. The eggs are laid in batches f n the under surface f leaves. The eggs are vals flat scale- like in shape. The fecundity is n an average 167 eggs / female. The egg perid is 7 days. The caterpillar is fleshy, slug-like with yellwish green bdy bearing a greenish blue stripe drsally and yellwish green stripes laterally. The larval perid is 5-6 weeks underges seven instars. It pupates in a hard shield - like greyish ccn n the tree trunks fr 4-5 weeks. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

152 Management Set up light traps t mnitr and kill the adult mths. Spray the crwn with carbaryl 0.1 % (r) dichlrvs 0.02 % r malathin 0.05 % slutin. In severe cases, rt feeding f mncrtphs as explained earlier under leaf eating caterpillar may be taken up with safety precautins. Cllect all the stages f pests viz., eggs n tree trunks, leaves, larvae during migratin stage, pupae in sil and leaf sheath and adult mth during emergence and destructin. Organise mass cllectin campaign invlving farmers, schl children and cllege students. Spray 2 ml / litre using specially designed tractr munted tall tree sprayer. Dust methyl parathin r Dimethate 0.03 % / tree using pwer perated bellwed crane duster t reach tall trees. Encurage the predatry birds t pick up the larval stages. 5. Leaf miner- Acrcercps syngramma Meyr. ( Gracillaridae : Lepidptera) The caterpillar mines int the leaves prducing blister like patches n them. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

153 Binmics The adult mth is silvery grey mth with fringes f hairs n the wing margin. The larva is reddish brwn in clur. 6.Sht brer - Platypeplus (= Argyrplce) aprbla Meyr. ( Eucsmidae: Lepidptera) The larva webs tgether the leaves, buds and flwers and bre int shts. 7. Leaf midges - Amradiplsis amraemyia Grver., A. brunneigallicla Ra and A.echingalliperda Mani. (Cecidmyiidae: Diptera) The maggt frms different shapes and sizes f galls n leaves. Binmics The adult is tiny msquit like fly and the maggt is yellwish in clur. Management Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

154 Spray diniethate1.7ml r methyl demetn 2 ml / litre f water. 8. Leaf mining weevil Rhychaenus mangiferae Marshl.(Curculinidae : Cleptera) The grub mines int the tender leaves while the adult weevil scrapes the leaf surface. In severe cases leaves crumble and dry up. Binmics The adult weevil is brwn with enlarged hind femur. It lays eggs singly within minute hles bitten n the lwer side f tender leaves. The egg perid is 2-3 days. The grub mines the leaves and pupates in an val chamber within the mine. The larval and pupal perids are 5.5 and 3.33 days respectively. The ttal life cycle takes abut 12 days fr vipsitin. 9. Leaf twisting weevil- Apderus tranquebaricus F. (Curculinidae: Cleptera) The adult weevil has the habit f cutting and twisting the mang leaves int shapely thimble like rlls which remain attached t the parent leaves. The grub feeds n the leaf tissue within the leaf rll. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

155 The adult weevil is medium sized, reddish brwn with a lng snut. Eggs are laid in each leaf rll. The grub pupates within the leaf rll. Management Spray insecticides like mncrtphs at 1.25 ml r Dimethate 0.03 % / litre f water t check the spread f infestatin. 10. Leaf cutting weevil - Depraus (= Eugnamptus) marginatus Pasc. (Curculinidae: Cleptera) The adult beetles cut dwn the leaf at the base and cause hles n the tender leaves. Binmics The adult weevil is small, black and brwn with a lng snut. The female excavate the cavities by the snut and lays eggs singly n the under surface f tender leaves. The grub mines the fallen leaf feeding n the mesphyll. It pupates in small val chamber. 11. Red ant-oecphylla smaragdina Fab. ( Frmicidae : Isptera) The wrker ants stitch tgether the terminal leaves with silk thread in the frm f nests which remain green. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

156 The ant distributes the aphids, mealy bug and scales n different parts f the tree thus helping t spread their infestatin. It gives annyance t persn wh climbs up the trees. Binmics A clny f red ant has ne queen, a number f sldiers, and tw kinds f wrkers. Egg, larva, pupae are hused separately. The eggs are cvered with mucilage. The egg perid is 4-8 days. There are three larval instars. The pupa is stred in any where and has duratin f 5-7 days. The ant is carnivrus feeding n flies, mths, beetles, and caterpillars. Management Manage red ants if harvesting is fund very difficult by using neem il 30 ml /liter. D nt eradicate r cntrl red ants. IV. Sap feeders 1. Whitefly- Aleurcanthus mangiferae Q & B. (Aleyrdidae: Hemiplera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm the under surface f leaves causing yellwing f leaves in patches. Management Remve the weeds like Clerdendrn infrtunatum and grass by plughing during June-July. 2. Scale - Chinaspis vitis Green. (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

157 Bth nymphs and adults desap the leaves causing yellwing 3. Mealy bug-drsicha mangiferae Green. (Pseudcccidae: Hemiptera) It infests the leaves and inflrescence. Management Remve alternative weed hsts like clerdendran by plughing during June - July. Spray chlrpyriphs 20 EC 2.5 ml / litre r mncrtphs 36 WSC 1.5 ml / litre f water. Rake up sil t destry visacs and dust carbaryl 15 D r lindane 1.3 D arund tree basin. 4. Leaf psyllid - Micrcerpsylla brevicrnis D.L. Crawfrd. (Psyllidae : Hemiptera) The nymph feeds n tender stems, leaf stalks and leaf veins. The infested leaves drp and dry up. The sty muld grwth is ccurred n leaves due t hney dew secretin f the bug. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

158 The adult bug is greenish yellw in clur. It inserts egg singly n leaf tissues. The incubatin perid is 8-9 days. It has five nymphal instars cmpleted in days. V. Nn - insect pests 1.Red spider mite- Olignychus mangiferae Rash & Sap. (Tetranychidae : Acarina) It infests the lwer leaf surface. 2. Eriphyid mite -Aceria mangiferae Sayed. (Eriphyidae : Acarina) It infests the internal and axillary buds resulting in stppage f their grwth and develpment f clse lateral buds. The infestatin results in the crwded bud frmatin becming and malfrmed. SAPOTA I. Brers 1. Leaf webber r chick mth - Nephpteryx eugrapllylla Rag. (Pyraustidae: Lepidptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

159 The caterpillar webs tgether the leaves scrape the chlrphyll and reduced t net wrk f veins. It als bres inside the buds, flwers and sme time tender fruits becme withered and shed. Presence f clusters f dried leaves hanging frm webbed shts and appearance f dark brwn patches n leaves and cluster f dead leaves are the typical symptms f attack. Binmics The adult mth is greyish with fre wings having brwn r black spts and hind wing semi hyaline. The female lays pale yellw, val shaped eggs in-grups f 2 r 3 r singly n leaves and buds f yung shts. The fecundity is 374 eggs per female. The egg perid is 2-11 days. The larva is pinkish in clur with three drs lateral brwn stripes n each side. It pupates in leaf web itself fr 8-9 days. The ttal life cycle is cmpleted in days. There are 7-9 verlapping generatin per year. The maximum activity f pest is seen during June-July. Management Plant less susceptible PKM 1 sapta variety. Cllect and destry webbed leaves, shts and buds alng with larvae. Use light 1/ha t mnitr activity. Spray tw runds f carbary 10.1% r Bacillus thuringiensis 0.1% r NSKE 5% alng with sticking agent r phsalne 0.05% r malathin 0.1% in alternatin at 20 days interval frm new sht frmatin t harvest f fruits. 2. Bud wrm - Anarsia eptias Meyr. (Gelechiidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar bres int the flwer buds by webbing the: flral buds and flwers tgether. The infested flral parts shed. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

160 Binmics The adult mth is grey clured with black patch n wings. The Larva is small, slender, pinkish brwn in clur with black head and yellwish brwn thracic shield. Management Spray phsalne 35 BC 2 ml / litre r Dimethate 0.03 % / litre 3. Fruit fly - Bactrcera drsalis Bend. B. znatus Saund.,B. tau and B. crrectus Beezzi. ( Tephritidae : Diptera ) The maggt destry and cnvert the pulp int a bad smelling, disclured semi liquid mass unfit fr human cnsumptin. The infestatin results in fruit drp and start rtting frm inside. On cmplete rtting f the fruits, the damaged fruit develp yellw spts with black centers thrugh which liquid zes ut n pressing. Binmics The adult fly is brwn r dark brwn with hyaline wings and yellw legs. The female fly lays eggs in clusters f 2-15 just beneath the skin f the ripening fruits. A single female lays up t 200 eggs during vipsitin perid f ne mnth. The egg perid is days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

161 The maggt feeds n pulp and becme full grwn in abut 7 days. It pupates 3-7 inches belw the sil. Management Plugh the interspaces t expse the pupae during the ff - seasn. Cllect and destry the fallen fruits. Set up fly trap using methyl eugenl. Prepare methyl eugenl 1 ml/ 1 litre f water + 1 ml f Malathin slutin. Take 10 ml f this mixture per trap and keep them at 25 different places in ne ha between 6 and 8 am. Cllect and destry the adult flies. Cnserve parasitids like Optius cmpensates and Spalangia philippinensis. Use bait spray cmbining mlasses r jaggery 10g/1 and ne f the insecticides, fenthin 100 EC 1 ml/1, malathin 50 EC 2 ml/1, dimethate 30 EC 1 ml/1, carbaryl 50 WP 4g/1, tw runds at frtnightly intervals befre ripening f the fruits. 4. Sapta Seed brer - Trymalitis margaritas Bilgy The mating f male and female mths was bserved during evening hurs between 7.00 t p.m. and the perid f citus lasted fr 8 t 13 minutes. The pre-vipsitin, vipsitin and pst-vipsitin perid lasted fr 1.50 t 2.1, 1.0 t 2.0 and 1.0 t 2.2 days, respectively. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

162 The fecundity was ranged frm 29 t 255 with an average 161.8± eggs per female. The incubatin perid varied frm t days with an average f ± The average percentage f eggs hatched was fund t be 92. The ttal perid required fr cmpletin f larval develpment ranged frm t days with an average f ± days. The first instar larvae were very minute, white in clur with pinkish tinge, withut distinctly segmented and hairless bdy. The average length and breadth f first instar larva was ± and ± mm, respectively. Fully develped larvae was pinkish in clur and it measured abut ±0.022 mm in length and ± mm in breadth. The full grwn larva stpped feeding cme ut f the seed and started flding the leaf with the help f series f silken threads t frm a ccn. The pre-pupal perid varied frm 17 t 33 minutes. The pupa was small, dark brwn in clur and btect. The pupal perid ranged frm 10.0 t 15.0 days with an average f ± days. The pupa measured frm 7.61 t mm in length and 2.6 t 3.6 mm in breadth. The adult mths were small in size, having whitish frewings with grayish spts n it and fringed with hairs at the margins f the wings. The hind wings were cream clured with thick hairs at the margins. The adult measured 7.1 t 12.0 mm in length, 2.1 t 2.6 mm in breadth. The adult male lived fr 3.25 t 6.0 days, while female mths lived fr 4.0 t 7.0 days. Ttal life cycle frm egg laying t emergence f adults varied frm t 45.0 days with an average f 38.5 ± days. Management Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

163 Sapta seed brer is an invasive pest that might have been accidentally intrduced in India frm Sri Lanka a decade back. The seed brer attacks immature fruits and it is difficult t distinguish between infested and uninfested fruits prir t the emergence f larvae. Tiny hles Fruits with tiny exit hles are the nly indicatin f seed brer infestatin. During the tunnelling prcess, the larva drags ut the excreta frm the seed t the pulp. Majrity f the larvae emerge frm the seeds after feeding n the ctyledns cmpletely and prir t ripening f the fruit. Small black ants inhabit such damaged fruits. The larva n exiting frm the fruit cuts a leaf and flds it ver t make a fine shell-like structure within which it pupates. The adult is a small delicate greyish white mth with bell shaped wings and resembles bird drppings. The seed brer incidence depends n the variety and availability f susceptible stage f fruits (marble-lime size fruits). There is n variety that is cmpletely resistant t the seed brer infestatin. After main fruiting seasn, the pre-seasnal stray fruits serve as surce f survival during ff seasn. Thus, Sanitatin is t be maintained fr eliminating the surces f seed brer infestatin. Cllectin and destructin f the ff seasn stray mature fruits after main harvest till Nvember will bring dwn the pest incidence. Erecting light traps in the field during crpping seasn will attract adult mths and will minimize the incidence. Effective management f seed brer relies primarily n the stage f spray interventin. The time f applicatin is crucial in the management f seed brer. Spraying First spray interventin shuld be made when the fruits are f small lime size and thereafter the sprayings shuld be repeated at frtnightly intervals during main fruiting seasn. Alternating the sprays f Deltamethrin 2.8 EC at 1 ml/l and Bt at 1 ml/ at frtnightly interval will bring dwn the seed brer infestatin. II. Leaf feeders 1.Hairy caterpillar Metanastria hyrtaca Cram. ( Lasicampidae : Lepidptera ) The hairy caterpillar feeds n leaves causing defliatin. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

164 Binmics The adult is stut grayish brwn mth exhibiting sexual dimrphism. Male mth has pectinate antenna and chclate brwn patch in the middle f fre wings. Female mth is bigger in size with lnger and brader wings having wavy transverse bands. The larva is ncturnal, cylindrical grayish brwn, stut and hairy. Management Kill the aggregating larvae n the bark using a trch f fire r with a bucketful f cwdung slurry during the day time in husehlds. Spray fish il rsin sap t kill the larva because f asphyxiatin. Expse burning trches against hairy caterpillars which are n trunks. Spray chlrpyriphs 20 EC 0.04% r Dimethate 0.03 % r malathin 50 EC 0.1% r phsalne 35 EC 0.07% r carbaryl 50 WP 0.1%. 2. Leaf twisting weevil - Apderus tranquebaricus Fa b. (Curculinidae : Cleptera) The adult weevil has the habit f cutting and twisting the mang leaves int shapely thimble like rlls which remain attached t the parent leaves. The grub feeds n the leaf tissue within the leaf rll. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

165 The adult weevil is medium sized, reddish brwn with a lng snut. Eggs are laid in each leaf rll. The grub pupates within the leaf rll. Management Spray insecticides like mncrtphs at 1.25 ml r endsulfan 2.0 ml / litre f water t check the spread f infestatin. 3. Leaf miner - Acrcercps syngramma Meyr.(Gracillaridae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar mines int the leaves prducing blister like patches n them. Binmics The adult mth is silvery grey mth with fringes f hairs n the wing margin. The larva is reddish brwn in clur. III. Sap feeders 1.Whitefly - Trialeurdes ricini Misra. ( Aleyrdidae : Hemiptera) Water saked spts n the leaves which becme yellw and dried. Clnies f whitefly n the under surface f leaves. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

166 Binmics The adults are pale yellw with white wings cvered with waxy pwder. It lays eggs in clusters n the under surface f leaves. Nymphal stage underges fur instars. The life cycle is cmpleted in days during July-September. 2. Striped mealy bug - Ferrisia virgata Ckll. (Psedcccidae: Hemiptera) Yellwing f leaves in lder plants. Under surface f leaves and terminal shts cvered with white mealy mass. Binmics The female mealy bug lays eggs during an vipsitin perid f days. The egg perid is 3-4 hurs. The nymph underges 4 instars. The nymphal perid is days. Adult female lives fr days and male fr 1-3 days. Intrductin 3. Green Scale - Cccus viridis Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

167 The green scale, Cccus viridis (Green), an insect pest f citrus and ther plants, is fund ut-f-drs and in greenhuses in Flrida. This pest was first fund in Flrida near Davie. This insect is als referred t as the cffee green scale. Adults The adult female is shiny pale green with a cnspicuus black, irregular U- shaped internal marking that is drsally visible t the naked eye. Tw sub-marginal black eye spts are als present and can be seen with a hand lens. The utline shape may be described as elngate-val and mderately cnvex. Adult scales are 2.5 t 3.25 mm. Dead scales are light brwn r buff clr and the black internal marking is lst. Nymphs Nymphs, r immature green scales are val, flat and yellwish green in clr, and have six shrt legs. There are three nymphal stages befre becming an adult, each stage being larger and mre cnvex than the previus stage. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

168 Eggs Eggs are whitish green and elngate-val and are laid singly and hatch beneath the female where they are prtected. Eggs hatch frm a few minutes t several hurs after being laid. Life Histry and Habits Green scale is parthengenetic and viparus. Sme adults were bserved by Fredrick t cmplete egg depsitin in eight days, and thers depsited eggs ver a 42-day perid. In suth Flrida, the length f time that passed frm the egg t eggdepsiting maturity during the late summer mnths was frm 50 t 70 days. Eggs hatch int crawlers that wander arund the plant r disperse t ther hsts. Once a suitable leaf r green sht is fund the nymphs settle and begin t feed. They usually remain in this same spt unless their psitin becmes unfavrable. The mature female des nt mve. Green scale appears in a rather definite pattern n citrus leaves. The undersurface f the leaf is preferred, and adult scales may be fund in a line alng bth sides f the midrib and lateral leaf veins. Often they attack the yung shts, then ne can usually see nly a mass f scales. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

169 Hst Plants The green scale has a wide hst range cnsisting f vegetable, fruit and rnamental crps. The preferred hst fr green scale in Flrida is grundsel bush, Baccharis halimiflia L., a nn-cultivated plant. Preferred cultivated hsts are gardenia and ixra. The Divisin f Plant Industry has recrded green scale n 174 hsts in Flrida since Ecnmic Imprtance This trpical sft scale may ccur n cultivated hsts in cmmercial nurseries, resulting in a quarantine f the infested plants until the scale is under cntrl. Usually infestatins are accmpanied by sty mld, a black fungus grwth, which develps n hneydew excreted by the scale. Accumulatins f sty mld cause the infested plant t be unsightly. When large ppulatins are present yellwing, defliatin, reductin in fruit set and lss in plant vigr are caused. This pest is especially damaging t yung trees in the first tw years after transplanting. Management Chemical cntrl Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

170 Direct insecticidal sprays t lwer leaf surfaces and new grwth t give thrugh cverage. Bilgical cntrl Several entmgenus fungi were bserved assciated with green scale n citrus, and sme apparently played an imprtant rle in the natural limitatins f the scale n citrus during certain seasns f the year. In Flrida, these fungi include: the white-fringed fungus, Verticilium (Cephalsprium ) lecanii (Zimmerman); Aschersnia cubensis (Cuban aschersnia); the pink scale fungus, Nectria dipla; and a grayish blue fungus The white-fringed fungus is the mst cmmn and apparently causes the highest percentage f mrtality. All attempts t artificially spread r inculate the fungus t healthy green scale were unsuccessful. The green scale is ften assciated with ants. Cntrlling ant ppulatins help t reduce levels f this pest. Ants prtect the green scales frm lady beetles and ther predatrs. In turn, the ants feed n the sweet hneydew excreted by the scales. Withut the ants the green scale is mre vulnerable t predatin by beetles. Cultural Cntrl Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

171 Scales are usually brught int greenhuse situatins with the intrductin f infested plant material. All plant material ging int the greenhuse shuld be thrughly inspected fr scales and ther insects befre being intrduced. 4. Mealy bugs - Plancccus citri (Pseudcccidae: Hmptera) 5. Aphids -Txptera aurantii (Aphididae : Hmptera) Hsts This aphid has ver 120 hsts that include camellia, cca, cffee, Ficus, Hibiscus, Ixra, kamani, lime, macadamia, mang, mck range, Pittsprum, pmel and Vanda rchid. Aphids feed by sucking sap frm their hsts. This ften causes the plants t becme defrmed, the leaves curled and shriveled and, in sme cases, galls are frmed n the leaves. In mst cases the black citrus aphid is a minr pest f cffee wherever it is fund. This pest cngregates n the tender yung shts, flwer buds and the undersides f yung leaves. They are nt knwn t feed n the lder and tugher plant tissues On cffee it causes sme leaf distrtin and malfrmatin f grwth f leaves and tips f shts. It is ften mre a serius pest in nurseries. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

172 Like ther sft bdied insects such as leafhppers, mealybugs and scales, aphids prduce hneydew. This sweet and watery excrement is fed n by bees, wasps, ants and ther insects. The hneydew serves as a medium n which a sty fungus, called sty mld, grws. Sty mld blackens the leaf, decreases phtsynthesis activity, decreases vigr and causes disfigurement f the hst. When the sty mld ccurs n fruit, it ften becmes unmarketable r f a lwer grade as the fungus is difficult t wash ff. Aphids vectr many plant diseases which cause substantially greater lsses than caused by direct feeding injury. This is ften the mst damaging feature f an aphid infestatin. The black citrus aphid is a vectr f virus diseases f Cffea liberica, Cffea arabica var. bullata (blister spt) and Cffea excelsa (ringspt). Frtunately, aphid vectred viruses f cffee have nt been reprted in Hawaii. On Citrus it is a vectr f Citrus tristeza virus, citrus infectius mttling virus and little leaf and lemn-ribbing virus f lemn. Presently, Citrus tritesa virus is the nly knwn citrus virus that ccurs in Hawaii. Bilgy Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

173 The develpment f this aphid is temperature dependent. At 77 F a generatin (nymph t adult) may take as little as 6 days. In cler temperatures (belw 59 F), a generatin may take as lng as 20 days. Higher temperatures als reduce develpment rate, at 86û F ppulatins f this aphid will sharply decline. Generatins are cntinuus thrughut the year in Hawaii. Eggs Eggs are nt prduced by this species. Females give birth t living yung. Infested yung shts Nymphs There are fur nymphal stages f this aphid. The first stage is apprximately 1/36 inch in length and the last abut 1/17 inch. They are withut wings and brwnish in clr. Adults Only females are fund. They are val, shiny black, brwnish-black r reddish brwn in clr, either with r withut wings, measuring 1/25 t 1/12 inch in bdy length and having shrt black-and-white banded antennae. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

174 Winged individuals tend t have darker abdmens and be slightly thinner. The incidence f winged individuals is dependent n the ppulatin density and leaf age. Reprductin is parthenegenic r nn sexual. Females start reprducing sn after becming adults. They prduce 5 t 7 live yung per day, up t a ttal f abut 50 yung per female. Behavir Newly brn nymphs are fund gruped tgether since mthers d nt mve abut while birthing. This is the nly aphid with an audible stridulatin r high piercing sund caused by the aphid rubbing tw parts f it bdy tgether much like crickets. Large clnies will prduce this scrapping sund when they are disturbed. Management Nn-Chemical Cntrl Several natural enemies f the black citrus aphid keep this pest under cntrl. Smetimes t the extent that insecticides are usually unnecessary. Predatrs in Hawaii include Allgrapta bliqua Say, Chryspa basalis, Chryspa micrphya McLachlan, Cccinella inaequalis Fabricius, Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

175 Celphra inaequalis, Platymus lividigaster Mulsant and Scymndes lividgaster. The parasites in Hawaii include Aphelinus semiflavus Hward and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cressn). There are many ther predatrs and parasites t this pest thrughut the wrld. This pest is als cntrlled by the entmgenus fungus Acrstalagmus albus. Chemical cntrl If chemical cntrl becmes necessary either insecticidal il, r a synthetic aphidicide (insecticide) may be used. Chemical cntrl shuld nly be applied at the first signs f damage during perids f flush grwth. Flush grwth (yung red leaves) n cffee shuld be cmpletely mistened after applicatin f chemicals. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

176 Lecture N.11 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Citrus I. Brers 1. Lime r Orange tree brer - Chelednium cinctum Guer and C.alcamene Thms. (Cerambycidae: Cleptera) The grub bres int stem and feeds n the internal tissues, which resulted in drying f terminal shts in early stages, fllwed by wilting f thicker branches and main stem. Binmics The adult is dull metallic green t dark vilet with a yellw band acrss the middle f the elytra and in 2.5-3cm lng. It lays eggs at an angle f twigs r thrns and cvers by a resinus fluid secretin. A single female can lay up t eggs. The incubatin perid is days. The grub is creamy white with flat head. It pupates in the tunnel fr abut three weeks. The life cycle is cmpleted in ne year. The adult beetle emerges during April and May and remains within the pupal chamber fr a lng time. Management Prune the infested branches cntaining grubs. Plug the fresh hles with cttn saked in mncrtphs slutin mixed at 5 ml / 20 ml f water. Fllw the padding with mncrtphs 2.5 ml +2.5 inl f water. Check multiplicatin f brers by keeping rchard clean and drench sil arund tree with chlrpyriphs 20 EC 5 ml /1. Prune and destry damaged branches cntaining grubs befre they enter trunk. Swab trunks with carbaryl 50 WP at 20 g/1 t avid egg laying. Cllect and kill eggs and grubs frm barks and bre hles. Inject 10 ml f mncrtphs 36 WSC r kersene, petrl, carbn disulphide r chlrfrm plus creste (2:10) in live bre hles and plug with wet clay. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

177 Spray mncrtphs r dimethate 0.03 % /1 in case n infestatin n leaves by adult beetles. Alternate hsts in the nearby vicinity like jamun, guava, litchi, pmegranate, neem, r kapk shuld als be treated. Encurage activity f natural enemies, Syrphus spp. and Cccinella septumpunctata 2. Orange trunk brer - Anplphra versteegi Ritsema. (Lamiidae: Cleptera) The grub tunnels int the trunk and feeds n the internal cntent f the trunk resulting the death f the tree. The adult beetle feeds n the leaf tissue alng the mid rib, keeping the margins intact. Binmics The female beetle lays eggs singly in cracks n bark up t 2 feet height frm the grund. A single female lays abut eggs. The grub feeds n sap wd making hrizntal galleries befre it enter int centre f the trunk. The larval perid is days. It pupates inside the gallery fr days. Management Hand picks the adults by shaking the trees and kills them. Paint the base f the tree trunk with persistent insecticides. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

178 3. Bark caterpillar - Indarbela tetranis Mre. (Metarbelidae: Lepideptera) The grub bres int the bark and sap wd making zig-zag galleries filled with silken webbed masses cmprising chewed up materials and excreta. In severe infestatin the flw f sap is interfered. The grwth f the plant is arrested and fruit frmatin capacity is drastically reduced. Binmics The adult mth is pale brwn with rufus head and thrax. The female lays eggs in masses f under lse bark f the trees. A single female lays abut 2000 eggs in her life span. The egg perid is 8-10 days. The newly hatched larva is dirty brwn while the full grwn caterpillars have pale brwn bdies with dark brwn head measuring mm in length. The larval perid is 9-11 mnths. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

179 It pupates inside the tunnel fr 3-4 weeks. The adult mth emerges during summer. II. Leaf feeders 1.Citrus leaf miner - Phyllcnistis citrella Staintn. Lepidptera) The larva mines int the tender leaves and frm zig - zag galleries which feeds n the epidermal cells leaving behind the remaining leaf tissues quite intact. The infested leaves turn pale, gets distrted, and dry. The mining f larval may lead t secndary infectin by fungi and bacteria causing citrus canker. Binmics The adult mth is tiny, silvery white with 4.2 mm wing expanse with fringed wings. It lays eggs singly n the leaves and twigs. The fecundity is eggs per female. The egg perid is 2-10 days. The larva enters the leaf tissues and feed inside the galleries. The larval perid last fr 5-10 days. It pupates in a leaf curl at the leaf margin within a silken ccn. The pupal perid is 6-12 days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

180 Management Grw less susceptible variety like PKM 1. Cllect and destry damaged leaves alng with larvae. Spray dichlrvs 76 WSC 1 ml/1 r dimethate 30 EC 1 ml/ 1 r fenthin 100 EC 1 ml / 1 r mncrtphs 36 WSC 1.5 ml/1 r imidaclprid 200 SL 0.5 ml/ 1 r NSKE 5% r neem il 3% after new flush frmatin. Encurage activity f parasitids, Tetrastichus phyllcnistides, Elasmus sp, and Bracn phyllcnistides. 2. Citrus butterfly -Papili demleus Linn and P. plytes ( Papilinidae : Lepidptera) The yung larvae fund n the upper surface f leaves and feed n the leaf lamina frm margin t mid rib. The grwn up caterpillar feeds even n matured leaves and cause severe defliatin t the entire plant. 3. Leaf rller- Psrstichia ( = Tnica ) zizyphi Staint. (Oecphridae: Lepidptera) The larva webs tgether and flds the leaves. It feeds frm within the leaf rll n the epidermis f leaves. The infestatin resulted in rlling and crinkling f leaves. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

181 The adult mth is small brwn. The female mth lays eggs singly r in grup alng the mid ribs f leaves. A female can lays up t 404 eggs in her life span. The egg, larval and pupal perid are 3-5, 9-11 and 5-10 days respectively. It pupates in leaf flds. The ttal life cycle f the pest is cmpleted in days. Management Cllect and destry damaged leaf flds alng with larvae and pupae. Encurage activity f Brachymeria eupleae and Apanteles sp. Spray carbaryl 10.1% r dimethate 0.03 % r NSKE 5%. 4. Blue butterfly- Tarucus indica Fab and Chilades laius Cramer. (Lycaenidae Lepidptera) The larva feeds n leaves and causes defliatin. III. Sap feeders 1. Fruit sucking mths - Eudcima (= Othreis) cnjuncta Cramer. E. fullnica Cramer., E. materna Linn and E. ancilla Cramer. (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) The adult mth pierces the fruits fr sucking the juice and make characteristic pin-hle damage in citrus and ther fruits. The feeding site is easily infected with fungi and bacteria causing rtting and drpping f fruits. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

182 Binmics The adult mth f E. cnjuncta is faint range brwn having marginal dark bands mixed with white spts n hind wings. E. materna has three black spts n the fre wings. O. ancilla has white bands in the middle fre wing. E. fullnica has tripd black mark in the frewing and curved marking in hind wing. The mth is ncturnal in habit. It lays eggs n wild plants and weeds in and arund the citrus rchard. The egg perid is abut 2 weeks. The larvae is stut, typical semi lper, has a drsal hump n the last segment f the bdy. The larva passes five instars and cmpletes its larval stage in 4 weeks. It pupates fr 2 weeks in the dried leaves r in the sil. Management Remve and destry the alternative weed hst plants especially Tinspra cardiflia, Ccculus pendulus in the vicinity f the rchard. Bait with fermented mlasses at 100 g + malathin ml / litre f water. Bag the fruit with plythene bags punctured at the bttm individually fruits in small-scale area. Create smke n ne side f the field and allw it individual fruits in small scale area. Set up light traps r fd lures t attract and kill the mths. Cver the entire field / rchard with nyln net and spray with cntact insecticide. Cllect and dispse ff damaged fallen fruits t prevent further attractin f adults. Cver fruits with plythene bags (300 gauge) punctured at the bttm. Apply smke t prevent mth attck. Use light traps r fd lure (pieces f fruits) t attract mths. 2. Aphids -Txptera citricidus Kirkaldy and T. aurantii Byen. (Aphididae Hemipetera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm the leaves resulting stunting, curling f leaves and falling f flwer buds and develping fruits. The infested leaf attracts sty muld due t hneydew secretin f the insect. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

183 Binmics The adult fly is dark range with smky wings and fre wings having fur whitish areas f the irregular shape. The female fly lays yellwish brwn, val eggs arranged in spiral n brad leaves. The egg perid is 7-14 days. The nymphal perid is days with fur nymphal instars. It pupates n leaf surface. The pupal perid last fr days. There are tw generatins in a year. Management Spray mncrtphs 36 WSC at 1.5 ml/litre f water. 3. Whitefly - Dialeurdes citri Ashmead. ( Aleyrdidae : Hemiptera ) Black fly Aleurcanthus wglami The nymphs and adults desap the leaves and yung shts. The nymphs excrete hney dew in large quantities which attracts the black fungus causing sty muld develpment n the leaf surface. The infested plants are stunned, and prduce few blssms. Binmics The adult is small measuring mm in length. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

184 The female lays val, pale yellwish eggs singly n the lwer surface f the yung leaves. It lays up t 200 eggs in her life span. The eggs hatch in days. The larva crawls abut fr a few hurs and then inserts its prbscis int the succulent prtin f the twigs. It pupates n the surface f leaves. The nymphal perid is days. The pupal perid last fr days. There are tw generatins in a year. Management Cllect and destry damaged leaves, flwers and fruits alng with life stages. Spray methyl demetn 25 EC 2 ml/1 r mncrtphs 36 WSC 1ml/1. Use yellw sticky traps at 15/ha. Spray quinlphs 25 EC at 2 mil litre f water r mncrtphs 36 WSC 2.5 mil litre f water. 4. Citrus mealy bug - Pseudcccus filamentsus Cckerell. (Pseudcccidae : Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the cell sap causing wilting and drying f yung seedlings. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

185 The infested plants develp sty mulds n the surface f leaves due t hneydew excreted by the insect. Binmics The female lays eggs in masses f 300 n the plant surface. The eggs are hatched in days. The nymphs crawl ut and feed n under surface f leaves. A white waxy cvering develps n their bdies. The nymphs becme full grwn in 6-8 weeks. The male nymphs spin cttn like ccns and pupate within it. All the stages f develpment ccur at the same time. Management Debark the branches and- apply methyl parathin paste. Use sticky trap n the sht bearing the fruits at a length f 5 cm. Use dichlrvs (0.2 %) in cmbinatin with fish il rsin sap (25 g I litre) as spray r dipping fruits fr tw minutes. Apply aldicarb log 50 g I tree arund the base at the time f pruning. Release the cccinellid predatr Cryptlaemus 10 beetles/tree. Release an extic parasitid Leptmastrix dactylpii I ha. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

186 Put a band f diazinn 5 g arund the tree trunk leaving 30 cm frm the main stem. Fllw ant cntrl methds such as destructin f ant hles, red ant nests and skirting f citrus trees after harvest. Use sticky traps n fruit-bearing shts at a length f cm Cllect damaged leaves, twigs and stems alng with mealy bug clnies and destry. Single sil applicatin f aldicarb 10 G at 50 g/ tree arund base during pruning. Spray methyl parathin 0.1% emulsin, dimethate 150 ml plus kersene il 250ml in f water r carbaryl 0.05% plus il 1% r malathin 0.1% r mncrtphs 0.1%. 5. Citrus red scale - Anidiella aurantii Maskell. (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) It settles in large numbers n stem, branches, leaves and fruits and suck the cell sap. The infested plants becme stunted, lse the vigur and gradually dry up. Binmics The female scale prduces yung ne (crawlers) which mves fr a shrt perid, settle and cver with a white waxy secretin. It reaches sexual maturity in weeks. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

187 There are several generatins in a year. 6.Cttny cushin scale - Icerya purchasi Maskell. ( Margardidae : Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults infest the twigs and leaves. The infested twigs are killed and leaves turned pale and drpped prematurely. The develpment f sty muld n the infested leaves is typical symptm. Binmics It reprduces parthengenetically as the males are rare. The female scale lays up t 700 eggs in the visac held behind the bdy. The newly hatched ut nymphs feeds n leaves and twigs. It becmes adult after multing fr three times. The life cycle is cmpleted in days. Management Cllect damaged twigs and stems alng with sft and hard scales and destry. Spray methyl parathin 0.03% emulsin r dimethate + kersene il at 150 ml ml respectively in f water r carbaryl 0.05% + il 1% r malathin 0.1% r mncrtphs 1 ml/ 1 r fenthin 100 EC 1 ml/l. Spray fish il rsin sap 25 g/1 r neem il 3% r dimethate 0.03 % /1. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

188 Encurage natural enemies, Aphelinus sp., and predatrs, Chilcrus nigritus, Scymnus sp. and Rdlia cardinalis. Enfrce ban by law, transprt f wattle frm the Nilgiris and kdaikanal t elsewhere. 7. Citrus psylla - Diaphrina citri Kuwayama. ( Psyllidae : Hemiptera) The nymphs are fund cngregated n yung half pen leaves and desap the same. The infestatin resulted in arresting the grwth f the plants. Since the insect inject the txins alng with saliva, the leaves and flwer buds wilt and die gradually. It als acts as vectr f citrus virus causing citrus decline disease. Binmics The adult is brwn with its head lighter brwn and pinted measuring 3 mm in length. A female lays 500 almnd shaped range clured and stalked eggs n tender leaves and shts. The incubatin perid is days in winter, 4-6 days in summer. The nymphs are flat range yellw in clur and luse like creature. The nymphal perid is days. The females live lnger than males. There are 8-9 ver lapping generatin in a year. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

189 Management Prune the affected trees and dried shts peridically prevent the multiplicatins f psyllids. Cnserve the natural enemies by aviding brad-spectrum insecticides. Spray neem seed kernel extract 5 % r neem il 1 % r mncrtphs 36 WSC at 1 ml r quinalphs at 1 ml with 0.5ml teepl / litre f water. Spray dimethate 1675 ml r malathin 1250 ml / ha during February March, May-June and July-August. Encurage activities f natural enemies such as Syrphids and Chryspids. IV. Nn - insect pests 1. Citrus mite - Pannychus citri Mc Gregr. (Tetranychidae: Acarina) Bth nymphs and adult suck the sap frm leaves, tender fruits and green bark. In case f severe infestatin there is cmplete defliatin f plants. The infested fruits turn yellw and remain undevelped. Binmics It lays abut 50 eggs each arranged singly alng large veins n the lwer surface f leaves. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

190 The eggs are rund, minute and range in clur which are embedded in the leaf tissues. The egg perid is 7 days. The freshly hatched ut nymphs desap the leaves fr 304 days. It is full grwn in 4-5 days, mult and transfrm int adult mite. The ttal life cycle is cmpleted in days. 2. Mite - Phyllcptes leivrus Ashmead. (Eriphyiidae: Acarina) Bth nymphs and adults desap the leaves frm the under surface f leaves and fruit surface. The infestatin causes brnzing f leaves and silvery, scaly disclratin n lemn fruits and rusty t black disclratins n the ther citrus fruits. Management Spray fenazaquinne 2 ml / litre r wettable sulphur 50 WP 2 g / litre f water. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

191 Lecture N.12 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Banana I. Brers 1. Rhizme weevil - Csmplites srdidus Germ. (Curculinidae: Cleptera) The grub bre int the sucker and tunnel int the rhizme resulting death f the unpened leaves at the heart f the plant is called "pipe" and withering f uter leaves. A result f severe attack, the plants shw pre - mature withering. Scarcity f leaves and prductin f under sized fruits. The crm f infested plants has extensive tunnels plugged with excreta. High incidence f pest ccurs during April - Octber. Management Trap adult weevil with pseud stem chpped int pieces Uprt and destry the infested rhizme frm the field. Use pest free suckers fr planting. Apply carbfuran 3 G 10 gram per plant at the time f planting. Trap adult weevils with crm chpped int small pieces and kept near infested clump at 65/ha (Banana crm split trap) r use csmlure traps at 5/ha. By paring and pralinage methd, apply carbfuran 3 G 40g r phrate 10 G 20g; r apply lindane 1.3 D 20 g r carbaryl g/ sucker befre planting. Dip suckers in mncrtphs 0.05% and plant 24 h later. 2. Pseudstem brer - Odiprus lngicllis (Curculinidae: Cleptera) The first instar larvae feed n the tissues arund the air chamber f the leaf sheath. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

192 The secnd instar larva bres int the inner sheaths f the pseudstem and mves acrss in a hrizntal r slight blique directin. The third and furth instar larvae feed vraciusly and riddle the pseud stem cutting a thin hle n the ut surface f the pseudstem fr better aeratin. The infested part f pseudstem decmpses as a result f which plants becme very weak and break easily in wind. Exudatin f plant sap frm leaf sheath, yellwing and withering f leaves, immature ripening f fruits, destrying f flwer primrdia, decaying f leaf sheath and crm and finally falling f whle plant are the symptms f damage. The severity f pest ntices in ratn crp cmpre t first year crp Binmics The adult weevil is reddish brwn and black measuring 1.3 cm lng. It thrusts the eggs within the air chamber f leaf sheath thrugh vipsitin slit made by rstrum at the rate f ne egg per air chamber. Eggs are laid in the area f the pseudstem abut metres abve the grund level. The incubatin perid is 3-5 days in summer and 5-8 days winter. The grubs are apdus and have duratin f 26.2 days in summer and 68.1 days in winter with five larval instars. It pupates in the tunnel twards the periphery. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

193 The pupal perid last fr days in summer and days in winter. Adult feeds n tissue f leaf sheath frm its inner surface and als n decaying tissues. Infective fr up t 13 days after feeding n infected material. Management Adpt gd husbandry practices such as weeding, manuring and mulching which imprve weevil tlerance. Remve dried leaves peridically and keep the field clean. Prune the side suckers every mnth. Use healthy and pest free suckers t check the pest incidence. Spray mncrtphs 36WSC at 1 ml / litre f water. D nt dump infested materials int manure pit. Uprt infested trees, chp int pieces and burn. Spray methyl parathin 50 EC 2 ml/1 r mncrtphs 36 WSC 1 ml/1 n trunk. Alternatively, dilute 50 ml f mncrtphs 36 WSC with 350 ml f water and inject 4 ml (2ml at 45 cm frm grund level, anther 2 ml 150 cm frm grund level) using banana injectr r lng needle in the pseudstem at mnthly intervals frm 5th t 8th mnth. D nt fllw stem injectin after 8 mnths f grwth. 3. Fruit fly - Bactrcera drsalis Hendel. (Tephritidae : Diptera ) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

194 The maggt destry and cnvert the pulp int a bad smelling, disclured semi liquid mass unfit fr human cnsumptin. The infestatin results in fruit drp and start rtting frm inside. On cmplete rtting f the fruits, the damaged fruit develp yellw spts with black centers thrugh which liquid zes ut n pressing. Binmics The adult fly is brwn r dark brwn with hyaline wings and yellw legs. The female fly lays eggs in clusters f 2-15 just beneath the skin f the ripening fruits. A single female lays up t 200 eggs during vipsitin perid f ne mnth. The egg perid is days. The maggt feeds n pulp and becme full grwn in abut 7 days. It pupates 3-7 inches belw the sil. Management 1. Plugh the interspaces t expse the pupae during the ff - seasn. 2. Cllect and destry the fallen fruits. 3. Set up fly trap using methyl eugenl. Prepare methyl eugenl 1 ml/ 1 litre f water + 1 ml f Malathin slutin. Take 10 ml f this mixture per trap and keep them at 25 different places in ne ha between 6 and 8 am. Cllect and destry the adult flies. 4. Cnserve parasitids like Optius cmpensates and Spalangia philippinensis. 5. Use bait spray cmbining mlasses r jiggery 10g/1 and ne f the insecticides, fenthin 100 EC 1 ml/1, malathin 50 EC 2 ml/1, dimethate 30 EC 1 ml/1, carbaryl 50 WP 4g/1, tw runds at frtnightly intervals befre ripening f the fruits. II. Sap feeders Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

195 1.Banana aphid - Pentalnia nigrnervsa Cq. (Aphididae: Hemiptera) There is n direct damage caused by this pest but it acts as a vectr fr the ntrius virus disease bunchy tp disease f banana. The disease is characterised by the initial appearance f green streaks n the secndary veins n the ventral side f lamina. The affected leaves becme brittle and petiles cmpletely elngated. The leaves becme small and eventually the crwn f plants becmes cmpsed f stunted leaves, which present bunchy tp appearance. Binmics The adult viviparus insects are f tw frms, winged and wingless. The alate viviparus female has reddish t dark- brwn bdy measuring n an average f 1.45 mm in length. In the apterus viviparus female the bdy is reddish t dark brwn measuring n an average 1.55 mm in length. The male insects are nt bserved. The female reprduces parthengenetically. The female gives birth t yung nes frm the secnd day, f its emergence. A female brings frth yung nes. The nymph has 4 instars cnferring a perid f 8-9 days. The aphids ccur n banana plant in clnies. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

196 They shelter at the base f the pseudstem, tp regin f the pseudstem and leaf axils. The ppulatin is high frm early September t late January with tw peaks in between ne during September-Octber and the ther during December-January. Mderate temperature and high humidity favurs the increase in aphid ppulatin. Infective aphid can transmit the virus t healthy plant in hurs f feeding. The minimum acquisitin feeding time fr nymph is 16 hurs. The aphid remains infective fr up t 13 days after feeding n infected material. Management Spray methyl demetn 2 ml / litre r mncrtphs 1 ml / litre r dimethate 1.70 ml / litre f water, Direct the spray twards the crwn and pseudstem base up t grund level at 21 days interval at least thrice. Avid injectin f mncrtphs after flwering. Destry diseased plants with rhizme. Inject 5 ml f 2, 4-D herbicide (125 mg/1) int pseudstem using injecting gun fr effective killing f diseased plants. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

197 Spray methyl demetn 25 EC 500 ml r mncrtphs 36 WSC 250 ml/ha r dimethate 30 EC 500 ml/ha t cntrl aphids. Direct spray twards crwn and pseudstem base at 21 days interval at least thrice. Fllw pseudstem injectin with mncrtphs 36 WSC after diluting 1 ml in 4 ml f water at 45 days interval. Use banana injectr devised by TNAU r lumbar puncture needle. Avid injecting mncrtphs after flwering. Encurage activity f predatrs, Scymnus, Chilmenes sexmaculata, Chrysperla carnea and ther cccinellids; and entmpathgen, Beauveria bassiana. 2. Tingid bug - Stephanits typicus Dist. (Tingidae: Hemiptera ) The lacewing feeds in the sap f leaves causing the disclratin f the leaves. Management Cllect and destry damaged leaves, flwers and fruits alng with life stages. Spray methyl demetn 25 EC 2 ml/1 r mncrtphs 36 WSC 1ml/1. Use yellw sticky traps at 15/ha. 3. Scale - Aspiditus destructr Sign. (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

198 Bth nymphs and adults desap the leaves causing yellwing f leaves in patches 4. Spittle bug - Phymatstetha deschampsi Linn. (Cercpidae: Hemiptera) The nymphs and adults suck the juice frm the leaves causing yellwing f leaves. 5. Leaf thrips - Helinthrips kadaliphilus Ram & Marg. (Thripidae : Thysanptera ) It infests the lwer surface f the leaves causing blighted appearance and yellwing. In severe cases f infestatin the leaf dries. Management f lacewing bug and thrips Spray methyl demetn 20 EC 2 ml / litre r mncrtphs 36 WSC 1.25ml ml/ litre f water 6. Flwer thrips - Thrips flrum Schmutz. (Thripidae: Thysanptera ) Bth nymphs and adults desap the fruits and flwers resulting crky scab n fruits and flwers. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

199 7. Fruit rust thrips - Chaetanaphthrips signipennis Bag. (Thripidae: Thysanptera) Bth nymphs and adults lacerate and suck the sap frm the leaves and fruits. The infestatin resulted in yellwing f leaves and rusty grwth ver the fruit. Management Cllect and destry damaged leaves, fruits and flwers. Spray methyl demetn 25 EC 2 ml/1 r dimethate 30 EC 2 ml/1 r mncrtphs 36 WSC 1.25 ml/1. II. Leaf feeders 1. Wlly bear - Pericallia ricini Fab. (Arctiidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillars feed n the leaves vraciusly and cause severe defliatin 2. Tbacc caterpillar - Spdptera litura Fab. (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) The larva feeds n the leaves causing defliatin during night hurs. 3. Bag wrm - Kphenae cuprea Mre. (Psychidae: Lepidptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

200 The larva scrapes the chlrphyll and later it riddles with irregular hles n the leaves. Binmics The adult mth is brwnish in clur. The larva is als brwnish cvered with cnical bag. 4. Leaf beetle - Ndstma subcastatum Jacby. (Eumlpidae : Cleptera) The adult beetle bite small hles n leaves. III. Nn - insect pest 1. Burrwing nematde - Radaphlus similis The nematde in banana cause black-head tppling disease. At the bearing stage tppling f trees is an bvius symptm f attack due t rt rt. The feeding f nematdes causes discluratin f crtex. The wunding cause s discluratin as a result reddish brwn crtical lesins develp. Bth rts and crm f the plants are attacked and the necrsis decrease the rt system t a few shrt stubs, reductin in the leaf size, yellwing f leaves and reductin in bunch weight. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

201 The trees succumb t winds and yield lss up t 39 per cent has been recrded due t nematdes. Management Remve the nematde affected plants alng with crm frm the field and burn it. Pre -treat the suckers (Paring and pralinage) with carbfuran 3 G after remving the disclured prtins. The suckers and dipped in the clay slurry and 40 g f carbfuran granules are sprinkled ver the surface and planted. Dip the suckers in 0.05 % slutin (1.5 ml / litre f water) f mncrtphs 36 WSC at the time f planting. Apply carbfuran gm/ plant arund the pseudstem tw mnths after planting. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

202 Lecture N.13 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Guava I. Sap feeders 1. Tea msquit bug - Helpeltis antnii Sign. (Miridae: Hemiptea) The nymphs and adults feed n the yung leaves, buds and tender shts the tissues arund the feeding punctures die and dry up due t txic actin f saliva injected. It results the water saked lesins fllwed by brwnish spts at the feeding site. Resin exudes frm the feeding puncture. Blssm r inflrescence blight and die back symptms appear. The terminal shts are als dried. Shedding f flwers and nut als takes place. Binmics The adult is a reddish brwn bug with red thrax and black and white abdmen. The eggs are inserted int the epidermis f tender shts, axis f inflrescence, the buds and midribs. The eggs are sausage shaped, 2 mm lng, slightly cvered with a pair f breathing filaments which prject ut its perculum. The egg perid is 5 t 7 days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

203 Nymphal perid is 15 days. The reddish brwn and ant like nymphs underges five instars. The life cycle is cmpleted in 22 days. This pest attacks guava, cca, pepper, cinchna, tamarind, mang, neem, cttn and avcad. Management Remve dead wd and criss crss branches in cashew plantatins atleast nce in tw t three years will help in effective spraying f insecticides against the pest. Cllect and destry damaged fruits. Use light trap at 1/ha t mnitr the activity f mths. Ensure clean cultivatin as weed plants serve as alternate hsts. Spray hstthian at 2 ml / litre r carbaryl 50 WP 2 g /litre r malathin 50 EC at 1ml/litre r neem il 3 % spraying shuld be dne in early mrning r late evenings, at least fur times at 21 days interval during fruiting seasn. 2. Aphids -Aphis gssypii Glver. (Aphididae: Hemiptera) It is a ptential pest n cttn infesting tender shts and under surface f the leaves. They ccur in large numbers suck the sap and cause stunted grwth, gradual drying and result in death f the plants. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

204 Develpment f black sty muld due t the excretin f hney dew giving the plant a dark appearance. Being a plyphagus pest, it is recreded in brinjal, bhendi, chillies,guava and gingelly. Curling and crinkling f leaves are typical symptms. Binmics Yellwish r greenish brwn nymphs fund n the under surface f leaves. They are ften attended by ants fr the sweet hney dew secretin. Winged frms may be seen under crwded cnditins. Management Spray mncrtphs 36 WSC at 1.5ml / litre r dimethate 30 EC at 1.7 ml / litre f water. 3. Guava scale -Chlrpulvinaria psidii Mask. (Cccidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults f scales are fund in large numbers f the under surface f leaves, tender twigs and shts causing yellwing and distrtin f leaves. Binmics The adult is shield shaped, val, yellwish green measuring 3 mm in length. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

205 The female lays eggs in a visac beneath the bdy. The first instar crawlers mve and start feeding n the tender prtin f the plants 4. Whitefly - Aleurtuberculatus psidii Singh. (Aleyrdidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults infest the under surface f the leaves causing yellwing symptms. Bth nymphs and adults infest the under surface f the leaves causing yellwing symptms. 5.Spiraling whitefly - Aleurdicus dispersus Russell. ( Aleyrdidae : Hemiptera ) The spiralling whitefly Aleurdicus dispersus Russell pses threat t many agricultural and hrticultural crps bth in the glasshuse and field cnditins in India. Aleurdicus dispersus, native t Caribbean islands and Central America, is reprted t ccur in Nrth America, Suth America, Asia, Africa, Australia and several Pacific islands. In India, it was first recrded in 1993 at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala n tapica. Bilgy Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

206 Eggs are laid in a typical spiral pattern frm which the whitefly derives its cmmn name. Female whitefly lays yellwish white eggs, which hatch in 7 days and 4-6 days and 5-8 days. Fecundity ranges frm 51.8 t eggs/ female. There are fur nymphal instars, which are greenish, white and val. The duratin f first, secnd, third furth instar lasts fr , , days and days. Furth instar nymphs are cvered with heavy wax material. The ttal nymphal perid nrmally lasts fr 12 t 14 days and pupal perid lasts fr 2 t 3 days. Develpment frm egg t adult ccupies 18 t 23 days and days. Adults are larger with dark reddish brwn eyes and fre wings with characteristic dark spts. Adults live fr 13 t 22 days. 6. Mealybug - Macnellicccus hirsutus Green. ( Pseudcccidae : Hemiptera ) Mealy bugs fund n leaves, shts, ndes, bunch and lse bark f grapevine. Infestatins f the grwing pint with mealy bug results in malfrmatin f leaves and sht tips. The greatest damage is dne t the fruit bunches. Hney dew secreted by mealy bug nymphs and adults, supprt the grwth f sty muld n leaves, shts and branches, sty and sticky bunches harburing mealy bugs and their white cttny wax masses tend t be inferir in the market value as table grapes. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

207 Raisin cannt be prepared frm such bunches. The quality f the wine is affected. In case f severe infestatin in the nursery, yung vines are ften killed. The yield lss by mealy bug alne is ranging frm % in the field. Binmics The adult females are pinkish and sparsely cvered with white wax. Each female depsits frm eggs in a lse cttny terminal visac during a week's time. The eggs are range in clur. The egg perid is 5-10 days. The crawlers are als range in clur. The females have three, while males have fur nymphal instars. A generatin is usually cmpleted in a mnth but extended in winter mnths. Management Debark the vines and swab with methyl parathin t minimize the ppulatin. Apply sticky substances viz., tack-trap r bird tangle ft n the sht bearing the fruit bunch at a length f 5 cm t keep the bunches free frm infestatin. Release extic predatr Cryptlaemus mntruzieri Muls. in grape vine beetles per acre (a single predatr cnsumes mealy bug eggs r 300 nymphs in its develpment) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

208 Cmbine the release f predatr and spraying f insecticides dichlrvs (0.20 %) r chlrpyriphs (0.05 %) since they are nn txic t Cryptlaemus. Apply granular insecticide 50 g per vine r phrate gm per vine arund the base f the plant. Avid the spraying f insecticides viz., malathin, carbaryl, diazinn, dimethate, mncrtphs, methyl demetn, phasalne, quinlphs, fenitrthin, methyl parathin since they are highly txic t the predatr. 7. Mealybug - Ferrisia virgata ( Pseudcccidae : Hemiptera) See under tmat 8. Thrips - Selenthrips rubrcinctus Giard. (Thripidae: Thysanptera) It infests the leaves causing yellwing. II. Leaf feeders 1. Hairy caterpillar - Euprctis subntata Walker. ( Lymantriidae : Lepidptera ) The caterpillar feeds n leaves and flral parts. 2.Leaf rller - Eucsma rhthia Meyr. ( Eucsmidae : Lepidptera ) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

209 The caterpillar rlls the leaves and feeds within the rll. III. Brers 1. Bark eating caterpillar - Indarbela tetrallis Mre. (Metarbelidae: Lepidptera) The larva feeds n the bark under silken galleries which serve as shelter and it als bres int the stem and branches and killing them eventually. 2. Castr capsule brer - Dichcrcis (=Cngethes) punctiferalis Guen. (Pyraustidae: Lepidptera) The larva brers int the central cre f the pseudstems resulting in the death f the central spindle causing charactersic dead heart symptm. In the case f capsules, the caterpillars bre int the immature capsules and feed n the seeds rendering them empty. The caterpillars ccasinally tunnel int the panicle als. A characteristic indicatin fr the presence f the larvae is the zing ut f excreted frass materials at the muth f the bre hle, which are very cnspicuus n the stem r pds. Binmics The adult is a medium sized brwnish yellw clured mth with a number f dark spts n the wings. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

210 It lays eggs n the tp leaf axils f yung pseudstem. The larva bre int the tender parts f the panicle, flwer buds and immature capsules nly, the later stage larva bre int the stem. The full grwn larva is measuring mm lng and it pupates within the larval tunnel inside the pseudstems. The life cycle is cmpleted within days. Management Cllect and destry the affected plant parts. Destry the alternate hst plants frm the vicinity f the plantatin Spray phsalne 3 ml/litre r Dimethate 0.03 % /lit r quinlphs 4 ml/litre r fenthin 1.25ml / litre f water 3. Fruit brer -Duedrix iscrates Fab. ( Lycaenidae : Lepidptera) The larva bres inside the develping fruits and feeds n the pulp and seeds. The infested fruits are infected by fungi and bacteria causing fruit rt disease. The damaged fruits ultimately fall ff and give an ffensive dur. It causes per cent damage t the fruits. 4. Fruit fly - Bactrcera (= Dacus) diversus Cq. ( Tephritidae : Diptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

211 The maggt bres int the fruits and feeds n sft pulp. The infested fruits shw small cavities with dark greenish punctures and when cut pen, the wriggling maggts are seen inside. It infestatin causes rtting and drpping f fruits. Binmics The adult fly is smky brwn with greenish black thrax having yellw marking. It is active thrughut the year except severe cler mnths. It lays the eggs n the sft skin ffruits. The egg perid is 1-4 days during July. The maggt is pale cream in clur, cylindrical in shape measuring 5-8 mm in length. The larval stage lasts fr 4-5 days. It pupates in sil. The pupal perid extends frm 7 days in August t 13 days in Nvember. The adult stage ver winters in cler mnths. Management Cllect and destry fallen and infested fruits by dumping in a pit and cver with a thick layer f sil r apply lindane 1.3 D ver them. Plugh interspace t expse pupae. Encurage parasitids Opius cmpensates and Spalangia philippinensis. Use methyl eugenl lure trap (25/ha) t mnitr and kill adults r prepare methyl eugenl and malathin 50 EC mixture at 1:1 rati and use 10 ml mixture / trap. Use plythene bag fish meal trap with 5 g f wet fish meal + 1 ml dichlrvs saked in cttn at 50 traps/ha. Renew fish meal and dichlrvs saked cttn nce in 20 and 7 days respectively. Use bait spray cmbining mlasses r jaggery 10g/ 1 and ne f the insecticides, fenthin 100 EC 1 ml/, malathin 50 EC 2 ml/1, dimethate 30 EC 1 ml/1, carbaryl 50 WP 4 g /1, tw runds at frtnight interval befre ripening f the fruits. Spray hstthin 2ml /litre r malathin at 1 ml/1 fur times at 15 days interval. Rake the sil arund the tree during the pest incidence and apply lindane dust 1.3 % at 25 kg /ha. IV. Nn - insect pests 1. Scarlet mite -Brevipalpus phenicis Geijskes. (Tenuipalpidae : Acarina ) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

212 Bth nymphs and adults suck the cell sap frm fruits which resulted in brwning f ndal regins, appearance f brwn patches n calyx and surface f fruits. In severe infestatin, it cvers the entire surface f fruits leading t splitting f fruits. Management Cllect and destry damaged plant parts. Spray wettable sulphur 2 g/ 1 r prprgite 1 ml/litre Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

213 Lecture N.14 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Anla and Jack AONLA I. Leaf feeders 1. Leaf rller - Calptilia acidula (Meyr.) (Gracillaridae: Lepidptera) Slender greenish caterpillar rlls up apical extremity f leaves and lives within the fld. Flded prtin is skeletnized and dried up. Binmics Larvae pupate within leaf fld and pupal perid is fr 8 t 10 days. Larva is cylindrical and yellw with thin scattered hairs. Adult is a small brwnish mth. II. Sap feeders 1. Whitefly - Trialeurdes rara Singh (Aleyrdidae:Hemiptera) Nymphs and adults suck sap by remaining frm undersurface f leaves, affected leaves,which shw yellwing and turns t brwn inclur. Whitefly clnies are present n ventral side and they are yellwish in clur. 2. Aphid - Setaphis bugainvillea T. (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

214 Bth adults and yung nes cngregate n under surface f leaves and cntinuusly suck the sap and results in yellwing. Yellwing f leaves is the symptm f damage caused by clnies f nymphs and adults fund n under surface f the leaves. 3. Bug- Scutelleria nbilis Fab. (Scutelleridae: Hemiptera) Adult is a blue metallic green bug. It sucks sap frm the leaves and twigs and causes yellwing f leaves. 4. Fruit piercing mth -Othreis fullnia and O.maternal (Nctuidae; Lepidptera) Adult mth sucks sap frm fruits by making puncture and there is secndary infectin and affected fruits rtting and falls dwn. Management Remve and destry the weed plants like Tinspra and Ccculus. Remve and destry damaged fruits. Smke rchards during evening hurs t get rid ff adults. Use light traps at 1 / ha. Use pisn bait (malathin 0.05% plus fermented mlasses r crude sugar and fruit juice t attract and kill adults). III. Brers 1. Fruit brers - Deudrix iscrates (Lycaenidae: Lepidptera), Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

215 Achace janata (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) Larvae feed n leaves and bre int develping fruits. They feed n hard green seeds and damage whle fruit. IPM Cllect and destry damaged fruits. Spray mncrtphs 1.25 ml/l. 2. Bark caterpillar - Indarbela tetranis (Metarbelidae; Lepidptera) It makes tunnels in main trunk and branches. Larvae cnstruct lse irregular webbing f silken thread alng with excretry pellets, pieces f bark and frass. Infestatin results in deteriratin f vitality f tree and reductin f yield. Management Keep the rchards clean Cllect lse and damaged barks and destry them. Kill larvae by inserting thin irn spike r wire int the hle. Spt applicatin f 10 ml f mncrtphs r fenthin r methyl parathin / 1 f water. 1. Apical twig gall maker - Betusa stylphra The pest causes gall frmatin n stem and sht. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

216 The larva f this mth tunnels in the apical prtin f the sht and infested prtin bulges int a gall. When the larva is active, reddish gumlike secretin extrudes thrugh a hle at ne end. Fresh galls are generally frmed during the seasn between June and August. The full size galls measure frm 2.3 t 2.5 cm in length and 1 t 1.5 cm in width. This pest attack may result in stunted grwth f the trees, affecting flwering and fruiting pattern. In the initial stage f the infestatin, terminal shts swell in size very sn and full size galls can be seen in the mnth f September - Octber.y discuraging the vercrwding f branches, pruning the galls and destrying it alng with the pest after harvest is ne f the ways f managing the pest attack. In the regular case f ccurrence, any systemic pesticide may be sprayed in the beginning f the seasn and will be repeated fr every 15 days, if needed. Damege 2. Aphid - C. emblica Aphid, C. emblica in clnies was fund sucking the cell sap frm leaflets, tender shts and green fruits. It als secreted large quantity f hney dew which favured the develpment f shty mld affecting vitality f the trees and als quality f the fruits. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

217 Cntrl measure The lady bird beetles (Cccinellids) were bserved predating n this aphid. twig 5. Mealy bug The nymphs were fund sucking the cell sap frm tender shts r twigs, The infestatin was at a very lw level. Cntrl measure Generalized predatrs viz., spiders and mantid were bserved feeding n this pest n anla trees. 4. Leaf eating hairy caterpillar - S. celtis The pest was fund defliating the leaflets and yung twigs. Bilgical cntrl It was als parasitized by tw hymenpterans viz., Ctesia (Apanteles) sp. and Charps sp. 6. Fliage defliating weevil - M. disclr Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

218 JACK I. Brers 1. Sht and fruit brer - Margarnia caesalis Wlk.(Pyraustidae : Lepidptera) The larva bre int tender shts, flwer buds and develping fruits. As a result f attack, wilting f affected sht, buds dries up and drp dwn while the fruit start rtting. The fallen fruits due t brer damage als serve as a surce f the pathgen entry Binmics The adult mth is brwn with grey elliptical patterns n the wings. It lays eggs n tender sht and flwer buds. The caterpillar is pink with black wart and bright hairs. It pupates inside the tunnel. The pupae are reddish brwn. The ttal life cycle is abut 4-5 weeks Management Remve and destry the affected shts, flwer buds and fruits in the initial stage f the attack. Cver the fruits with perfrated alkathene bags f cnvenient size. Spray mncrtphs 36 WSC 2ml/ litre r carbaryl 50 WP 0.1 %,4gms Spray cpper xychlride at 0.25 % t check if there is fruit rt incidence Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

219 2. Bark brer - lndarbela tetranis Mre. (Metarbelidae: Lepidptera) The larva nibble the trunk r main stem and bre int the same making a shrt tunnel dwnwards. The excreta and fine chewed wden particles are thrwn ut ver the hles n trunk and main branches in web masses 3. Stem brer Bark brer - Batcera rufmaculata Dejean. (Cerambycidae: Cleptera) The grubs feed by tunneling thrugh the bark f branches and main stem. The damage may als shw itself by the shedding f leaves and drying f terminal shts in early stage f attack. When the damage ccurs at the main stem, the whle tree succumbs. Binmics The adult is a large lngicrn beetle abut 5 cm lng and 1.6 cm brad and yellwish brwn in clur. It has tw pink dts and lateral spines n thrax. It lays eggs singly n the bark, r cracks and crevices n the tree trunk r branches hatch in abut 1-2 weeks. The grub is stut with well-defined segmentatin and yellw in clur. The grub makes zig - zag burrw beneath the bark. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

220 The grub feeds n the internal tissues and becme full fed in abut six mnths. It pupates inside the tunnel itself. The pupal perid is days. Management Remve and destry the dead trees and affected branches frm the garden. Swab trunk with carbaryl 20 g/1. Use light trap 1 / ha t attract adult mths r beetles. Lcate bre hles, spike ut grubs using a needle r irn wire. Exclude the alternative hst, silk cttn frm mang rchards. Grw less susceptible varieties viz., Neelam, Humayudin, and Panchavarnam. Swab cal tar + Kersene (1 :2) n the basal part f the trunk up t 3 feet high after scraping the lse bark t prevent the female frm egg laying. Spike ut the grub if the bre hles are lcated, and add insecticide emulsin (mncrtphs 0.1 % at 20 ml / hle) a fumigant tablets (3 g aluminium phsphide) r petrl and seal the hles with the mud. Fllw padding with mncrtphs 36 WSC 10 ml per tree saked in absrbent cttn when the trees are nt in bearing stage. Apply carbfurean 3-5 g per hle and plug with mud after remving the grub by using needle. Apply carbfuran granules in the sil at 75 g / tree basin. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

221 4. Bud weevil - Ochyrmera atrcarpi M. ( Curculinidae : Cleptera ) The grubs bre int tender buds and fruits. The infested buds and flwers fall t grund. The adult weevil feeds n leaves causing defliatin. II. Leaf feeders 1. Leaf caterpillar - Glyphdes bivitralis Sign. (Pyraustidae : Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n leaves cause defliatin. 2. Leaf webber - Perina nuda Fab. (Lymantriidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillars infest the leaves cause defliatin. Binmics The adult mth is dimrphic; female with brwnish white wings; male with half brwnish and half wings. The female lays eggs in clusters r rws n the leaves. The eggs are pink in clur, cylindrical, rund and 0.7 mm lng. The larval perid is days. The pupal perid last fr 5-9 days. The ttal life cycle is cmpleted in days. Management Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

222 Hand pick and destruct the larva in the initial stage f attack. Spray mncrtphs 36 WSC mllitre r chlrpyriphs 20 EC 2.5 ml / litre f water. III. Sap feeders 1. Lace wing bug - Stephanitis chariesis D&M. ( Tingidae : Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm under surface leaves causing yellwing symptm. 2. Spittle bug - Csmscarta relata D. and Clvia lineaticllis M.(Cercpidae : Hemiptera) The nymphs cver the branches with its frthy secretin causing yellwing and drying f terminal shts. Management Spray methyl parathin 50 EC 2 ml/1ml / litre. Dust methyl parathin 2 % r quinalphs 1.5 % at 5 kg per medium sized tree. 3. Aphid - Greenidia atrcarpi Westw. (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults desap the leaves causing yellwing symptm. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

223 4. Citrus aphid - Txptera aurantii Byen. ( Aphididae : Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm leaves causing yellwing f the leaves. 5. Thrips - Pseuddendrtllrips divivasana R.K and M. (Thripidae: Thysanptera) It infests the leaves causing whitish patch n leaves and these patches calise and turns t yellwing. 6. Mealy bug - Nipaecccus viridis mask Mask. (Pseudcccidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults desap the tender leaves and shts. Binmics The adult female is dark casteneus cvered with sticky cretaceus white vi-sac. It lay eggs in visacs; which are runded, cylindrical, and chestnut in clur. A single female lays abut eggs. The egg perid is 7-10 days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

224 7. Pink waxy scale - Cerplastes rubens Mask. (Cccidae: Hemiptera) It cvers the sht and fruit in stalk suck sap and excretes hneydew, which develp the sty muld later. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

225 Lecture N.15 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Grapevine I. Sap feeders 1. Leafhpper - Erythrneura sp (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap resulting in tiny white spts n the fliage. In case f severe infestatin, leaves turn yellw, brwn and in severe case fall frm the vines. Binmics The leafhpper depsited the eggs n the leaf tissues. The eggs are hatched in 14 days. The nymphs are pale in clur and wingless. It feeds n the lwer surface f leaves and becme adults after mlting five times. The nymphal perid is 3-5 weeks. This pest cmpletes 2-3 generatins in the seasn. 2. Grapevine thrips - Rhipiphrthrips cruentatus Hd. (Helithripidae: Thysantptera) Bth nymphs and adults lacerate/scrape the epidermis f leaves and suck the sap due t laceratin silvery patches. Infest the under surface f leaves and suck the cell sap. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

226 The infestatin resulted in develpment f silvery white scrchy patches n the leaves. The attacked vine either des nt bear fruits r the fruit drp ff prematurely. It lays bean shaped eggs n the under surface f leaves. The fecundity f the hpper is 50 eggs per female. The eggs perid is 3-8 days. The nymphs are small yellwish brwn in clur. The nymphal perid last fr 9-20 days. The pupal perid is 2-5 days. On emergence f adults bth sexual and parthengenetic reprductin takes place simultaneusly. 3. Thrips - Scirtthrips drsalis Hd. (Thripidae: Thysantptera) Bth nymphs and adults infest the tender leaves causing curling and crinkling f leaves. The crp grwth stunted and brnzed, the infested buds and flwers becme brittle and drps. Binmics The insect reprduces asexually as well as parthengenetically. The female thrips inserts the eggs int the veins f leaves. It lays abut eggs. The nymphs n hatching crawl n t the tender sht fr feeding. It pupates in sheltered places such as leaf axils, leaf curls and base f flwers and fruits. Egg perid is 5 days and larval perid is 7-8 days. Pre-pupal perid is hurs and pupal perid is hurs. The ttal life cycle is cmpleted within days. Management Inter-crp with agathi Sesbania grandiflra t prvide shade which regulates the thrips ppulatin. Apply carbfuran granules at 200 g /cent area in the nursery. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

227 Rt dip the chilli seedlings in mncrtphs 0.05 % slutin fr 20 minutes befre transplanting gives prtectin up t 28 days. Apply dust frmulatin f insecticides early in the mrning at 25 kg/ha. Spray dimethate 30 EC 2 ml/ litre r frmthin 2 ml/ litre thrice at frtnightly intervals. 4. Whitefly - Aleurcanthus spiniferus Singh. (Aleyrdidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm the under surface f leaves causing yellwing symptm. 5. Mealy bug - Ferrisia virgata Ckll. (Pseudcccidae: Hemiptera) This is the striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cckerell). Ntice the very lng waxy filaments arund the bdy, the lng tails and the presence f tw stripes n the bdy. This species des prduce an egg mass r visac. Fringe heavy & wedge-shaped 2 dark stripes n the back Bdy fluid light clr N visac prduced Anal filaments present and abut ne-half the length f the bdy 6. Mealy bug - Macnellicccus hirsutus Green. (Pseudcccidae: Hemiptera ) Mealy bugs fund n leaves, shts, ndes, bunch and lse bark f grapevine. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

228 Infestatins f the grwing pint with mealy bug results in malfrmatin f leaves and sht tips. The greatest damage is dne t the fruit bunches. Hney dew secreted by mealy bug nymphs and adults, supprt the grwth f sty muld n leaves, shts and branches, sty and sticky bunches harburing mealy bugs and their white cttny wax masses tend t be inferir in the market value as table grapes. Raisin cannt be prepared frm such bunches. The quality f the wine is affected. In case f severe infestatin in the nursery, yung vines are ften killed. The yield lss by mealy bug alne is ranging frm % in the field. Binmics The adult females are pinkish and sparsely cvered with white wax. Each female depsits frm eggs in a lse cttny terminal visac during a week's time. The eggs are range in clur. The egg perid is 5-10 days. The crawlers are als range in clur. The females have three, while males have fur nymphal instars. A generatin is usually cmpleted in a mnth but extended in winter mnths. Management Debark the vines and swab with methyl parathin t minimize the ppulatin. Apply sticky substances viz., tack-trap r bird tangle ft n the sht bearing the fruit bunch at a length f 5 cm t keep the bunches free frm infestatin. Release extic predatr Cryptlaemus mntruzieri Muls. in grape vine beetles per acre (a single predatr cnsumes mealy bug eggs r 300 nymphs in its develpment) Cmbine the release f predatr and spraying f insecticides dichlrvs (0.20 %) r chlrpyriphs (0.05 %) since they are nn txic t Cryptlaemus. Apply granular insecticide 50 g per vine r phrate gm per vine arund the base f the plant. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

229 Avid the spraying f insecticides viz., malathin, carbaryl, diazinn, dimethate, mncrtphs, methyl demetn, phasalne, quinlphs, fenitrthin, methyl parathin since they are highly txic t the predatr. 7. Hard scale - Aspiditus cyclniae Cmst. (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) It infests the grapevine. 8. Creid bug - Anplcnemis phasiana F. (Creidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults feed n tender shts results in withering and drying up f leaves. 9. Fruit sucking mth - Othreis fullniea Cramer., O. materna Linn., and O. aneilla Cramer. (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) The adult mth pierces the fruits fr sucking the juice and make characteristic pin-hle damage in fruits. The feeding site is easily infected with fungi and bacteria causing rtting and drpping f fruits. Binmics The adult mth f E. cnjuncta is faint range brwn having marginal dark bands mixed with white spts n hind wings. E. materna has three black spts n the fre wings. O. ancilla has white bands in the middle fre Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

230 wing. E. fullnica has tripd black mark in the frewing and curved marking in hind wing. The mth is ncturnal in habit. It lays eggs n wild plants and weeds in and arund the rchard. The egg perid is abut 2 weeks. The larvae is stut, typical semi lper, has a drsal hump n the last segment f the bdy. The larva passes five instars and cmpletes its larval stage in 4 weeks. It pupates fr 2 weeks in the dried leaves r in the sil. Management Remve and destry the alternative weed hst plants especially Tinspra cardiflia, Ccculus pendulus in the vicinity f the rchard. Bait with fermented mlasses at 100 g + malathin ml / litre f water. Bag the fruit with plythene bags punctured at the bttm individually fruits in small-scale area. Create smke n ne side f the field and allw it individual fruits in small scale area. Set up light traps r fd lures t attract and kill the mths. Cver the entire field / rchard with nyln net and spray with cntact insecticide. Cllect and dispse ff damaged fallen fruits t prevent further attractin f adults. Cver fruits with plythene bags (300 gauge) punctured at the bttm. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

231 Apply smke t prevent mth attack. Use light traps r fd lure (pieces f fruits) t attract mths. 10. Castr semilper - Achaea janata Linn. ( Nctuidae : Lepidptera) The adult mths suck the juice frm the fruits causing rtting and drpping f fruits. II. Leaf feeders 1. Flea beetle - Sclednta strigicllis Mts. (Eumlpidae: Cleptera) The adult flea beetles bite small hles n tender leaves. The grub feeds n rts. Binmics The adult is shining beetle with a metalic brnze clur and black patches n elytra measuring 4.5mm lng. The female lays eggs beneath the bark in grups f The fecundity is eggs per female. The eggs are hatched in 4-8 days. The larval perid lasts days. It pupates in an earthern cell. The pupal perid is 7-11 days. The ttal life cycle is cmpleted in 52 days. The adult hibernates in March and frm May nwards they start feeding n tender sht and leaves. Management Remve the lse bark at the time f pruning and spray phsalne 35 EC 2 ml I litre f water after pruning. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

232 2. Leaf rller - Sylepta lunalis Gn. (Pyraustidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar rlls up the leaves causing defliatin. 3. Sphinx mth - Hipptin celeri L. (Sphingidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n the leaves vraciusly and causes severe defliatin 4. Leaf miner - Phyllcnistis tparcha Meyr. (Gracillariidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar mines int the leaves. 5. Leaf eating caterpillar - Spdptera litura Fab. (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) Yung caterpillars f bth the insects bre int the tmat fruits while they mature. The Helicverpa larva remains partly ut n the fruit hle while eating, where as the Spdptera caterpillar can be seen remaining whlly inside the fruit. The bre hles are generally plugged with excreta. Binmics H.armigera The adult mths are marked with characteristic V shaped speck n the light brwnish fre wing and a smky dark brder n the Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

233 hind wing. It lays spherical yellw clur eggs singly n tender parts f plants. It has very high fecundity which may g up t 3000 eggs/female. They hatch 4-8 days and the caterpillars may start feeding n yung fliage and later mve t the yung tmat fruits. There is a remarkable change f clur as the caterpillar passes frm ne instar t anther. It pupates in an earthern ccn in sil. Pupal perid is days. S.litura The adult mths are stut with grayish brwn alternated with white markings n the fre wing while the hind wings are radiantly white with a brwn brder. The eggs are laid in masses and cvered with brwn hairs n the surface f the affected leaves. The yung caterpillars are vracius and may start feeding n yung fliage and finally they migrate t yung fruits. Laval perid is 2-3 weeks. Pupatin takes place in an earthern ccn in sil. Management Cllect and destry the infested fruits frm the field. Cllect the egg masses f S.litura and destry them. Cllect and destry the larvae f the H.armigera and S.litura. Set up light traps t attract and kill the mths f bth pests. Set up phermne 12 / hectare t attract the male mths H.armigera and S.litura. Release an egg parasitid Trichgramma chilnis fr 6 50,000 / hectare / week, first release cinciding with flwering time and based n ETL f 4-6 mths / six phermne traps. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

234 Spray NPV f H.armigera at 450 LE per hectare + cttn seed kernel pwder 300 g/hectare thrice. Each applicatin shuld be fllwed by Trichgramma releases. Spray NPV f S.litura at 250 LE per hectare in the evening hurs. Prepare pisn bait (Rice bran 12 kg/jaggery 2.5 kg + carbaryl 50 WP 1.25 kg and water 7.5 litres / hectare) and keep the bait in the evening hurs t attract the cater pillars f S.litura. Grw simultaneusly 40 days ld America tall marigld and 25 days ld tmat seedlings at 1.16 rws. Spray endsulfan 35 EC 2 ml / litre r carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/litre r Bacillus 2 g. / litre r quinlphs 2.5 ml / litre f water. III. Brers 1. Stem girdler - Sthenias grisatr Fab. (Cerambycidae: Cleptera) The grub bres int the bark and tunnels int the dry wd. The infestatin resulted in wilting f branches and then the entire vine. The beetles have the habit f ringing the vines resulting in drying up f the regins beynd the cut. Binmics The adult beetle is greyish brwn with white and brwn irregular marking resembling the bark clur, elytra have an elliptical greyish median spt and an eye shaped patch measuring 24 mm lng. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

235 The eggs are thrust in between barks and sapwd in clusters f 2-4 eggs by female beetle, which cuts branches slits under the bark f girdled branch. The egg perid is 8 days. The hatched ut grub feed inside the stem and cmpletes its larval stage by 7-8 mnths. The ttal life cycle ccupies mre than a year. Management Cut and burn the infested branches belw the girdling pint. Hand picks the beetles and destrys them which may help in migrating this lnging hrn beetle. Swab the trunk with carbaryl 50 WP 4 g / litre f water. 2. Grape vine beetle - Sinxyln anale Lesne. (Bstrychidae: Cleptera) The grubs and adults cause damage t the grape vine. The adult beetle makes circular hle and extending t the center f the stem. It cnstructs lngitudinal galleries and frms a number f exist. The attacked plant gradually dry and dies away. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

236 The adult beetle is sturdy, walks slwly and flies rarely. The female lays eggs in the tunnels. The grub is thickly slightly curved and yellwish white in clur. The chewed ut materials are thrwn ut f the hles. Management Remve lse bark, prune and destry the infested parts t prevent the infestatin by the beetle. Spray carbaryl 50 WP at 2 kg / ha t the drmant wdy prtin f the vines. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

237 Lecture N.16 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Ber & Pmegranate BER I. Brers 1. Fruit brer - Meridarchis scyrdes Meyr. (Carpsinidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar brers int the fruits feeding n the pulp and accumulating fecal frass within. Binmics The adult mth is small, dark brwn, in clur while the larva is reddish brwn in clur. Management 3. Cllect and destry damaged fruits. 4. Spray malathin 2 ml/1 r dimethate 1.5 ml /1 at the time f fruit set, tw runds at 15 days interval. 2. Fruit fly - Carpmyia vesuviana Csta. (Tephritidae: Diptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

238 The maggts bre int the pulp frming reddish brwn galleries. The infested fruits rt and turn dark brwn and smell ffensively. Binmics The adult fly is small, black sptted with banded wings. It lays creamy white and spindle shaped eggs in cavities made n the fruits by vipsitr. Fecundity f the insect is 22 eggs / female. The incubatin perid is 2-3 days. The maggts feed n the flesh f the fruit and fully grwn in 7-10 days. The maggt cmes ut f fruit by making 1-2 hles in the skin. It pupates in sil fr days. Management Remve and destruct the infested fruits frm the ber rchard. Incrprate lindane 1.3 % r chlrphyriphs 0.4 % dust 40 kg / hectare t the sil under the tree r near the trees t reduce the fruit fly incidence. Cultivate fruit fly resistant varieties such as Safeda Illaichi, Chinese, Sanaur-1, Tikadi and Umran. Cllect and destry fallen and infested fruits by dumping in a pit and cvering with a thick layer f sil r incrprate lindane 1.3 D 30 g/tree. Plugh interspaces t expse pupae. Encurage parasitids Opius cmpensates and Spalangia philippinensis. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

239 Use methyl eugenl lure trap (25/ha) t mnitr and kill adults f fruit flies r prepare methyl engenl and malathin 50 EC mixture at 1:1 rati and take 10 ml mixture/trap. Use plythene bags fish meal trap with 5 g f wet fish meal + ne ml dichlrvs saked in cttn at 50 traps / ha. Fish meal and dichlrvs saked cttn shuld be renewed nce in 20 and 7 d respectively. Use bait spray cmbining mlasses r jaggery 10 g/ 1 and ne f the insecticides, fenthin 100 EC 1 ml/1, malathin 50 EC 2 ml/1, dimethate 30 EC 1 ml/1, carbaryl 50 WP 4g/1, tw runds at frtnight interval befre ripening f the fruits. Spray malathin 50 EC 2 ml/1 r dimethate 30 EC 2 ml/1 r dichlrvs 0.1% at the time f flwer frmatin and fruit set. II. Leaf feeders 1. Hairy caterpillar - Thiacidas pstica Walker. (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) The hairy caterpillar feeds n leaves causing defliatin. Binmics The adult mth is greyish brwn with black duble lines n wings. The female mth lays eggs n the lwer surface f leaves in batches. A single female can lay up t eggs. The incubatin perid is 5-13 days. The Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

240 larva is grey brwn hairy caterpillar. The larval perid is days. It pupates in a ccn fr 7-39 days. Management Hand pick egg masses and caterpillars and destry. Use light trap at 1/ha t attract adults. Spray lambda cyhalthrin 5 % EC 0.5 ml/1 r malathin 50 EC 2 ml/1 r carbaryl 50WP 2 g/1. 2. Leaf webber - Psrsticha zizyphi S. (Oecphridae: Lepidptera) The larva webs tgether leaves causing defliatin. 3. Leaf butterfly - Tarucus thephrastus Fab. (Lycaenidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n the leaves. Binmics The adult butterfly is blue in clur. The caterpillar is small, fleshy green, EP: 3-5; LP; 15 and PP: 5-7 days. 4. Tussc caterpillar - Dasychira mendsa Hb. (Lymantriidae : Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds leaves causing defliatin. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

241 5. Grey weevil - Myllcerus transmarinus Hbst. (Curculinidae : Cleptera) The adult weevil scrapes and feed n the leaves. III. Sap feeders 1. Spittle bug - Machaerta plantiae (Cercpidae : Hemiptera) The nymphs infest the leaves and feed n them. 2. Mealy bug - Drsicha mangiferae Green and Drsichiella tamarindus Green.(Margardidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults feeds n fliage causing yellwing symptm. 3. Lac insect - Kerria (=Laccifer ) lacca Kerr. (Tachardidae : Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults desap the twigs. Management Cllect and burn affected branches after pruning Spray methyl demetn 25 EC 1 ml/1. 4. Scale insect - Aspiditus rientalis (Diaspididae : Hemiptera) Management Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

242 Prune all the infested materials, cllect and burn them. Spray methyl demetn 25 EC at 2 ml / litre f water. IV. Nn - insect pest 1. Mite - Phytptipalpus transitans (Tenuipalpidae : Acarina) It infests the fliage. 2. Red spider mite - Eutetranychus banksi Me Greg. (Tetranychidae : Acarina) It infests the leaves causing scarificatin f leaves. POMEGRANATE I. Sap feeders 1. Thrips - Rhipiphrthrips cruentatus Hd. (Thripidae: Thysanptera) Bth nymphs and adults lacerate the tender leaves in the margins and suck the sap frm the exuding lacerated material. The infestatin resulted in silvery white patches n leaves with black excreta leading t yellwing and withering. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

243 The adult female is dark brwn with yellw legs and antennae. The male has yellwish abdmen. The nymph is reddish in clur. Management Spraying 1ml/lit 2. Mealy bug - Plancccus lilacinus Ckll. (Pseudcccidae: Hemiptera) Mealybugs are imprtant sucking pests f pmegranate. Life histry Adult females are small val, elngate, sft bdied and wingless, cvered with mealywax. Of the tw cmmn species, Plancccus citri is val, elngate and lays eggs in a fluffy visac, while P.lilacinus is glbse and the eggs are nt laid in visac. The mealy bug lays eggs. The females attains maturity in abut a mnth. Mealy bug attack ndes, spikes, berries, tender branches, leaves and rts leading t debilitatin f the plant and crp lss. In sme cases, the mealy bugs infest the rts. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

244 Influence f weather Mealy bug ppulatin increases if warm and humid cnditins prevail. Cntinuus mnsn, high humidity and lw temperatures are detrimental t mealy bug develpment. The migratin f mealybugs starts in September/Octber frm the grund t the aerial parts f the cffee plant thrugh the main stem. The attack f mealybugs becmes severe during summer and with intermittent shwers/irrigatin. Ant assciatin Mealybugs prduce hneydew and ants are attracted t it. Ants prvide sanitatin and prtectin frm natural enemies. In the absence f ants the nymphs get trapped in hneydew and the natural enemies activity als increases. Cntrl measures Maintain ptimum shade. Cntrl ants by dusting Quinalphs 1.5% r methyl parathin 2% r Malathin 5% dust arund the base f the bush and shade trees and destry ant nests. Remve and destry weeds, as many f them harbr the pests. Spray the affected patches with Quinalphs 25 EC r Fenitrthin ml r Fenthin 150 ml r 4 liters f kersene in 200 litres f water alng with 200 ml f an agricultural wetting agent. While Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

245 spraying kersene. The spray slutin shuld be stirred frequently t avid setting f kersene. If the rt zne is affected, drench it with any ne f the abve insecticide slutins, except kersene emulsin. Release the parasitid, Leptmastix dactylpii against P. citri r the preadtr, Cryptlaemus mntruzieri irrespective f the species f mealybugs. 3. Whitefly - Siphninus phillyreae Halidy. (Aleyrdidae : Hemiptera ) It infests the lwer surface f leaves causing yellwing. 4. Spiralling whitefly - Aleurdicus dispersus Russell. (Aleyrdidae : Hemiptera ) The spiralling whitefly Aleurdicus dispersus Russell pses threat t many agricultural and hrticultural crps bth in the glasshuse and field cnditins in India. Aleurdicus dispersus, native t Caribbean islands and Central America, is reprted t ccur in Nrth America, Suth America, Asia, Africa, Australia and several Pacific islands. In India, it was first recrded in 1993 at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala n tapica. Bilgy Eggs are laid in a typical spiral pattern frm which the whitefly derives its cmmn name. Female whitefly lays yellwish white eggs, which hatch in Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

246 7 days and 4-6 days and 5-8 days. Fecundity ranges frm 51.8 t eggs/ female. There are fur nymphal instars, which are greenish, white and val. The duratin f first, secnd, third furth instar lasts fr , , days and days. Furth instar nymphs are cvered with heavy wax material. The ttal nymphal perid nrmally lasts fr 12 t 14 days and pupal perid lasts fr 2 t 3 days. Develpment frm egg t adult ccupies 18 t 23 days and days. Adults are larger with dark reddish brwn eyes and fre wings with characteristic dark spts. Adults live fr 13 t 22 days. Hst plants Aleurdicus dispersus is highly plyphagus and is knwn t attack abut 500 plants in different cuntries and 280 in India alne. The hst plants highly preferred by A. dispersus in India are tuber crp viz., Maniht esculenta, vegetables viz., Capsicum annum, Slanum melngena, Lycpersicn esculantum, Abelmschus esculentus, Cucurbita maxima, il seeds viz., Arachis hypgaea and Ricinis cmmunis, fibre crp Gssypium spp, fruit trees viz., Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Musa spp., Punica granatum and Terminalia catappa, rnamentals viz., Rsa indica, Hibiscus spp., Acalypha indica, Pinsettia pulcherrima, Michelia champaca and shade trees viz., Ficus religisa, Baunia purpurea, Cassia fistula, Thespesia ppulnea, Maniht glazivii etc. Nymphs and adults cngregate generally n the lwer surface, but smetimes n the upper surface f leaves f the hst plants, stem (cassia) and fruits (papaya) and suck the sap. premature leaf fall and yellwing f leaves in grundnut in Tamilnadu. Yellw speckling, crinkling and curling f the leaves was nted when the infestatin was severe n tapica. The injury caused by heavy infestatins was usually insufficient t kill the plants. The cpius white, waxy flcculant material secreted by nymphs is readily spread elsewhere by wind and creates a very unsightly nuisance. Furthermre, hneydew is prduced which serves as substrate fr dense grwth f sty muld, which interfere with phtsynthesis. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

247 The sticky hneydew carried by wind n the flcculant wax adheres t windws and cars and causes cnsiderable annyances. Cmplaints were received fr allergies and dermatitis. Management Management f plyphagus invasive pests like spiralling whitefly becmes all the mre difficult because f the multitude f hst plants that grw wild in nature and supprt the build-up f the pests. Cultural cntrl Use f clean planting material delays the appearance f the whitefly ppulatin. Pruning the heavily infested trees and shrubs was recmmended t minimise the spiralling whitefly incidence. Subsequent t the pruning the ppulatin rapidly increased with in 4-5 mnths n guava. Physical cntrl Light trap was mre apprpriate tl fr mnitring. A simple methd fr trapping large number f A. dispersus with light traps cated with Vaseline. Flurescent light smeared with castr il attracted and trapped large number f adults. Maximum adults were attracted and caught in yellw clr sticky trap. Chemical cntrl Applicatin f chemicals t the lwer surface f infested leaves thrughly reduces the whitefly abundance but temprarily. Tbacc extract (4%,) was fund effective in minimising the spiralling whitefly. Spraying f neem il (2%), fish il rsin sap (4%) and detergent sap slutin (5%) reduces the whitefly ppulatin. Cntact insecticides like malathin and carbaryl at 0.10% were als fund effective against yung nymphs. Dichlrvs 0.08% was fund txic t varius stages f spiralling whitefly. Triazphs 0.08% and phsalne 0.07% were equally effective against spiraling whitefly. Applicatin f neem il 2% and neem seed kernal extract 3% were fund t be effective in suppressing the nymphal and adult whitefly ppulatin. Trazphs at 0.03% was fund t be highly effective against spiralling whitefly Chrpyriphs at 0.04% was fund t effective against A.dispersus. Bilgical cntrl Pruning the infested plants is nly a temprary measure since the reinfestatin starts after sme time. Thugh certain chemicals were recmmended, there are certain difficulties in managing pest by chemical means. Synthetic insecticides d nt adequately cntrl this whitefly since the nymphs are cvered with heavy waxy flcculent materials. Only the adults are susceptible t the insecticidal applicatins. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

248 Applicatin f insecticides wuld temprarily reduce the whitefly abundance. Even if the whitefly is cntrlled n sme plants, there is heavy migratin frm radside trees t the cultivated crps. Chemical cntrl is impracticable because f abundance f hst plants including extremely large size trees and wide spread distributin. Therefre, alternate methds such as bilgical cntrl culd help in the suppressin f A. dispersus. As A. dispersus is an extic pest in mst cuntries, classical bilgical cntrl is cnsidered t be the best ptin fr a sustainable management. The aphelinid parasitids Encarsia haitiensis and Encarsia guadelupae have given excellent cntrl f spiralling whitefly in several cuntries Malaysia, Philippines, Benin, Tg, Ghana, Nigeria Guam, Taiwan, Australia, Hawaii and sme ther Pacific islands. 5. Aphid - Aphis punicae Pass. ( Aphididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults infest the leaves causing curling yellwing f leaves and wilting f terminal shts and premature fruit drp. Binmics The aphids are greenish brwn in clur. The winged as well as wingless frm reprduces parthenegenetically and is viviparus. Management Prune and burn the infested as well as water shts t check the further multiplicatin. Spray dimethate 30 EC at 1.75 ml r mncrtphs 36 SL at 1 ml r xymteyl demetn 25 EC at 1 ml r imidachlprid 200 SL at 0.4 ml flitre f water 2-3 times at an interval f days. Apply carbfurn 3 G at 130 g fplant t cntrl this pest effectively. Releases f first instar larvae f green lace wing bug. Chrysperla carnea at 15 larvae f flwering branch fur times at 10 days interval starting frm flwer initiatin during April. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

249 6.Thrips - Anaphtrhips ligchaetus Kerny (Thripidae: Thysanptera) Nymphs and adults f the species were seen n the under surface f the leaves, n fruits and flwers. The lacerating and sucking by the thrips resulted in shriveling f leaves and fruits. Scarring f rind was als bserved n fruits due t desapping, resulting in decreased marketability f fruits. II. Leaf feeders 1. Bagwrm - Clania cramari Westw. (Psychidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar scrapes the tissues f leaves causing circular hles n the leaf surface. It causes severe defliatin. Binmics The female mth is apterus, maggt like and the male mth is winged. The eggs are laid within the pupal case. The larva cnstructs its case and remaining within it feed n the leaves. It becmes full-grwn in abut five weeks. 2. Hairy caterpillar - Euprctis fraterna M.(Lymantriidae : Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

250 Lepidptera) The larva feeds n leaves causes defliatin. 3. Slug caterpillar - Parasa lepida Cramer. (Cchlididae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n the leaves gregariusly in the beginning, subsequently they disperse. It causes severe defliatin. Binmics The adult mth is stut with wing expanse f 4.0 cm and having green wings fringed with brwn patches. The eggs are laid in batches f n the under surface f leaves. The eggs are vals flat scale- like in shape. The fecundity is n an average 167 eggs / female. The egg perid is 7 days. The caterpillar is fleshy, slug-like with yellwish green bdy bearing a greenish blue stripe drsally and yellwish green stripes laterally. The larval perid is 5-6 weeks underges seven instars. It pupates in a hard shield - like greyish ccn n the tree trunks fr 4-5 weeks. Management Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

251 Set up light traps t mnitr and kill the adult mths. Spray the crwn with carbaryl 0.1 % (r) dichlrvs 0.02 % r malathin 0.05 % slutin. In severe cases, rt feeding f mncrtphs as explained earlier under leaf eating caterpillar may be taken up with safety precautins. Cllect all the stages f pests viz., eggs n tree trunks, leaves, larvae during migratin stage, pupae in sil and leaf sheath and adult mth during emergence and destructin. Organise mass cllectin campaign invlving farmers, schl children and cllege students. Spray 2 ml / litre using specially designed tractr munted tall tree sprayer. Dust methyl parathin r endsulfan 1 kg / tree using pwer perated bellwed crane duster t reach tall trees. Encurage the predatry birds t pick up the larval stages. 4. Semilper - Achaea janata Linn. (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) The semilper caterpillar feeds n leaves while the adult mth pierces the 5. Ash weevil - Myllcerus maculsus Desb. (Curculinidae : Cleptera) The adult weevil scrapes the chlrphyll cntent f the leaves causing defliatin. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

252 fruits with its prbscis fr feeding causing injury n the surface f fruits. III. Brers 1. Anarbutterfly - Virachla iscrates Fab. (Lycaenidae: Lepidptera) The larva bres inside the develping fruits and feeds n the pulp and seeds. The infested fruits are infected by fungi and bacteria causing fruit rt disease. The damaged fruits ultimately fall ff and give an ffensive dur. It causes per cent damage t the fruits. Binmics The adult butterfly is medium sized with wing expanse f mm. The female mth is glssy brwnish vilet while the male is bluish vilet in clur. The female lays eggs singly n the calyx f flwers and n small fruits. The egg perid is 7-10 days. The yung larvae bre int the develping fruits. The larval perid is cmpleted in days. It pupates inside the fruits. The pupal perid last fr 7-34 days. It cmpletes fur generatins per year. Management Grw less susceptible varieties. Remve calyx frm the fruits t prevent the hatching f eggs and subsequent damage. Cllect and destry the infested fruits. Cver the fruits with plythene r muslin bags during flwering perid t prevent egg laying when fruits are up t 5 cm diametre Spray NSKE 5% r neem il 2% as vipsitin deterrent, 2 t 3 times at 15 days interval cmmencing frm flwering and during butterfly activity. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

253 Adpt ETL (5 eggs / plant with bearing capacity f 60 fruits). Release egg parasitid, Trichgramma chilnis at 1 lakh / acre. Spray thichlpril 2 ml/ litre f water. Ensure minimum waiting perid f 10 days between the day f insecticide applicatin and harvesting f fruits in the field. 2. Fruit brer - Dichcrcis (= Cngethes) punctiferalis Guen. (Pyraustidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar ccasinally causes the damage by bring int the fruits and feeding n the pulp. Binmics 3. Fruit fly - Bactrcera znatus Saund. (Tephritidae: Diptera) The maggt destry and cnvert the pulp int a bad smelling, disclured semi liquid mass unfit fr human cnsumptin. The infestatin results in fruit drp and start rtting frm inside. On cmplete rtting f the fruits, the damaged fruit develp yellw spts with black centers thrugh which liquid zes ut n pressing. Binmics The adult fly is brwn r dark brwn with hyaline wings and yellw legs. The female fly lays eggs in clusters f 2-15 just beneath the skin f the ripening fruits. A single female lays up t 200 eggs during vipsitin perid f ne mnth. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

254 The egg perid is days. The maggt feeds n pulp and becme full grwn in abut 7 days. It pupates 3-7 inches belw the sil. Management Plugh the interspaces t expse the pupae during the ff - seasn. Cllect and destry the fallen fruits. Set up fly trap using methyl eugenl. Prepare methyl eugenl 1 ml/ 1 litre f water + 1 ml f Malathin slutin. Take 10 ml f this mixture per trap and keep them at 25 different places in ne ha between 6 and 8 am. Cllect and destry the adult flies. Cnserve parasitids like Optius cmpensates and Spalangia philippinensis. Use bait spray cmbining mlasses r jiggery 10g/1 and ne f the insecticides, fenthin 100 EC 1 ml/1, malathin 50 EC 2 ml/1, dimethate 30 EC 1 ml/1, carbaryl 50 WP 4g/1, tw runds at frtnightly intervals befre ripening f the fruits. Spray fenthin 2 ml / litre r Malathin 2 ml / litre f water. IV. Nn - insect pests 1. Eriphyid mite - Aceria granati Can and Massal. (Eriphyidae: Acarina) Bth nymphs and adults live inside the rlls at the edges f leaves. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

255 The infested leaves becme linear and defrmed. 2. Red spider mite - Tetranychus punicae Hirst. (Tetranychidae: Acarina) It infests the leaves frm the under surface f leaves causing yellwing and drpping f leaves. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

256 Lecture N.18 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Fig and Star gseberry FIG I. Leaf feeders 1. Wild silk wrm - Opcinara varians Wlk. (Bmbycidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar defliates the trees. Binmics The adult mth is pale whitish. The full-grwn larvae are smth, pale grey in clur measuring 30 mm lng. 2. Leaf caterpillar - Glyphdes phylalis W. (Pyraustidae: Lepidptera) The larva infests the leaves causing defliatin. 3. Hairy caterpillar - Hypsa ficus F. (Hypsidae: Lepidptera) The larva defliates the trees. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

257 Binmics The adult mth is yellw with black dts n the wings. The caterpillar is abut 25 mm lng, black in clur with yellwish brwn warts bearing white hairs. It pupates in sil. Management Cllect and destry damaged leaves alng with larvae. Use light 1 / ha t attract and kill adults. Spray mncrtphs 36 WSC 2 ml /litre r malathin 50 EC 0.1%. 4. Leaf rller - Phycdes radiata Ochs and P. minr Mre. (Glyphipterygidae : Lepidptera) The caterpillar rlls the leaf and feeds within. Binmics The adult mth is greyish brwn in clur. The eggs are laid singly r in batches f 2-15 n either side f leaves. The egg perid is 4-6 days. The caterpillar f F. radiata is yellwish-white with a dark stripe n each side, while the caterpillar F. minr is light green with yellw shiny head. The larval perid is days. It pupates within the leaf fld fr 8-10 days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

258 4. Leaf rller - Phycdes radiata Ochs and P. minr Mre. (Glyphipterygidae : Lepidptera) The caterpillar rlls the leaf and feeds within. Binmics The adult mth is greyish brwn in clur. The eggs are laid singly r in batches f 2-15 n either side f leaves. The egg perid is 4-6 days. The caterpillar f F. radiata is yellwish-white with a dark stripe n each side, while the caterpillar F. minr is light green with yellw shiny head. The larval perid is days. It pupates within the leaf fld fr 8-10 days. II. Sap feeders 1. Spittle bug - Csmscarta niteara D. (Cercpidae : Hemiptera) The nymphs infest the leaves f fig. 2. Psyllid bug - Paurpsylla depressa C. (Psyllidae : Hemiptera) The nymphs and adults desap the leaves prducing galls n the leaves. 3. Mealy bug - Drsicha mangiferae Green. (Margardidae : Hemiptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

259 Bth nymphs and adults desap the leaves. 4. Mealy bug - Plancccus lilacinus Ckll. (Pseudcccidae : Hemiptera) It infests fliage causing yellwing symptm. 5. Hard scale - Aspiditus cyclniae C. (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm leaves and tender twigs. 6. Thrips - Gigantthrips elegans Z. ( Phlethripidae : Thysanptera ) Bth nymphs and adults desap the tender leaves and results in curling and drying up f the same. III. Brers 1. Mang stem brer - Batcera rufmaculata Dejean. (Cerambycidae : Cleptera) The larva tunnel int the main stem r branches and makes zig - zag tunnels in the wd. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

260 The tunnels interfere the sap flw affecting the fliage and fruit prductin. In severe cases, the infested trees ultimately dry and dies. Management Keep rchards clean. Cllect lse and damaged barks and destry them. Kill grubs by inserting a thin irn spike r wire int the hle. Spt applicatin f 10 ml f mncrtphs r fenthin r methyl parathin diluted in 1 1 f water. 2. Fruit fly - Dacus (= Strumeta) drsalis Hend. ( Tephritidae : Diptera) The maggt destry and cnvert the pulp int a bad smelling, disclured semi liquid mass unfit fr human cnsumptin. The infestatin results in fruit drp and start rtting frm inside. On cmplete rtting f the fruits, the damaged fruit develp yellw spts with black centers thrugh which liquid zes ut n pressing. Binmics The adult fly is brwn r dark brwn with hyaline wings and yellw legs. The female fly lays eggs in clusters f 2-15 just beneath the skin f the ripening fruits. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

261 A single female lays up t 200 eggs during vipsitin perid f ne mnth. The egg perid is days. The maggt feeds n pulp and becme full grwn in abut 7 days. It pupates 3-7 inches belw the sil. Management Plugh the interspaces t expse the pupae during the ff - seasn. Cllect and destry the fallen fruits. Set up fly trap using methyl eugenl. Prepare methyl eugenl 1 ml/ 1 litre f water + 1 ml f Malathin slutin. Take 10 ml f this mixture per trap and keep them at 25 different places in ne ha between 6 and 8 am. Cllect and destry the adult flies. Cnserve parasitids like Optius cmpensates and Spalangia philippinensis. Use bait spray cmbining mlasses r jiggery 10g/1 and ne f the insecticides, fenthin 100 EC 1 ml/1, malathin 50 EC 2 ml/1, dimethate 30 EC 1 ml/1, carbaryl 50 WP 4g/1, tw runds at frtnightly intervals befre ripening f the fruits. 3. Fig midge - Anjeerdiplsis peshawaransis Mani.(Cecidmyiidae : Diptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

262 The maggt bres inside the fruit and feeds n the pulp within. The infested fruits becme hard, and defrmed. The damaged fig ultimately shrivels, withers and drpped dwn prematurely. Binmics The adult fly is small, light brwn in clur with small head and bear tw jinted antennae. The female fly lays minute, val, pedicellate eggs n ne week ld fruit. The eggs are laid in cluster f 10 eggs. The egg perid is 3 days. The maggt is creamy white in clur. The larval perid is 3-4 weeks. The maggt drp dwn t the sil fr pupatin. The pupal perid lasts days. Management Cllect damaged fruits alng with maggts and destry. Rake up sil t expse pupae and apply lindane 1.3 D at 25kg/ha. Spray dimethate 30 EC 2 ml/ litre r malathin 50 EC 0.1%. STAR GOOSE BERRY I. Sap feeders Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

263 1. Aphid - Setaphis bngainis (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm the leaves causing yellwing symptm. 2. Whitefly - Trialeurdes rara Singh. (Aleyrdidae: Hemiptera) The clnies f whitefly desap the leaves frm the ventral surface causing yellwing f leaves in patches n the crrespnding upper surface. 3. Bug - Scutellera nbilis Fab. (Scutelleridae : Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults nymphs and adults suck the sap frm leaves and cause yellwing symptms. 4. Mealy bug - Ferrisia virgata Ckll. (Pseudcccidae : Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults desap the leaves causing yellwing. II. Leaf feeders 1. Leaf rller - Calptilia (=Gracillaria) acidula (Gracillaridae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar rlls the leaves and feed n them causing defliatin. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

264 Binmics The adult mth is small brwnish in clur. The larva is cylindrical yellw with thin scattered hairs. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

265 Lecture N.19 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Custard Apple and Wd Apple CUSTARD APPLE I. Brers 1. Fruit brer - Hetergraphis (= Annaepestis) bengalella Rgnt. (Phycitidae: Lepidptera) The larva bres int the fruits making irregular tunnels. The develpment f fruits is arrested and fruits fall dwn. The bre hles n fruits are plugged with excreta. Binmics The female mth lays eggs singly in the sutures r n the peduncle f immature fruits. The egg perid is 4-5 days. The larva bres inside the fruits. The larval perid is days. It pupates in the tunnels within the fruits. The pupal perid lasts in 12 days. Management Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

266 Cllect and destry damaged fruits. Spray thidicarb 2 ml/ litre r malathin 0.1% tw times nce at flwer frmatin and secnd at fruit set. 2. Fruit fly - Dacus znatus. Saund. (Tephritidae: Diptera) The maggt destry and cnvert the pulp int a bad smelling, disclured semi liquid mass unfit fr human cnsumptin. The infestatin results in fruit drp and start rtting frm inside. On cmplete rtting f the fruits, the damaged fruit develp yellw spts with black centers thrugh which liquid zes ut n pressing. Binmics The adult fly is brwn r dark brwn with hyaline wings and yellw legs. The female fly lays eggs in clusters f 2-15 just beneath the skin f the ripening fruits. A single female lays up t 200 eggs during vipsitin perid f ne mnth. The egg perid is days. The maggt feeds n pulp and becme full grwn in abut 7 days. It pupates 3-7 inches belw the sil. Management Plugh the interspaces t expse the pupae during the ff - seasn. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

267 Cllect and destry the fallen fruits. Set up fly trap using methyl eugenl. Prepare methyl eugenl 1 ml/ 1 litre f water + 1 ml f Malathin slutin. Take 10 ml f this mixture per trap and keep them at 25 different places in ne ha between 6 and 8 am. Cllect and destry the adult flies. Cnserve parasitids like Optius cmpensates and Spalangia philippinensis. Use bait spray cmbining mlasses r jiggery 10g/1 and ne f the insecticides, fenthin 100 EC 1 ml/1, malathin 50 EC 2 ml/1, dimethate 30 EC 1 ml/1, carbaryl 50 WP 4g/1, tw runds at frtnightly intervals befre ripening f the fruits. II. Sap feeders 1. Striped mealy bug - Ferrisia virgata Cckerell. (Pseudcccidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults cver n the fruits and suck the sap causing shriveling and drpping f fruits. Management 2. Cllect and destry mealy bug infested leaves, shts and fruits. 3. Spray dichlrvs 0.05%, tw times first at new flush and sht frmatin and secnd at fruit set by using fish il rsin sap 25 ml/litre. 4. Release Cryptlaemas 10 beetles per tree. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

268 2. Mealy bug - Macnellicccus hirsutus Green (Pseudcccidae: Hemiptera) Pinkish nymphs and adults desap the fruits causing the shriveling and drpping f fruits. WOOD APPLE I. Brer 1. Wd apple brer - Euzphera plumberijascilla (Phycitidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar bres int the fruits and feeds n the pulp causing fruit drp. 2. Fruit brer - Argyrplce illipida Meyr. (Eucsmidae : Lepidptera) The larva bres int the fruits causing fruit drp. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

269 Lecture N. 20 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Jamun, Pineapple, Papaya and Tamarind JAMUN 1. Psyllid - Triza jamblanae C. (Psyllidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm the leaves causing yellwing and malfrmatin. 2. Whitefly - Dialeurdes eugeniae M. (Aleyrdidae: Hemiptera) It infests the leaves in seedlings causing yellwing and malfrmatin 3. Thrips - Leeuwenia ramakrihmae (=karyani)r. (Thripidae :Thysanptera) Bth nymphs and adults lacerate the leaves and suck the sap causing yellwing with silvery patches n leaves. 1. Leaf miner - Acrcercps telestis Meyr. (Gracillaridae : Lepidptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

270 The caterpillar mines int the leaves causing blister like swelling n upper surface f leaves. 2. Leaf webber - Argyrplce aprbla Meyr. (Eucsmidae : Lepidptera) The larva webs tgether the leaves at the sht tips and feeds within the web causing defliatin. 3. Purple winged mth - Bmbtelia delatrix Gr. (Nctuidae : Lepidptera) The caterpillar infests the leaves and causes defliatin. Binmics The adult mth is brwnish black in clur. The female lays eggs singly n leaves. The incubatin perid is 3-4 days. The larva is green and takes days t becme full grwn. It pupates in a ccn fr 13 days. 4. Lper - Thalassdes flavifusata Wlk. (Gemetridae : Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n tender fliage causing defliatin. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

271 Binmics The female mth lays eggs in small grups n the edges f tender leaves. A single female lays eggs. The egg perid is 2-3 days. The larva is greenish in clur measuring 3.8 cm lng. The larval perid is days. It pupates within rlled up leaves fr 7-8 days. Management Cllect and destry damaged leaves. Use light trap at 1/ha t attract and kill adults. Spray phaslne 2 ml/1 r malathin 50 EC 2 ml/1. 1. Fruit fly - Dacus crrectus Bezzi. (Tephritidae: Diptera) The maggt feeds n pulp f fruit and cause rtting and drpping f fruits. 2. Bark caterpillar - Indarbela tetranis Mre. (Metarbelidae : Lepidptera) The caterpillar bres inside the stem making irregular galleries which interfere the translcatin f cell sap. The grwth f the plant remains stunted and the fruiting capacity is drastically reduced. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

272 Binmics The adult mth is stut, pale brwn mth with wavy marking n the wings. The female lays eggs in grups in cracks and crevices n the bark. The egg perid is 8-10 days. The larva is brwnish in clur measuring 3.8 mm lng. Pupatin takes place in the galleries fr 3-4 weeks. It has nly generatin per year. 1. Red spider mite - Olignychuszus mangiferae Rah and Sap. (Tetranychidae: Acarina) It infests the leaves f Jamun trees. PINEAPPLE 1. Rhincers beetle - Oryctes rhincers Linn. (Scarabaeidae: Cleptera) The adult beetles bres int the stem causing wilting f plants. Management Remve and destry damaged plants. Cllect and destry varius bi-stages frm manure pits. Mix entmgenus fungal culture f Metarhizium anispliae in the manure pits during cler mnths t attack grubs. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

273 Encurage Reduviid bugs, Platymeris laevicllis t attack adults. Hk ut and kill adults frm the base f stems. Set up light traps fllwing first rains in summer and mnsn perid t attract adults. Sak castr cake at 1 kg in 5 1 f water in small mud pts and keep them in the pineapple garden t attract the adults. Use Rhinlure vane trap fr attracting adults. 1. Thrips - Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thripidae : Thysanptera) The nymphs and adults which shelter between the leaf sheaths and stems lacerate the epidermis and suck the exuding sap. The affected leaves exhibit silvery which bltches leading t distrtin, wilting and drying frm tip dwn wards. The seedlings shw retarded grwth. The bulbs remain undersized and appear distrted in shape. Binmics It reprduces parthengenetically. The adult female inserts the eggs int the tender leaves. The egg perid is days. The nymphs and adults are yellw in clur. The nymphal perid is 4-6 days. It pupates in sil. The pupal perid is 3 days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

274 The pest underges 10 generatin per year. Management Grw resistant varieties viz., White Persian, Gran, Sweet Spanish, and Crystal wax. Use neem cated urea which reduce the infestatin f pest. Set up sky-blue clur sticky traps which attract mre adults than yellw clur traps. Spray methyl demetn r dimethate at 1 ml/litre r mncrtphs 1 ml/litre with teepl 0.5 ml/litre f water. 2. Mealybug -Dysmicccus brevipes Cckerell. (Pseudcccidae : Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults desap the leaves and fruits result yellwing f leaves and shriveling f fruits. Management Cultivate resistant varieties like Red Spanish and Queen. Cllect planning material frm unaffected plantatins. Remve basal brwnish leaves f cured planting materials at the time f planting Dip basal prtin f planting material in methyl parathin 0.2% slutin as a prphylactic measure. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

275 Apply phrate 10 G at 17.5 kg/ha at days interval in the affected plantatins. PAPAYA 1. Milk weed grasshpper - Pecilcerus pictus F. (Acrididae: Orthptera) Bth nymphs and adults feed n leaf vraciusly and cause severe defliatin. In the case f severe infestatin, it feeds n the bark f the plant. Binmics The female thrusts its abdmen deep int the sil and lay eggs t a depth f cm. A single female lays abut eggs. The eggs are elngate and range in clur. The eggs are cvered by frthy secretin, which hardens later n. The egg perid is 30 days. The nymphal perid is 60 days. It becmes adult in anther 75 days. 2. Grey weevil - Myllcerus subfasciatus G.M., M.disclr Fab and M.viruidu Fab. (Curulinidae: Cleptera.) Adult weevil cause ntching f leaf margins. Grub feeds n rts resulting wilting f plants. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

276 Binmics M.Subfasciatus Brwnish weevil; M.disclr Brwn with white spt n elytra;. M.viridanus Small light green weevil. Management Cllect & destruct the adult weevils Apply carbfuran 3 G at 15 kg/hectare at 15 days after planting. Dust lindane 1.3D at 25kg/ha t kill grubs. Spray carbaryl 50WP at 2g/1 n plants. 1.Whitefly Bemesia tabaci Genu. (Aleyrdidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults feed n cell sap frm leaves causing chlrtic spts and yellwing and drying f leaves. Pre-mature defliatin, yellwing and sty muld are typical symptms. Binmics Adults are minute with yellw bdy cvered with white waxy blm. Stalked eggs are laid n the undersurface f leaves. EP: 3-5 days; NP: 9-14 days during summer, EP:5-33 days ; NP:17-33 days during winter. PP: 2-8 days. LC: days. Management Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

277 Avid grwing f brinjal in summer if the whitefly is a serius prblem in that area. Adpt crp rtatin using nn-hst like cereals which helps t reduce whitefly ppulatin. Remve alternative hsts and weed hsts. Use nitrgenus fertilizers judiciusly t avid excessive grwth. Set up yellw sticky 12 per hectare t manage whitefly Avid the usage f resurgence causing insecticides viz., pyrethrids, dimethate, endsulfan, phsalne and mncrtphs. Use entmphpathgenic fungus, Paecilmyces farinsus. Spray fish il rsin 1 kg in 40 litre f water + teepl. Spray 1 0:1 r malathin 2 ml r methyl demetn 1 ml r triazphs 1.5 ml / litre f water. 2. Green peach aphid - Myzus persicae Sulz. (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults desap the leaves. As a result f infestatin, leaves get curled and crinkled, cated with hneydew and sty muld. It acts as a vectr fr the disease "Papaya msaic virus". Management Remve and destry damaged plant parts alng with nymphs and adults. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

278 Encurage parasitid, Aphelinus mali and predatrs, Cccinella septumpunctata and Ballia eucharis. Spray dimethate 0.03% r methyl demetn 0.025%. 3. Aphid - Aphis gssypii Glver. (Aphididae: Hemiptera) It is a ptential pest n cttn infesting tender shts and under surface f the leaves. They ccur in large numbers suck the sap and cause stunted grwth, gradual drying and result in death f the plants. Develpment f black sty muld due t the excretin f hney dew giving the plant a dark appearance. Being a plyphagus pest, it is recreded in brinjal, bhendi, chillies,guava and gingelly. Curling and crinkling f leaves are typical symptms. Binmics Yellwish r greenish brwn nymphs fund n the under surface f leaves. They are ften attended by ants fr the sweet hney dew secretin. Winged frms may be seen under crwded cnditins. 4. Ccnut scale - Aspiditus destructr Sign. (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

279 The nymphs and adult desap the leaflets resulting yellwing, withering and drying up f leaflets. Binmics It is circular hard scale ccurs as persistent pest f ccnut. A female lays up t 90 eggs under its shield like scale. The crawlers mve ut and distribute themselves t health leaf lets. The life cycles 3.2 days fr male and 35 days f female. 1. Fruit fly - Dacus diversus Cq and D.cucurbitae (Tephritidae: Diptera) The maggt tunnel int the fruits and cause rtting and pre-mature fall f the develping fruits. The fly seems t prefer green and tender fruits f pumpkin as it is nt able t pierce the hard rind f sme ther fruits. The infested fruits can easily be recgnized by the distrtin r rtting area arund the site f vipsitin. Smetimes the yung maggt can als be seen eating n the flwers and rarely they may feed n the curcurbit veins with cnsequent frmatin f galls. It attacks all fruits f cucurbitaceus besides attacking tmat, chillies, brinjal, papaya, guava, peach, dates, citrus etc. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

280 The adult f B.cucurbitae a reddish brwn fly with lemn yellw curved vertical markings n the thrax and fuscus shading n uter margins f wings B. ciliates smaller than B.cucurbitae. It thrusts 5 t 15 cylindrical white eggs singly r in grups int flwers r tender fruits. The fly makes a number f punctures with her vipsitr befre the eggs are laid. A resinus secretin ze ut frm the injured fruit t repair the punctures. The eggs hatch ut in 1 t 9 days liberating small, dirty white apdus maggts and becme full grwn in 3-21 days. Pupatin takes place in sil. Sme time it may pupate in the fruit itself. Pupal perid is 3-9 days in summer and 30 days in winter. The adults are free living n flwer vectr and can very ften be seen cngregating n the undersurface f the leaves during mrning hurs. Management Remve and dispse ripe fruits frm trees and grund t suppress fruit fly ppulatin. Use methyl eugenl traps t attract and kill adult flies. Cver fruits with a semi-permeable shrink-wrap film. Spray fenthin 1 ml/1 r malathin 2 ml/1 n semi-ripe fruits. 1. Red spider mite - Tetranychus telarius L. (Tetranychidae: Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

281 Acarina) It infests the under surface f leaves and ccasinally n fruits. Bth nymphs and adults remain the prtected web and suck the sap resulting yellwing f leaves. 2. Papaya Mealybug -Paracccus marginatus The papaya mealybug, Paracccus marginatus is a small hemipteran that attacks several genera f hst plants, including ecnmically imprtant trpical fruits and rnamentals. The papaya mealybug was discvered in Manatee and Palm Beach cunties in Flrida in 1998 and subsequently spread rapidly t several ther Flrida cuntries. It ptentially pses a multi-millin dllar threat t numerus agricultural prducts in Flrida, as well as ther states, if nt cntrlled. Bilgical cntrl was identified as a key cmpnent in a management strategy fr the papaya mealybug, and a classical bilgical cntrl prgram was initiated as a jint effrt between the US Department f Agriculture, Puert Ric Department f Agriculture, and Ministry f Agriculture in the Dminican Republic in Distributin The papaya mealybug is believed t be native t Mexic and/r Central America. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

282 It has never gained status as a serius pest there, prbably due t the presence f an endemic natural enemy cmplex. The first specimens were cllected in Mexic in The papaya mealybug was described in 1992 frm the Netrpical Regin in Belize, Csta Rica, Guatemala, and Mexic. When the papaya mealybug invaded the Caribbean regin, it became a pest there; since 1994 it has been recrded in the fllwing 14 Caribbean cuntries: St.Martin, Guadelupe, St. Martin, Guadelupe, St.Batthelemy, Antigua, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, Dminican Republic, Haiti, Puert ric, Mntserrat, Nevis, St. Kitts, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Mre recently, specimens have turned up in the Pacific regins f Guam and the Republic f Palau. The papaya mealybug was discvered in Bradentn, Flrida in 1998 n hibiscus. By January 2002, it had been cllected 80 times n 18 different plant species in 30 cities thrughut Alachua, Brevard, Brward, Cllier, Dade, Hillsbrugh, Manatee, Martin, Mnre, Palm Beach, Pinellas, Plk, Sarasta, and Vlusia cunties. Specimens als have been intercepted in Texas and Califrnia, and it is expected that papaya mealybug culd rapidly establish thrughut Flrida and thrugh the Gulf states t Califrnia. It is pssible that certain greenhuse crps culd be at risk in areas as far nrth as Delaward, New Jersey and Maryland. It has already been identified n papaya plants in the Garfield Cnservatry in Chicag, Illinis in late August f Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

283 A bilgical cntrl prgram was implemented in December f 2001 with very successful results. Descriptin Papaya mealybug infestatins are typically bserved as clusters f cttnlike masses n the abve-grund prtin f plants. The adult female is yellw and is cvered with a white waxy cating. Adult females are apprximately 2.2 mm lng (1/16 inch) and 1.4 mm wide. A series f shrt waxy caudal filaments less than ¼ the length f the bdy exist arund the margin. Eggs are greenish yellw and are laid in an egg sac that is three t fur times the bdy length and entirely cvered with white wax. The visac is develped ventrally n the adult female. Adult males tend t be clred pink, especially during the pre-pupal and pupal stages, but appear yellw in the first and secnd instar. Adult males are apprximately 1.0 mm lng, with an elngate val bdy that is widest at the thrax (0.3 mm), Adult males have ten-segmented antennae, a distinct aedeagus, lateral pre clusters, a heavily sclertized thrax and head, and well-develped wings. Tw characteristics that are imprtant in distinguishing P.marginatus adult females frm all ther species f Paracccus are: the presence f ral-rim tubular ducts drsally restricted t marginal areas f the bdy, and the absence f pres n the hind tibiae. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

284 Adult males may be distinguished frm ther related species by the presence f stut fleshy setae n the antennae and the absence f fleshy setae n the legs. The papaya mealybug can easily be distinguished frm Macnellicccus marginatus (Green), the pink hibiscus mealybug, because papaya mealybug females have eight antennal segments, in cntrast t nine in the latter species. Specimens f papaya mealybug turn bluish-black when placed in alchl, as is characteristic f ther members f this genus. Bilgy Details n the bilgy and life cycle f the papaya mealybug are lacking. In general, mealybugs have piercing-sucking muthparts and feed by inserting their muthparts int plant tissue and sucking ut sap. Mealybugs are mst active in warm, dry weather. Females have n wings, and mve by crawling shrt distances r by being blwn in air currents. Females usually lay 100 t 600 eggs in an visac, althugh sme species f mealybugs give birth t live yung. Egg-laying usually ccurs in abut 10 days, and nymphs, r crawlers, begin t actively search fr feeding sites. Female crawlers have fur instars, with a generatin taking apprximately ne mnth t cmplete, depending n the temperature. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

285 Males have five instars, the furth f which is prduced in a ccn and referred t as the pupa. The fifth instar f the male is the nly winged frm f the species capable f flight. Adult females attract the males with sex phermnes. Under greenhuse cnditins, reprductin ccurs thrughut the year, and in certain species may ccur withut fertilizatin. Hst Plants The papaya mealybug is plyphagus and has been recrded n > 55 hst plants in mre than 25 genera. Ecnmically imprtant hst plants f the papaya mealybug include papaya, hibiscus, avcad, citrus, cttn, tmat, eggplant, peppers, beans and peas, sweet ptat, mang, cherry, and pmegranate. The papaya mealybug feeds n the sap f plants by inserting its stylets int the epidermis f the leaf, as well as int the fruit and stem. In ding s, it injects a txic substance int the leaves. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

286 The result is chlrsis, plant stunting, leaf defrmatin, early leaf and fruit drp, a heavy build up f hneydew, and death. Heavy infestatins are capable f rendering fruit inedible due t the buildup f thick white wax. Papaya mealybug has nly been recrded feeding n areas f the hst plant that are abve grund, namely the leaves and fruit. Management Chemical cntrl A number f chemical cntrls are available t cntrl mealybug, althugh nne are currently registered specifically fr cntrl f papaya mealybug. Active ingredients in registered pesticide frmulatins include acephate, carbaryl, clrpyrifs, diazinn, dimethate, malathin, and white mineral ils. Typically, twice the nrmal dse is applied when treating fr mealybugs because mealybugs are prtected by thick waxy, cttny sacs, and ften are cncealed inside damaged leaves and buds. Thus, chemical cntrls are nly partially effective and require multiple applicatins. Furthermre, prblems with insecticide resistance and nntarget effects n natural enemies make chemical cntrl a less desirable cntrl ptin t cmbat the papaya mealybug. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

287 Bilgical cntrl Natural enemies f the papaya mealybug include the cmmercially available mealybug destryer (Cryptlaemus mntruzieri), lady beetles, lacewings, and hver flies, all which are generalist predatrs that have a ptential impact n mealybug ppulatins. In additin t predatrs, several parasitids may attack papaya mealybug. In 1999, the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspectin Service (APHIS) and USDA Agricultural Research Statin (ARS) initiated a classical bilgical cntrl prgram fr the papaya mealybug. Fur genera f encyrtid endparasitid wasps specific t mealybugs were cllected in Mexic by USDA and ARS researchers and Mexican cperatrs as ptential bilgical cntrl agents: Acerphagus 100 numbers / small village as inculative release, Anagyrus califrnicus Cmpere, and Pseudaphycus sp. A fifth cllected species was later reared and identified as Pseudleptmastix Mexicana. All fur species were screened in USDA/ARS quarantine facilities in Newark, Delaware and envirnmental assessments were cmpleted. Specimens were then shipped t Puert Ric where they were cultured and mass-reared fr experimental release in Puert Ric and the Dminican Republic. The first releases f these fur parasitids were made in Flrida in Octber Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

288 T date, APHIS has fund that the release f the fur genera f parasitid wasps has brught a 99.7% reductin in the density f mealybug ppulatins at research sites in the Dminican Republic, and a 97% reductin at research sites in Puert Ric, with parasitism levels between 35.5% and 58.3%. All fur species f parasitids have been bserved attacking secnd and third instars f P.marginatus. Hwever, Acerphagus sp. emerged as the dminant paraditid species in bth Puert Ric and the Dminican Republic. The utcme f releases f the fur parasitids in Flrida is yet t be determined as f March TAMARIND 1. Tamarind fruit brer - Phycita rthclina Meyr. (Phycitidae : Lepidptera) The larva bre int the tender fruits and feeds n the pulp. The infestatin makes the fruit unfit fr cnsumptin. Binmics A female mth lays up t 190 eggs in abut 3 days n the pulp inside the hard shelled pds thrugh cracks and crevices fund n them. The incubatin perid is 4-5 days. The larvae bre int the pulp and remain in a silken web. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

289 The larval perid is days. It pupates in a silken ccn inside the infested pd. The adult emerges in abut 6-8 days. 2. Anar butterfly - Virachla iscrates F. (Lycaenidae : Lepidptera) The caterpillar bre int the develping fruits and feed n the pulp belw the rind f infested fruits ultimately fall ff and infested fruit which gives an ffensive smell. Bininics The adult mth is brwn butterfly. The female mth has' V ' shaped patch n fre wings. It lays shiny white, val shaped eggs singly n develping fruits. The egg perid is 7-10 days. The larva is dirty dark brwn, shrt and stutly build cvered with shrt hairs. The larval perid is days. It pupates insides the fruit. The pupal perid ranges frm 7-34 days. Management Cllect and destry the infested fruits. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

290 Spray NSKE 5% r neem il 2% as vipsitin deterrent, 2 t 3 times at 15 days interval cmmencing frm flwering and during butterfly activity. Adpt ETL (5 eggs / plant with bearing capacity f 60 fruits). Release egg parasitid, Trichgramma chilnis at 1 lakh / acre. Spray thichlprit 2 ml/ litre f water. Ensure minimum waiting perid f 10 days between the day f insecticide applicatin and harvesting f fruits in the field. 3. Fruit brer - Argyrplce illipida Meyr. (Eucsmidae : Lepidptera) The larva bres int the fruits causing fruit drp 4. Castr capsule brer - Dichcrsis (= Cngethes) punctiferalis Guen. (Pyraustidae : Lepidptera) The larva brers int the central cre f the pseudstems resulting in the death f the central spindle causing charactersic dead heart symptm. In the case f capsules, the caterpillars bre int the immature capsules and feed n the seeds rendering them empty. The caterpillars ccasinally tunnel int the panicle als. A characteristic indicatin fr the presence f the larvae is the zing ut f excreted frass materials at the muth f the bre hle, which are very cnspicuus n the stem r pds. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

291 The adult is a medium sized brwnish yellw clured mth with a number f dark spts n the wings. It lays eggs n the tp leaf axils f yung pseudstem. The larva bre int the tender parts f the panicle, flwer buds and immature capsules nly, the later stage larva bre int the stem. The full grwn larva is measuring mm lng and it pupates within the larval tunnel inside the pseudstems. The life cycle is cmpleted within days. Management Cllect and destry the affected plant parts. Destry the alternate hst plants frm the vicinity f the plantatin Spray phsalne 3 ml/litre r Dimethate 0.03 % /litre r quinlphs 4 ml/litre r fenthin 1.25ml / litre f water. 1. Inflrescence caterpillar - Laspeyresia palamedes M. (Eucsmidae : Lepidptera) The larva webs the inflrescence and bres int the stalks causing shedding f flral parts. 2. Flwer webber - Eublemma angulifera Mre. (Nctuidae : Lepidptera) The caterpillar webs the inflrescence and tunnel int the stalks. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

292 3. Lper - Thalassdes quadraria Guen. (Gemetridae : Lepidptera ) The caterpillar webs the inflrescence and base int the stalk 1. Hard Scale - Aspiditus tamarindus Green. (Diaspididae : Hemiptera) It cvers the leaves, fruits, and the twigs and sucks the sap. 2. Sft scale - Saisettia leae Ber. (Cccidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults desap the develping fruits result the yellwish encrustatin ver the infested fruit, ill filled and hard fruits. 3. Mealy bug - Plancccus lilacillus Ckll. (Pseudcccidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults cver n the develping fruits and suck the sap causing shriveling f fruits. 1. White grub - Hltrichia insularis Brensk. (Mellnthidae: Cleptera) The grub feeds n rtlets causing withering and drying f yung plants. In case f severe, attack the entire seedling is killed. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

293 The adult beetles feed n leaves causing severe defliatin. Binmics The adult beetles are brwnish black in clur. The beetles emerge frm the sil with the nset f mnsn during June- July. It lays shiny white, val shaped eggs in the sil. The egg perid is 8-12 days. The yung grub feeds n rts f hst plants the grwn up grub is white, fleshy, 'C' shaped. The grub perid is days. It pupates in earthern fr 8-12 days. It hibernates in pupal stage frm Nvember-June and later n emerges as adult. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

294 Lecture N.21 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum TEMPERATE FRUITS APPLE I. Brers 1. Stem brer Resurce 2. Sht hle brer Resurce 3. Fruit brer Resurce 4. Bark brer Resurce 5. Fruit fly Resurce II. Sap feeders 1. Apple wlly aphid Resurce 2. San Jse scale Resurce 3. Cttny cushin scale Resurce 4. Thrips Resurce 5. Pentatmid bug Resurce III. Leaf feeders 1. Tent Caterpillar Resurce 2. Apple cdling mth Resurce 3. Indian gypsy mth Resurce IV. Rt feeders 1. Apple rt brer Resurce 2. White grub Resurce V. Nn - insect pest 1. Eurpean mite Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

295 1. Stem brer - Aprina cinerea Chaverlt. (Lamidae: Cleptera) The grub bres int twigs causing circuitus galleries. The infested branches have small circular hle and mass f excreta and chewed up wd particles prtruding ut. The barks f branches are gnawed and leaves defliated. Binmics The adult beetle is ashy grey with numerus black tubercles at the base f elytra. The female lays eggs inside the cavity, which is excavated n shts. The incubatin perid is 7-8 days. The grub is creamy yellw with the dark brwnish head. The grub underges hibernatin during winter and resumes feeding in March, reaching the tree trunk by autumn (September-Octber) again g in hibernatin during winter. It pupates inside the tunnel. The pupal perid is days. 2. Sht hle brer - Sclytplatypul raja Bland. (Sclytidae: Cleptera) The grub burrws in the trunks f apple. 3. Fruit brer - Xyltrupes giden Linn. (Dynastidac: Cleptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

296 It bres int the fruits 4. Bark brer - Aelesthes hlsericea Fab. (Cerambycidae: Cleptera) The grub feeds inner layers f bark and uter layer f sapwd. The larval tunnel is plugged with excreta. Binmics A female beetle lays abut 92 eggs in the injured parts f the incubatin perid is 7-12 days. The grubs feed n the barks and sap the larval develpment is cmpleted in mnths. It pupates inside wd fr 3-25 days. The pupal perid lasts fr days. The ttal cycle is cmpleted in mnths. 5. Fruit fly - Bactrcera znatus Saund. ( Tephritidae : Diptera ) The maggt feeds n the fruits causing rtting and drpping f fruits. Binmics The adult fly is small, reddish brwn with yellwish crss band n the abdmen. It inserts white cylindrical eggs n the fruits in grup f Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

297 The fecundity f the fly is 137 eggs / female. The eggs are cvered by resinus secretin. The egg perid is 2-4 days. The maggt is dirty white, acephalic and apdus measuring 1 cm in length. The larval perid is 4-16 days. The maggt crawls ut f fruits and pupates in the sil. The pupal stage ver winters in cld mnths. The pupal perid last fr 7 days. 1. Apple wlly aphid - Erisma lanigarum Hausmn. (Pemphigidae : Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm the bark fruit stalk, calyx and rts. The affected plants becme weak and cause death f the plants in the nursery. It causes gall like swellings n the stem and rts. It crwds tgether cvered with wlly white patches n the trunk. Binmics The aphid is purplish aphid cvered with white cttny mats. It reprduces bth sexually and asexually. Generally it develps parthengenetically. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

298 Apterus frms are present thrughut the year. Each female may prduce up t 116 yung nes in her life time. The nymph underges fur instars. The nymphal perid is days. Alate frm disperses by flight and gives rise t apterus frms by sexual reprductin. Management Use tlerant r resistant rt stcks; M778, M779, MM 14, MM 110, MM 112, MM 114 and MM 115. Release specific eulphid parasitid Aphelinus mali during December and June t btain maximum parasitizatin and predatrs, Chilmenes bijugus and Cccinella septumpunctata. Spray nictin sulphate 40EC 500 ml r malathin 50 EC 750 ml in 500 litres f water. Apply the fumigant paradichlrbenzene at gram / tree in a 15 cm deep trench arund the tree abut tw metres away frm the base f the affected tree. Remve the aphids mechanically by rubbing with clthes withut causing any damage t the develping buds. Fllw nursery bed treatment f carbfuran 3 G 0.5 g a.i./plant r spray dimethate 0.03% r methyl demetn 0.025% in March t April and June t cntrl aerial frms. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

299 2. San Jse scale - Quadraspiditus pernicisus Cmst.(Diaspididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults infest the bark and desap the same. The infested regin f the bark becmes reddish pink and purple cluratin in fruits. Binmics The female scale is rund slightly cnvex with a black pustule and the male is linear. The hibernating nymphs becme active in March and the males emerge in April. The females reprduce in mid May prducing nymphs within a mnth. The nymphal perid is 20 days. The ttal life cycle is cmpleted in days. Management Spray diazinn 20 EC 1250 ml r methyl demetn 5 EC 625 ml /hectare. Select nursery stck free frm scale infestatin. Encurage activity f parasitids, Prspaltella pernicisi and Aspiditphagus sp. and / r cccinellid Chilcrus circumdatus predatr. Fumigate nursery stcks with HCN gas r methyl brmide. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

300 Summer spray with cntact r systemic insecticides like phsalne 0.05%, fenitrthin 0.05% and methyl demetn 0.025%. Winter spray with diesel il emulsin at 8 t 12 1/tree (diesel il 4.5 1, sap 1 kg, water ). 3. Cttny cushin scale - Icerya purchasi Maskell. (Margardidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm the leaves causing yellwing. Binmics The female has a cttny visac and the pinkish nymph has lng antenna with grup f hairs. 4. Thrips - Taenithrips rhapalantennalis Shum. (Thripidae : Thysanptera) The nymphs and adults infest the flwers and causes distrtin f the flwers and reductin f fruit-setting. 5. Pentatmid bug - Tessaratma quadrata Dist. ( Pentatmidae : Hemiptera ) The nymphs and adults desap the fruits causing the drpping f the fruits. 1. Tent Caterpillar - Malacsma indica Wlk. (Lasicarapidae: Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

301 Lepidptera) The caterpillar cnstructs a tent like shelters at the frking twigs and hide within during the day time. The caterpillar feeds n the leaves gregariusly during the night hurs causing severe defliatin. Binmics It is active nly frm March t May and passes the remaining mnths f the year during eggs stage. The adult female mth is light brwn with a wing expanse f mm. It lays eggs in masses f n branches f the tree during May- June. The eggs are hatched in the fllwing mnth. The larva has black head and abdmen. The larval perid is days. It pupates n stem and n grund in ccn during May fr 7-21 days. Management Destry all the egg bands n the branches during pruning. Spray carbaryl 50 WP 4 g / lit f water. 2. Apple cdling mth - Carpcapsa pmnella Linn. (Trtricidae: Lepidptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

302 The caterpillar feeds n the leaves first, then it brer in t fruits, feeds n the pulp f fruits. The female lays white clured, flattened eggs singly n develping fruits, leaves and the twigs. The egg perid is 4-12 days. The larva is pinkish t creamy white in clur with a brwn head. The larval perid last fr days. The grwn up larvae cmes ut f the fruit and falls n the grund and then it reach the bark f the tree fr shelter in cracks and crevices t cnstruct a silken ccn fr pupatin. The pupal perid is 8-14 days. Management Cllectin and destructin f ccns and fallen fruits. Mass trap males with cdling mth lure traps. Spray DDVP 0.04%. Release egg parasitids, Trichgramma embryphagum at 2000/tree. 3. Indian gypsy mth - Lymantria bfuscata Wlk. ( Lymantriidae : Lepidptera ) The larva feeds n the leaves gregariusly which results in failure f fruit frmatin. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

303 The adult female is dark grey in clur. It settles dwn n the bark f the tree and days eggs in masses f under the bark which are cvered with yellwish brwn hairs. The egg stage verwinters during cld mnths and hatch in March - April. The larvae cmplete the develpment in days. It pupates in the sil amng the debris. The pupal perid is 9-21 days. 1. Apple rt brer - Drysthenus hiigelii Redt.(Cerambycidae: Cleptera) The grub brers int the rts r girdles arund the rts and feed n the internal tissues. It resulted in shaking f plants, withering and drying f branches. Binmics The adult beetle is chestnut -red in clur with head and thrax darker than elytra. It lays val shaped yellw white eggs belw the sil. A female can lay up t 200 eggs. The egg perid is days. The newly hatched ut grub ges dwn t the sil, mm deep and feed n the rts f the tree. The full grwn grub is creamy-white with black head and mandibles measuring mm in length. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

304 The larval duratin extends up t 3 % years and it can live withut fd fr days. It pupates in earthern ccn inside the sil. Its pupal perid is abut 3 mnths. Management Avid dry sandy sils fr planting apple rchards 2. White grub - Lachnsterna lngipennis Blan.(Mellnthidae: Cleptera) The grub feeds n the rts while the adult feeds n leaves. Binmics The adult female beetle lays the eggs in sil, cm a deep near the hst rts. The incubatin perid is 13-18days. Grubs remain in sil, feeding n the rganic matter and rts f apple tree. The larval perid is days. It pupates in sil fr days. 1. Eurpean mite - Pannychus ulmi. (Tetranychidae: Acarina) The nymphs and adults infest the leaves, which resulted in leaves with white streaks n the upper surface, the infested leaves becme rlled. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

305 PEAR 1. Stembrer - Sahydrassus (= Phassus) malabaricus M. (Hepialidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar bres in the stem at the base f the tree resulting bre hle with circular particle mat cvering n the stem and wilting f the tree. Binmics The adult mth is big brwnish white in clur. The larva is stut caterpillar. Management Remve and destry damaged branches and trees alng with larvae. Use light trap at 1/ha attract and kill adults. Lcate live hle and kill caterpillar by spiking with an irn hk. Inject r pur mncrtphs 10 ml+water 10 ml mixture and cver with mud. Fllw stem injectin after harvest f fruits and subsequent harvest shuld be dne 40 days later frm first stem injectin. 2. Fruit fly - Bactrcera (= Dacus) znatus Saund. (Tephritidae: Diptera) The maggt feeds n the pulp f fruits causing rtting and drpping f fruits. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

306 Binmics The adult fly is small, reddish brwn in the yellw crss bands n the abdmen. The female lays white cylindrical eggs n the skin f a fruit in masses f 2-9. The fecundity is abut 137 eggs per female. The egg perid is 2-4 days. The maggt is dirty white, apdus and elngated measuring 1 cm in length. The larval perid is 4-16 days. The maggt cme ut frm the rtting fruit and pupates in the sil at a depth f mm. The pupal perid last fr 7 days. The life cycle is cmpleted in days. 3. Fruit brer - Virachla iscrates F. (Lycaenidae: Lepidptera) The larva bres inside the develping fruits and feeds n the pulp and seeds. The infested fruits are infected by fungi and bacteria causing fruit rt disease. The damaged fruits ultimately fall ff and give an ffensive dur. It causes per cent damage t the fruits. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

307 The adult butterfly is medium sized with wing expanse f mm. The female mth is glssy brwnish vilet while the male is bluish vilet in clur. The female lays eggs singly n the calyx f flwers and n small fruits. The egg perid is 7-10 days. The yung larvae bre int the develping fruits. The larval perid is cmpleted in days. It pupates inside the fruits. The pupal perid last fr 7-34 days. It cmpletes fur generatins per year. Management Grw less susceptible varieties. Remve calyx frm the fruits t prevent the hatching f eggs and subsequent damage. Cllect and destry the infested fruits. Cver the fruits with plythene r muslin bags during flwering perid t prevent egg laying when fruits are up t 5 cm diametre Spray NSKE 5% r neem il 2% as vipsitin deterrent, 2 t 3 times at 15 days interval cmmencing frm flwering and during butterfly activity. Adpt ETL (5 eggs / plant with bearing capacity f 60 fruits). Release egg parasitid, Trichgramma chilnis at 1 lakh / acre. Spray thichlpril 2 ml/ litre f water. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

308 Ensure minimum waiting perid f 10 days between the day f insecticide applicatin and harvesting f fruits in the field. 1. Eye sptted bud mth - Eucsma (= Spilnta) cellana Schiff. (Eucsmidae: Lepidptera) The larva bres int shts, flwers, and fruit buds and feeds n them. Binmics The adult mth emerges during May and June. It lays eggs n the flral parts. The incubatin perid is 8-11 days. The caterpillar bres in t the flral parts, feeds till September and verwinters frm Octber - March. It pupates in April fr 9-13 days. 2. Cdling mth - Carpcapsa ptnnella Linn. (Trtricidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n the leaves first, then it brer in t fruits, feeds n the pulp f fruits. The female lays white clured, flattened eggs singly n develping fruits, leaves and the twigs. The egg perid is 4-12 days. The larva is pinkish t creamy white in clur with a brwn head. The larval perid last fr days. The grwn up larvae cmes ut f the fruit and falls n the grund and then it reach the bark f the tree fr shelter in Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

309 cracks and crevices t cnstruct a silken ccn fr pupatin. The pupal perid is 8-14 days. Management Cllectin and destructin f ccns and fallen fruits. Mass trap males with cdling mth lure traps. Spray DDVP 0.04%. Release egg parasitids, Trichgramma embryphagum at 2000/tree. 3. Wild silk wrm mth - Actias selene Hb. (Saturnidae: Lepidptera) It causes defliatin. 4. Sphinx mth - Langia zeuzerrides Mre. ( Sphingidae : Lepidptera ) It causes defliatin. 5. Hairy caterpillar - Euprctis fraterna Mre. (Lymantriidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n the leaf vraciusly causing severe defliatin. 6. Grey weevil - Myllcerus spp (Curculinidae: Cleptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

310 Adult weevil cause ntching f leaf margins. Grub feeds n rts resulting wilting f plants. Binmics M.Subfasciatus Brwnish weevil; M.disclr Brwn with white spt n elytra; M.viridanus Small light green weevil. Management Cllect & destruct the adult weevils Apply carbfuran 3 G at 15 kg/hectare at 15 days after planting. 1. San Jse scale - Quadraspiditus pernicisus Cmst (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults infest the bark and desap the same. The infested regin f the bark becmes reddish pink and purple cluratin in fruits. Binmics The female scale is rund slightly cnvex with a black pustule and the male is linear. The hibernating nymphs becme active in March and the males emerge in April. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

311 The females reprduce in mid May prducing nymphs within a mnth. The nymphal perid is 20 days. The ttal life cycle is cmpleted in days. Management Spray diazinn 20 EC 1250 ml r methyl demetn 5 EC 625 ml /hectare. Select nursery stck free frm scale infestatin. Encurage activity f parasitids, Prspaltella pernicisi and Aspiditphagus sp. and / r cccinellid Chilcrus circumdatus predatr. Fumigate nursery stcks with HCN gas r methyl brmide. Summer spray with cntact r systemic insecticides like phsalne 0.05%, fenitrthin 0.05% and methyl demetn 0.025%. Winter spray with diesel il emulsin at 8 t 12 1/tree (diesel il 4.5 1, sap 1 kg, water ). 2. Aphid - Dilachnus krishnii Gerge and Aphis gssypii Glver. (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults feed n leaves and tender shts causing yellwing symptm. 3. Psyllid bug - Cacpsylla mali (Psyllidae: Hemiptera) It causes yellwing f shts Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

312 PEACH 1. Peach leaf curl aphid - Brachycaudus helichrysi Kalt (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults desap the leaves, petiles, blssm and fruits. The infested leaf turn pale and curl up, blssm wither and fruits d nt develp and drps prematurely. Binmics It appears in cler regins after the middle f March and frm June t Octber it feeds n glden rd a alternative hst. The egg stage ver winters frm Octber-December. During spring the egg hatch and nymphs mves ut n t the primrdial leaves and suck the sap. The eggs are prduced parthengenetically which hatch inside the bdy f mther. Each viviparus female prduces abut 50 nymphs in 13 days f life span. After cmpleting 3-4 asexual generatins, the aphid migrates t its alternative hst t pass summer. They again reprduce asexually and cmplete 4-5 generatin frm June- Octber. The winged females are again prduced in Nvember. 2. Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulz. (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

313 Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm the leaves curling and crinkling and sty muld develpment f leaves are the typical symptms f damage. Binmics Adults are bth wingless and winged frms. Nymphs are in different clur frms mstly yellw, green and red. Yellw frms are mre dminant. 3. Sft scale - Eulecanium tiliae L. (Cccidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adult scale insects infest leaves and twigs. Binmics It is a sft, hemispherical dark brwn scale. It lays the eggs during March-April and they hatch in days. The crawlers settle n leaves and nymphs migrate t twigs during July- December. The adult female emerge in February and males in March r April. 4. San jse Scale - Quadraspiditus pernicius Cmst. (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

314 Bth nymphs and adults infest the bark and desap the same. The infested regin f the bark becmes reddish pink and purple cluratin in fruits. Binmics The female scale is rund slightly cnvex with a black pustule and the male is linear. The hibernating nymphs becme active in March and the males emerge in April. The females reprduce in mid May prducing nymphs within a mnth. The nymphal perid is 20 days. The ttal life cycle is cmpleted in days. Management Spray diazinn 20 EC 1250 ml r methyl demetn 5 EC 625 ml /hectare. Select nursery stck free frm scale infestatin. Encurage activity f parasitids, Prspaltella pernicisi and Aspiditphagus sp. and / r cccinellid Chilcrus circumdatus predatr. Fumigate nursery stcks with HCN gas r methyl brmide. Summer spray with cntact r systemic insecticides like phsalne 0.05%, fenitrthin 0.05% and methyl demetn 0.025%. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

315 Winter spray with diesel il emulsin at 8 t 12 1/tree (diesel il 4.5 1, sap 1 kg, water ). 1. Cdling mth - Carpcapsa pmnella Linn. (Trtricidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n the leaves first, then it brer in t fruits, feeds n the pulp f fruits. The female lays white clured, flattened eggs singly n develping fruits, leaves and the twigs. The egg perid is 4-12 days. The larva is pinkish t creamy white in clur with a brwn head. The larval perid last fr days. The grwn up larvae cmes ut f the fruit and falls n the grund and then it reach the bark f the tree fr shelter in cracks and crevices t cnstruct a silken ccn fr pupatin. The pupal perid is 8-14 days. Management Cllectin and destructin f ccns and fallen fruits. Mass trap males with cdling mth lure traps. Spray DDVP 0.04%. Release egg parasitids, Trichgramma embryphagum at 2000/tree. 2. Peach butterfly - Kallima inachus Bisd. ( Nymphalidae : Lepidptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

316 The adult butterfly, which mimics the dry leaf in suspended, which desap the peach fruits. 3. Hairy caterpillar - Dasychira mendsa Hb. (Lymantriidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n leaves and cause defliatin. 1. Peach Stem brer - Sphenptera lafertei Thmsn.(Buprestidae: Cleptera) The grubs feed belw the bark making minute irregular galleries causing lsening and splitting f barks. The beetle feeds n leaves, which turn pale and dry up. Binmics The adult beetle is blackish brnze in clur measuring mm lng. The female lays small, spherical white eggs singly n the tree trunk and the main branches. The egg perid is 20 days. The grub stage is cmpleted in 2 mnths in summer and 6 mnths in winter. It pupates in a small chamber in wdy tissues. The pupal perid lasts fr 8-12 days in summer. Management Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

317 Cllect and destry damaged shts and branches. Swab trunk with carbaryl 50 WP at 0.2%. Spray malathin 0.1% r acephate 75 SP 2 g/litre 2. Peach fruit fly - Bactrcera (= Dacus) znatus Saund (Tephritidae: Diptera) The maggt feeds n the pulp f fruits causing rtting and drpping f fruits. Binmics The adult fly is small, reddish brwn in the yellw crss bands n the abdmen. The female lays white cylindrical eggs n the skin f a fruit in masses f 2-9. The fecundity is abut 137 eggs per female. The egg perid is 2-4 days. The maggt is dirty white, apdus and elngated measuring 1 cm in length. The larval perid is 4-16 days. The maggt cme ut frm the rtting fruit and pupates in the sil at a depth f mm. The pupal perid last fr 7 days. The life cycle is cmpleted in days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

318 PLUM 1. San Jse scale Quadraspiditus pernicisus Cmst. (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults infest the bark and desap the same. The infested regin f the bark becmes reddish pink and purple cluratin in fruits. Binmics The female scale is rund slightly cnvex with a black pustule and the male is linear. The hibernating nymphs becme active in March and the males emerge in April. The females reprduce in mid May prducing nymphs within a mnth. The nymphal perid is 20 days. The ttal life cycle is cmpleted in days. Management Spray diazinn 20 EC 1250 ml r methyl demetn 5 EC 625 ml /hectare. Select nursery stck free frm scale infestatin. Encurage activity f parasitids, Prspaltella pernicisi and Aspiditphagus sp. and / r cccinellid Chilcrus circumdatus predatr. Fumigate nursery stcks with HCN gas r methyl brmide. Summer spray with cntact r systemic insecticides like phsalne 0.05%, fenitrthin 0.05% and methyl demetn 0.025%. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

319 Winter spray with diesel il emulsin at 8 t 12 1/tree (diesel il 4.5 1, sap 1 kg, water ). 2. Peach leaf curl aphid - Brachycaudus helichrysi Kalt. (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults desap the leaves, petiles, blssm and fruits. The infested leaf turn pale and curl up, blssm wither and fruits d nt develp and drps prematurely. Binmics It appears in cler regins after the middle f March and frm June t Octber it feeds n glden rd a alternative hst. The egg stage ver winters frm Octber-December. During spring the egg hatch and nymphs mves ut n t the primrdial leaves and suck the sap. The eggs are prduced parthengenetically which hatch inside the bdy f mther. Each viviparus female prduces abut 50 nymphs in 13 days f life span. After cmpleting 3-4 asexual generatins, the aphid migrates t its alternative hst t pass summer. They again reprduce asexually and cmplete 4-5 generatin frm June-Octber. The winged females are again prduced in Nvember. 1. Cherry stem brer - Aelesthes hlsericca F. (Cerambycidae: Cleptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

320 The newly hatched ut grub tunnels the bark and makes zig - zag galleries. The grwn up grub bres in t the stem deeply and damages the wdy tissues. The infested plant withers and gradually dies. The bre hle is plugged with excreta. Binmics The adult beetle is dark brwn measuring mm in length. It lays eggs n the dry wd prtin r increases f ut n the bark. The egg perid is 7-12 days. The grubs is yellwish in clur and are cvered with fine bristles, measuring mm lng the larval perid is cmpleted in mnths. It pupates either in Octber-Nvember r in March -April. The pupal perid ranges frm days. The ttal life cycle is cmpleted in 31% - 36 mnths. 2. Peach stembrer - Spherptera lafertei Thmsn. (Buprestidae - Cleptera) The grubs feed belw the bark making minute irregular galleries causing lsening and splitting f barks. The beetle feeds n leaves, which turn pale and dry up. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

321 The adult beetle is blackish brnze in clur measuring mm lng. The female lays small, spherical white eggs singly n the tree trunk and the main branches. The egg perid is 20 days. The grub stage is cmpleted in 2 mnths in summer and 6 mnths in winter. It pupates in a small chamber in wdy tissues. The pupal perid lasts fr 8-12 days in summer. Management Cllect and destry damaged shts and branches. Swab trunk with carbaryl 50 WP at 0.2%. Spray malathin 0.1% r acephate 75 SP 2 g/litre 1. Almnd weevil Myllcerus lactivirens Marshl. (Curculinidae: Cleptera) The adult weevil cut the irregular hles and gradually eat away the entire leaf lamina frm the ventral all surface f leaves resulting severe defliatin. Binmics The adult weevil is small pale metallic green in clur measuring 3-4 mm lng. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

322 It lays eggs in sil in batches f each. The eggs are bradly val, creamy yellw, smth, transparent and shiny. The egg perid is 4-5 days. The grub is creamy white, stut, withut legs but shrt erect setae which help in lcmtin. The full grwn grubs cme up t the sil surface t pupate in the upper 25 mm f the sil. The larval and pupal perids last fr 300 days and 5 days respectively. The pupal stage ver winters in cler mnths. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

323 Lecture N. 22 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Ccnut, Oilpalm and Arecanut COCONUT 1. Rhincers beetle - Oryctes rhincers Linn. (Scarabaeidae: Cleptera) The adult beetles cause severe damage t yung as well as ld trees. The beetles live in crevices between the leaf sheaths near the crwn and burrw in t the sfter prtin feeding n the un pened frnds and inflrescence. The beetles chews the internal tissues and after injecting the juicy part thrws ut the fibrus part which cmes ut f hles is the indicatin fr the presence f beetle in the crwn. The infested fully pened frnds shwing the characteristic 'v' shaped cuts n leaf lets. The yung seedlings are ften killed when the grwing pints are damaged. The repeated attack in ld trees causes stunting f grwth and present sickly appearance t the trees. Bre hles with chewed fibre sticking ut at the base f central spindle is the typical symptm f attack. Binmics The adult beetle is black, stut measures 5 cm lng and has a lng hrn prjecting drsally frm the head. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

324 The hrn is lnger in male and shrter in female beetle. The female lays glbular eggs singly in decaying rganic matter such as manure pits, dead tree trunks cmpst heaps. T he fecundity f the insect is eggs per female. The egg perid is 8-18 days. The newly hatched grub feeds n decaying rganic matter. The grwn up grub is stut, white, 'C shaped, sluggish and has a pale brwn head. The larval perid is days. It pupates in earthern cells at a depth f cm r mre. The pupal stage last fr days. The adults make their way ut and fly t the trees. The adult beetles lives fr mre than 200 days. Management Remve and burn all dead ccnut trees in the garden t maintain gd sanitatin. Cllect and destry the varius bi-stages f beetles frm the manure pit whenever the manure is lifted frm pits. Incrprate entmpathgenic fungus, Metarrhizium anispliae in manure pits. Keep the mud pts having saked castr cake 1 kg in 5 litres f water t attack and kill the adults. Keep the tddy treated lngitudinally split tender ccnut stem and green petiles f frnds in the garden t attack and trap the adult beetles. Hk ut the beetles using a lng irn rd and kill them at the time f harvest. Apply three naphthalene balls /palm (weighing 35 g each) at base f interspace in leaf sheath in the 3 inner mst leaves f the crwn nce in 45 days fr the seedlings. Set up light traps fllwing the first rain in summer and mnsn perid t attract and kill the adult beetles. Set up aggregatin phermne (ethyl 4-methyl ctnate) trap (bucket type trap). Release Baculvirus inculated beetles in the garden t reduce the leaf and crwn damage. Apply the mixture f neem seed kernel pwder + sand 150 kg per palm in the base f the 3 inner mst leaves in the crwn effectively cntrl the beetle. 2. Red palm weevil - Rhynchphrus ferrugineus Oliver. (Curculinidae: Cleptera ) The grub enters in t the stem and feeds n the internal tissue f the trunk causing a small hle n the stem with prtruding chewed fibrus materials and zing ut f a brwn liquid frm such hles and eventually resulting Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

325 in the tppling f the crwn prtin. In the advanced stage f attack, the central sht shws sign f wilting and large mass f grubs, pupae and adults in fibrus ccn culd be seen inside the trunk at the damaged prtin. In the grwn up trees, the beetle causes damage by laying the eggs n the crwn regin. In such cases the grub easily enter int the grwing pint r cabbage f crwn and causing yellwing f inner leaves and gradual drying f central sht in the crwn. Binmics The weevil is reddish brwn with 6 dark spts n the thrax a cnspicuus snut with tuft f hairs. The female weevil lays eggs in small hles scped ut by her n the sft regins f yung palms up t 7 years f age. In the grwn up trees the eggs are laid in the cuts r wunds present n the trunk r leaf stalk. The plant sap zing ut f wunds and cut attract the weevil fr vipsitn. The eggs are creamy white in clur. The eggs hatch ut in 2-3 days time int sft white grub. The grub is apdus which tunnel int the trunk and feeds n the internal succulent tissues. The larval perid ranges between 45 and 75 days. The fullgrwn grub is stut, fleshy, and apdus with a cnical bdy bulged in middle and tapering twards the ends. It pupates in a fibrus ccn made ut f fibrus strands. The pupal perid last fr 2-3 weeks. The ttal life cycle is cmpleted in abut 4 mnths. The adult weevils are reddish brwn with lng curved, pinted snut. The male weevil can be distinguished frm the female by the presence f tuft f hairs alng the drsal aspect f snut. Management Remve and burn all wilting r damaged palms in the garden. Avid injuries r wund n stems as they serve as vipsitin site fr weevil. Fill all the hles with cement n the stem r trunk f ccnut. Avid the cutting f green leaves. If needed they shuld be cut abut 120 cm away frm the stem. Set up attractant traps (mud pts) cntaining sugarcane mlasses 2.5 kg + tddy 2.5 litres + acetic acid 5 ml + yeast 5 g + lngitudinally split tender ccnut stem/lgs f green petiles f leaves f 30 numbers in ne acre t trap weevil. Set up male aggregatin phermne, ferruginl (4 methyl 5 nnanl) trap - ferrlure t attract the weevil. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

326 Fllw the rt feeding f mncrtphs 36 WSC 10 ml + 10 ml f water per tree. Insert ne r tw tablets f aluminum phsphide inside the tunneled trunk and plug all the hles with clay and cement mixed with cpper xy chlride t kill the insect by the fumigant actin. 3. Sht hle r bark brer - Xylebrus parvulus E and X. perfrans (Sclytidae : Cleptera) Bth grubs and adults attack the base f the palm and extend t the upper regins. Depsits f white pwdery materials n the grund, arund the base f the palm and numerus small strings f frass and white pwdery material hang dwnwards frm the pin size hles are the symptms f attack. d palms lse their vigur and are prne t attack by ants. The infested palms die in six mnths. Management Fllw the rt feeding f mncrtphs 10 ml + water 10 ml per palm. Clean the frass and ther materials n the trunk base and brush with carbaryl 50% WP emulsin (10 gm. in 1 litre f water) n the trunk base frm the grund level up t the infested regin. Give stem injectin thrugh a stve wick saked in 0.2% fenthin r 2% dichlrvs plugging the hle and repeating the treatment using the same wick and hle a mnth after. 1. Black headed caterpillar - Opisina arensella Walker. (Cryptphagidae: Lepidptera) The larva infests the under surface f leaves and it cnstruct small galleries with silk frass and excreta and remain inside thrughut. It feeds n the Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

327 green parenchymatus tissues f leaflets frm under surface leaving a thin parchment like upper epidermis undamaged. The infested leaflets slwly turn grey t brwn and dry up in patches alng the area where the each larva has been feeding. When a large number f leaves are affected the crwn presents a scrched appearance frm a distance. The damage by the caterpillar is severe during summer mnth Binmics The adult mth is small and greyish white. It lays eggs near the tip f the leaflets f the lder leaves. The eggs are very small and hatch ut in five days. The fecundity f the insect is eggs /female. The newly hatched ut larva cnstruct silken tunnel r galleries. On the under surface f leaves where they live and feed. The larva is light green with a dark brwn head measures 15 mm in length. The larval perid is abut 45 days. It pupates inside the galleries fr 12 days. The ttal life cycle is cmpleted in abut tw mnths. Management Remve and burn all the affected leaves and leaf lets. Release larval parasitids (Bethylids, Bracnids and Ichneumnids) and pupal parasitids (Eulpid) and predatrs peridically frm January t check the build up f pest during summer. Release bethylid, Gbnizus 3,000 per ha under the ccnut trees when the pest is in the 2nd r 3rd instar larval stage. The ptimum level f release is 1:8 hst parasite rati. D nt release the parasite in the crwn regin since they will be killed by spiders and reduvid bugs. Spray malathin 50EC 0.05% t cver the under surface f leaves thrughly in case f severe epidemic ut break f the pest in yung plants. Harvest all mature nuts, and drill a dwnward slanting hle and inject 5.0 ml f mncrtphs 36 WSC int the stem at abut 1.5 M abve the grund level and plug with clay mixed cpper xy chlride. Inject mncrtphs based n age less than 10 years 5ml and abve 10 years 10ml with equal quantity f water (5 ml) mixed in 20 ml f water int the stem. Plucking tender ccnuts r harvesting the nuts shuld be strictly avided fr 45 days after treatment. Adpt the rt feeding f mncrtphs fr the cntrl f black headed caterpillar. Select a fresh and live rt, cut sharply at an angle and insert the rt in the insecticidal slutin cntaining mncrtphs 36 WSC 10 ml + water 10 ml in a 7x10 cm plythene bag. Secure the bag tightly t the rt with a cttn thread. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

328 Twenty-fur hurs later check whether there is any absrptin. If there is n absrptin selects anther rt and redes the prcedure. Fllw the precautin fr the insecticidal treatment. 2. Ccnut skipper - Gangara thyrsis Mre. (Hesperidia: Lepideptera) The caterpillar cnstructed tubes ut f the leaves and feed frm within n the leaf blade leaving behind nly the ribs. Binmics The adult butterfly is brwnish, 80 mm in wing expanse with brwnish wings bearing 6 yellw spts n fre wings. It lays eggs in irregular masses. The incubatin perid is 7 days. The caterpillar is pale green with reddish markings but the bdy is cncealed in a cvering f white waxy filaments. The larval perid is 35 days. It pupates in the leaf tube fr a perid f abut 10 days. 3. Slug caterpillar - Parasa lepida Cram. (Cehlididae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n the leaves gregariusly in the beginning, subsequently they disperse. It causes severe defliatin. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

329 Binmics The adult mth is stut with wing expanse f 4.0 cm and having green wings fringed with brwn patches. The eggs are laid in batches f n the under surface f leaves. The eggs are vals flat scale- like in shape. The fecundity is n an average 167 eggs / female. The egg perid is 7 days. The caterpillar is fleshy, slug-like with yellwish green bdy bearing a greenish blue stripe drsally and yellwish green stripes laterally. The larval perid is 5-6 weeks underges seven instars. It pupates in a hard shield - like greyish ccn n the tree trunks fr 4-5 weeks. 4. Slug caterpillar - Cnthyla rtunda H. (Cchlididae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n leaves causing severe defliatin. Besides it als feeds and damages spathes, flwering shts and rind f yung fruits. Binmics The mth is greyish brwn t dark grey in clur. It lays the eggs n the under surface f leaves. Fecundity is abut 215 eggs / female. The egg perid last fr 3-6 days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

330 The slug like caterpillar is spiny with tw grey stripes drsally. The larval perid is days. It pupates in shell like ccn f brwn silk fr days 5. Bagwrm - Manatha albipes Mre. ( Psychidae : Lepidptera ) The larva feeds n leaves causing small irregular hles n the leaves. 6. Leaf caterpillar - Turnaca acuta W. (Ntdntidae : Lepideptera) The larva feeds n the leaflets leaving the stick alne. 1. Lace wing bug - Stephanitis typicus Dist. (Tingidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm the under surface leaves causing white spts n the upper surface f leaves. Binmics The adult is white clured with netted venatin n the wings. The female lays n an average f 30 eggs, which hatch in 12 days. The nymphal perid is 13 days. The nymphs are gregarius in nature. 2. Scale insect - Aspiditus destructr Sign. (Biaspididae: Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

331 Hemiptera) The nymphs and adult desap the leaflets resulting yellwing, withering and drying up f leaflets. Binmics It is circular hard scale ccurs as persistent pest f ccnut. A female lays up t 90 eggs under its shield like scale. The crawlers mve ut and distribute themselves t healthy leaflets. The life cycle is 32 days fr male and 35 days fr female. 3. Mealy bug - Pseudcccus lngispinus Targ. (Pseudcccidae: Hemiptera) It infests the tender unpened frnds, which fail t grw resulting stunted, defrmed and suppressed. It als infests the inflrescence and nuts causing buttn shedding. The mealy bug clnies remain inside the perianth and suck the sap leading t the drying f nuts. When the nuts are cmpletely dried the bugs are distributed by ants t the newly frmed inflrescence. In bearing trees the damage is caused bth t the spindle leaf and t the buttns. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

332 It is a tiny insect cvered with white mealy cating. The mealy bug is attended by several species f ants, which feeds n the hney dew secretins f the bugs. Management Spread pen tw r three leaf axils surrunding the spindle leaf. Clean the crwn f all the dried bunches t prevent the spread f the-bugs t the newly frmed bunches. Spray quinalphs r dimethate r Dimethate at 0.03 % cvering the spindle leaf, leaf axis and yung bunches. 1. Termites - Odnttermes besus Ramb. (Termitidae: Isptera) The termite damages the seedlings in the nursery and als transplanted seedlings. The infested seedlings wilt and die. The base f the trunk is plastered with runways made f sil and fibers. Binmics Green clured tiny insects resembling ants with dark clured head. Management Apply sil insecticides n transplantatin f the seedlings. Lcate the termite munt in the ccnut gardens and destry it. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

333 Lcate and kill the queen termite t prvide gd slutin. Give adequate irrigatin t the seedlings t minimize the prblem. Sil drench with 0.1 % carbaryl in the standing crp. 2. White grub - Leucphllis cnephra Burm. (Meslnthidae: Cleptera ) The grub feeds n rts causing yellwing f leaves, shedding f immature nuts and delayed flwering. Binmics The adult is cheshut clured beetle. It lays eggs in sil a depths f cm and they hatch in 20 days. The yunger stage f grub feeds n grass rts and rganic matter, the later stages feeding n ccnut rts. The grub is white, fleshy, stut and 'C shaped. It pupates in the sil fr abut 25 days. The insect has an annual life cycle. Management Cllect and destry the adults beetles attracted t trees like neem, Ailanthus and Acacia near ccnut field n receipt f mnsn shwers. Plant neem twigs with leaves in ccnut gardens after first rain t attract and kill adults. Set up light trap r bnfire t attract the adults. Apply malathin 5% D 25 kg r endsulfan 4D 25 kg / hectare t the sil at the time f swing. 3. Red ant - Oecphylla smaragdina F. (Frmicidae: Hymenptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

334 The wrker ants stitch tgether the terminal leaves with silk threads in the frm f nests which remain green. They mve abut in lng train all ver the trunks and they are attracted t mealy bugs. They als cause annyance t the climbers. 1. Mite - Raiella indica Hirst. (Tenuipalpidae: Acarina) It sucks the sap frm the leaves causing yellwing f the same. 2. Rats - Rattus rattus wrughtni (Muridae: Rdentia) They rest n leaves n the crwn f trees, cut hles in tender nuts, drink the sweet liquid and eat away the pulp, resulting the drpping f nuts. 3. Flying fx - Pterpus edwardsii (Chirpterae: Mammalia) They feed n tender nuts during night times and affected nuts drp ff Management f Vertebrates Cver the trunk with tin. Use pisn baits and trap fr rats. Prvide bird nests t encurage predatin. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

335 Remve dry leaves, spathes and matrix regularly frm the crwn t expse t the nesting places f rat t predatrs. Place 10 gram f brmdialne % cake n the crwn f ne palm ut f every five palms twice n an interval f 12 days. 4. Eriphyid mite - Aceria gurrernis Keifer. (Eriphyidae: Acarina) The mite infests and develps n the meristematic tissues f the grwing nuts under the perianth by desapping the sft tissues f the buttns. In the damaged buttns / nuts, an initial symptm will be exhibited in the frm f triangular pale white r yellw patches clse t each perianth. Different stages f mite live in white, tender prtin cvered by the inner tracts f the perianth and suck the sap cntinuusly when the feeding activity is enhanced due t the increased ppulatin build up it results in physical damage t newly frmed tissues which becme necrtic. Intensive damage leads t the frmatin f brwn clured patches later n. In additin as the nut grws in size, lngitudinal fissures and splits ccur n the uter surface f the husk. Occasinally brwnish gummy exudates are seen zing ut frm the affected surface. Severe infestatin results in pr grwth reduced size and cpra cntent and malfrmed nuts with cracks and hardened husk. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

336 Binmics It is fund under the tracts f fertilized female flwers. It is very minute in size measuring micrn in length and micrn in width with tw pairs f legs. It is pale in clur with elngate bdy and wrm like in appearance. The life cycle f this mite cnsist f egg, tw larval instars and ne adult stage is cmpleted in days. Management Apply urea 1.3 kg, super phsphate 2.0 and muriate f ptash 3.5 kg/palm/year (Increased quantity f ptash is recmmended t increase the plan! resistant t the mite). Apply neem 5 kg and rganic 50 kg / palm / year. Apply brax 50 g + gypsum 1.0 kg + manganese sulphate 0.5 kg / palm. Distributin, hsts and natural enemies f pests f Ccnut and Cashew Cmmn name Rhincers beetle Scientific name Distributin Hsts Orytes rhincers Linn. India, Pakistan, Suth East Asia, Hainam, Taiwan, Philippines, Suthern China, Australia Indnesia, fiji and Ccnut, talipt palm, date palm, African il palm, palmyrah, sugarcane, pine apple, Natural enemies Parasitids Sarcphaga fuscicauda Blt Pherpsphus hilaris var sbrinus Daj. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

337 Red palm weevil Rhynchphrus ferrugineus F. Black-headed caterpillar Sma. India, Srilanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh Malaysia, Philippines, New Guinea, China and Taiwan. Opisina arensella Walker India (Suth India) Orissa & Bengal) Burma, Srilanka banana and papaya Ccnut, il palm, date palm, sag and ther species f palmae. Ccnut, pal my rah, talipt palm, fish tail palm and Phenix sylvestris Predatrs Agryphus sp Ctivina memnnia Dej. Omphra atrata Klug Oxyibus spp. Pathgens Metarrhizium anispliae Metzch Beauveria hassiana Bals. Egg larval parasitid Chelisches mris F, predatry mite Pyemtes ventricsus Newp. Larval parasitids Apanteles taragamaewm Bracn hrevicrnis Wesm. Perisierla nephantidis Meus Elasmus nephantidis Gahan Pupal parasitid Trichspilus pupivra Ferr. Stmatcera sulcatisscvtelluer Gir. Brachymeria nephantidis Gah Xanthpimpla punctata F Pathgens Fungus Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

338 Cashew Cashew tree brer Plcderus ferrugineus Linn. Suth India Sht & blssm Macalla mncusalis Wlk. India Leaf miner Acrcercps syngramma India M. Re&banded Selenthrips rubrcinctits India, Philippines thpps G. Cashewnut Cashewnut Cashewnut Cashewnut Aspergillus flavus Bacteria Serratia marcescens Bizi OILPALM 1. Spindle bug - Carvalhia areacae Mill & China. ( Miridae : Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults feed n the spindle and unflding leaves causing spindle necrsis. Binmics Eggs are laid within tender spindle. Egg and nymphal perids last fr 9 t 10 and 15 t 20 days respectively. Nymphs are deep greenish t vilet brwn in clur with thrax and brder f abdmen light vilet brwn and head is light yellw with red eyes. Adult bug is hairy dark vilet brwn with black tipped abdmen. Management Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

339 Place ne r tw phrate sachets (0.2g a.i) in the axils f the new leaves when infestatin is very high. Spray the spindles with lindane 20 EC 2 ml / 1 r carbaryl 50% wp 2.5 g/l. 2. Scale - Pinnapsis aspidistrae S. (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults infest the unripe fruits. 3. Mealy bug - Palmiculatr sp (Pseudcccidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults desap the spear and unflding leaves. 1. Hairy caterpillar - Dasychira mendsa Hb. (Lymantriidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n the leaf vraciusly and cause defliatin. 2. Leaf eating caterpillar - Spdptera litura Fab. (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) 1. Hairy caterpillar - Dasychira mendsa Hb. (Lymantriidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n the leaf vraciusly and cause defliatin. 2. Leaf eating caterpillar - Spdptera litura Fab. (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

340 The caterpillar causes defliatin. 3. Bagwrm -Manatha albipes Mre., Metisa plana Wlk. and ( Psychidae : Lepidptera ) The bag wrm feeds n the leaf cause defliatin in nursery. The damage is nticed in uter whrl f frnds and ccasinally in the middle whrl f frnds. 4. Smug caterpillar - Darna jasea and Thsea andamanica (Limacdidae: Lepidptera) The slug caterpillar feeds n the leaf vraciusly and causes defliatin in the nursery. 1. Rhincers beetle - Oryctes rhincers Linn. (Scarabaeidae: Cleptera) The adult beetles cause severe damage t yung as well as ld trees. The beetles live in crevices between the leaf sheaths near the crwn and burrw in t the sfter prtin feeding n the un pened frnds and inflrescence. The beetles chews the internal tissues and after injecting the juicy part thrws ut the fibrus part which cmes ut f hles is the indicatin fr the presence f beetle in the crwn. The infested fully Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

341 pened frnds shwing the characteristic 'v' shaped cuts n leaf lets. The yung seedlings are ften killed when the grwing pints are damaged. The repeated attack in ld trees causes stunting f grwth and present sickly appearance t the trees. Bre hles with chewed fibre sticking ut at the base f central spindle is the typical symptm f attack. Binmics The adult beetle is black, stut measures 5 cm lng and has a lng hrn prjecting drsally frm the head. The hrn is lnger in male and shrter in female beetle. The female lays glbular eggs singly in decaying rganic matter such as manure pits, dead tree trunks cmpst heaps. The fecundity f the insect is eggs per female. The egg perid is 8-18 days. The newly hatched grub feeds n decaying rganic matter. The grwn up grub is stut, white, 'C shaped, sluggish and has a pale brwn head. The larval perid is days. It pupates in earthern cells at a depth f cm r mre. The pupal stage last fr days. The adults make their way ut and fly t the trees. The adult beetles lives fr mre than 200 days. 2. Red palm weevil - Rhyhchphrus ferrugineus Oliver. (Curculinideae: Cleptera) The grub enters in t the stem and feeds n the internal tissue f the trunk causing a small hle n the stem with prtruding chewed fibrus materials Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

342 and zing ut f a brwn liquid frm such hles and eventually resulting in the tppling f the crwn prtin. In the advanced stage f attack, the central sht shws sign f wilting and large mass f grubs, pupae and adults in fibrus ccn culd be seen inside the trunk at the damaged prtin. In the grwn up trees, the beetle causes damage by laying the eggs n the crwn regin. In such cases the grub easily enter int the grwing pint r cabbage f crwn and causing yellwing f inner leaves and gradual drying f central sht in the crwn. Binmics The weevil is reddish brwn with 6 dark spts n the thrax a cnspicuus snut with tuft f hairs. The female weevil lays eggs in small hles scped ut by her n the sft regins f yung palms up t 7 years f age. In the grwn up trees the eggs are laid in the cuts r wunds present n the trunk r leaf stalk. The plant sap zing ut f wunds and cut attract the weevil fr vipsitn. The eggs are creamy white in clur. The eggs hatch ut in 2-3 days time int sft white grub. The grub is apdus which tunnel int the trunk and feeds n the internal succulent tissues. The larval perid ranges between 45 and 75 days. The full-grwn grub is stut, fleshy, and apdus with a cnical bdy bulged in middle and tapering twards the ends. It pupates in a fibrus ccn made ut f fibrus strands. The pupal perid last fr 2-3 weeks. The ttal life cycle is cmpleted in abut 4 mnths. The adult weevils are reddish brwn with lng curved, Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

343 pinted snut. The male weevil can be distinguished frm the female by the presence f tuft f hairs alng the drsal aspect f snut. Management Remve and burn all wilting r damaged palms in the garden. Avid injuries r wund n stems as they serve as vipsitin site fr weevil. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

344 Fill all the hles with cement n the stem r trunk f ccnut. Avid the cutting f green leaves. If needed they shuld be cut abut 120 cm away frm the stem. Set up attractant traps (mud pts) cntaining sugarcane mlasses 2.5 kg + tddy 2.5 litres + acetic acid 5 ml + yeast 5 g + lngitudinally split tender ccnut stem/lgs f green petiles f leaves f 30 numbers in ne acre t trap weevil. Set up male aggregatin phermne, ferruginl (4 methyl 5 nnanl) trap -ferrlure t attract the weevil. Fllw the rt feeding f mncrtphs 36 WSC 10 ml + 10 ml f water per tree. Insert ne r tw tablets f aluminum phsphide inside the tunneled trunk and plug all the hles with clay and cement mixed with cpper xy chlride t kill the insect by the fumigant actin. 1. Termite - Odnttermes besus Ramb. (Termitidae: Isptera) The termite damages the seedlings in the nursery and als transplanted seedlings. The infested seedlings wilt and die. The base f the trunk is plastered with runways made f sil and fibers. It feeds n rts, inflrescence and fruit bunches. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

345 Green clured tiny insects resembling ants with dark clured head. Management Apply sil insecticides n transplantatin f the seedlings. Lcate the termite munt in the ccnut gardens and destry it. Lcate and kill the queen termite t prvide gd slutin. Give adequate irrigatin t the seedlings t minimize the prblem. Sil drench with 0.1 % carbaryl in the standing crp. 2. White grub - Apgnia sp and Adretus sp (Mellnthidae: Cleptera) The grub feeds n the rts f seedlings causing death f the plants. Management f il palm pests Cultural Methds Remve dead palm trunks and empty bunch heaps frm the field and maintain gd field sanitatin. Hand picks the adults f rhincers beetle using irn hk. Cllect and destry all the varius bi stages f the rhincers beetle frm the manure pits. Set up light trap fllwing the first rains in summer and mnsn perid t attract the rhincers beetle and red palm weevil. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

346 Sak castr cake at 1 kg in 5 litres f water in small mud pts and keep them in the il palm garden t attract and kill the adults f rhincers beetle. Keep the mud pts cntaining tddy, acetic acid, il palm petiles and yeast t attract and kill the adult red palm weevil. D nt cut the green leaves f il palm and cut them at 120 cm away frm the base if it is needed. Avid cuts and injuries n il palm. Bilgical Methds Release extic predatr reduvid bug, Platymeris laevicllis at 6 bugs per palm at regular intervals t reduce the ppulatin f rhincers beetle. Apply entmpathgenic fungus Metarrhiziwn 5 x 10 spres 3 / m at the breeding site f the rhincerus beetle. Release Oryctes baculvirus inculated beetles in the il palm plantatin t minimize the pest incidence. Chemical Methds Place 3-4 naphthalene balls in the yungest spear axils at weekly intervals t deter the rhincers beetle. Fill the crwn and tp mst three-leaf axils with a mixture f carbaryl 10 D and fine sand (1:2 by vlume) nce in 3 mnths. Drench the manure pit with carbaryl 0.1 % slutin nce in three mnths. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

347 Fllw rt feeding f mncrtphs at 10ml + 10 ml water fr 3 times at 3 weeks interval f time t cntrl red palm weevil. Place 1-2 phrate sachets (0.2g ai) in the axils f the new leaves t minimize the infestatin f spindle bug. ARECANUT Intrductin Arecanut is an integral part f pan-chewing in India. It is als a cmmdity f exprt earning sizable freign exchange. Fllwing are the details n imprtant pests f arecanut. 4. Inflrescence caterpillar 5. Spindle bug 6. Inflrescence aphid 7. Scale 8. Scarlet mite 9. White grub 10. Black headed caterpillar 11. Leaf caterpillar 1. Inflrescence caterpillar-tirathaba mundella Wlk. (Pyraustidae: Lpidptera) Tender branches f inflrescence are webbed tgether with silken threads f caterpillar. Wet mass f excreta prtrudes ut f the web. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

348 Bre hles are seen at the base f unpened spathes and buttns, which are plugged with excreta. Binmics Larva is dirty yellw r white with brwn head. Adult mth is small with ashy wings. Eggs are laid n tender spathes. Egg, larval and pupal perids last fr 5, 25 and 10 days respectively. Pupatin ccurs within galleries. 2. Spindle bug- Carvalhia arecae (Miridae: Hemiptera) Nymphs and adult suck sap, which results in linear black necrtic streaks n the central sht, stunted and twisted grwth. Affected central shts d nt pen fully and leaves becme dry and shed ff. Binmics Eggs are laid within tender spindle. Egg and nymphal perids last fr 9 t 10 and 15 t 20 days respectively. Nymphs are deep greenish t vilet brwn in clur with thrax and brder f abdmen light vilet brwn and head is light yellw with red eyes. Adult bug is hairy dark vilet brwn with black tipped abdmen. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

349 Management Spray the spindles with lindane 20 EC 2 ml / 1 r carbaryl 50% wp 2.5 g/l. 3. Inflrescence aphid - Cerataphis lataniae Bisd. (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Nymphs and adults suck sap frm the inflrescence and yung nuts, which results in sty muld develpment and premature shedding f nuts. 4. Scale- Icerya aegyptica Dugh (Margardidae:Hemiptera) White mealy scale insects cver the stalks and base f ripe nuts and suck sap. Affected regin becmes sft with black necrtic patches and watery exudatin. 5. Scarlet mite - Raiella indica Hirst. (Phytaptipallidae: Acarina) White nymphs and light brwnish yellw adults suck sap frm the leaves, which result in yellw patches n the lwer surface f leaves. 6. White grub - Leucphlis cnephra (Mellnthidae: Cleptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

350 White, flesy and C shaped grubs feed n the rts, which results in yellwing f leaves, tapering stem, stunted grwth and shedding f nuts. 7. Black headed caterpillar - Opisina arensella (Cryptphasidae: Lepidptera) Caterpillars feed n under surface f leaves and frm galleries with silken thread and frass. 8. Leaf caterpillar - Elymnias caudate Butl. (Satyridae: Lepidptera) Irregularly clipped leaf blades are bserved. Binmics Larva is green with deep grey head having a pair f black hrns, rugh bdy with drsal yellw stripe. Adult is a medium sized butterfly with deep brwn wings mingled with white and vilet clur. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

351 Lecture N. 23 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Cffee and Tea COFFEE Intrductin Thugh ver a hundred species f insects, a few invertebrates and mammals have been recrded as pests n cffee in India, nly a few f them are ecnmically imprtant. Amng cffee pests, insects frm the majr grup. Cffee is a perennial plant and is subjected t attack by passing as well as sedentary insects. Almst all prtins f cffee plants are susceptible t ne pest r the ther. In India, cffee is cultivated under shade trees, which greatly influences the micrclimate in the cffee ecsystem. Cffee pests culd be kept belw ecnmic injury level by adpting integrated management strategies such as anticipatin and cntinuus mnitring f pest utbreaks, maintenance f ptimum ver-head shade fr judicius management f eclgical factrs, handling and pruning f cffee bush, cnservatin and augmentatin f indigenus natural enemies, intrductin f extic natural enemies and timely use f need based bipesticides / insecticides. Bieclgy and management f the imprtant cffee pests are briefed belw. Majr pests f cffee are the white stem brer (Xyltrechus quadripes), Cffee berry brer (Hypthenemus hampei), Shrt-hle brer Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

352 (Xylsndrus cmpactus), Mealybugs (Plancccus citir & P.lilacinus), Green scale (Cccus viridis) and rt lesin nematde (Pratylencbus cffeae). Apart frm the abve mentined manr pests a few ther pests are als cnsidered as minr pests ccasinally fund n cffee. They are brwn scale (Saissitia cffeae), cckchafers r white grubs (Hltricbia spp.), cffee bean beetle (Araecerus fasciculaturs), hairy caterpillars (Eupterte spp.), read brer (Zeuzera cffeae), snail (Ariphanta slata), Tailed mealybug (Ferrisia virgata),termites r white ants and Thrips (Helibtips baemrrbidalis, Retithrips syriacus, Scirtthrips bispinsus, Thrips nilgiriensis) 1. White stem brer - Xyltrechus quadripes (Cleptera: Cerambycidae) White stem brer is a very serius pest f Arabica cffee in India. Life histry and damage Adult is a slender beetle, 1 t 2 cm lng. The frewings are black with white bands. Adults are active in bright day light. Female beetles depsit eggs in the cracks and crevices and under the lse clay bark f the main stem and thick primaries preferring plants expsed t sun light. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

353 Yung grubs feed in the crky prtin just under the bark fr abut tw mnths. Cnsequentially, the bark splits and appears as a ridge n the stem. Later the larvae enter the hardwd and make the tunnels in all directins. In sme cases the tunnels may extend even int the rts. The tunnels are tightly packed with excreta f the grubs. The grub stage lasts fr abut 9 t 10 mnths. Larva pupates in a chamber clse t the periphery f the stem. The pupal stage lasts fr 3 t 4 weeks after which it transfrms int an adult. The adult remains in the tunnel fr 3 t 7 days and emerges ut by cutting an exit hle in the bark. The brer cmpletes its life cycle in abut a year. Symptms f attacks Infested plants shw external ridges arund the stem. Such plants may als exhibit signs like yellwing and wilting f leaves which will be distinct after the nset f mnsn when the healthy plants starts putting new grwth. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

354 The yung plants (7 t 8 year ld) attacked by the brer may die in a year white lder plants withstand the attack fr a few seasns, yielding mre f flats. Brer infested farm Flight perids Nature f damage There are tw flight (emergence) perids frm April t May and Octber t December. Cntrl measures Maintain ptimum shade Trace the infested plants prir t flight perids (i.e.,in March and September) every year by lking fr ridges n the main stem and thick Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

355 primaries. Cllar prune the infested plants, uprt if the brer has entered the rt and burn the affected parts. String f infested stems n the estate will result in cntinuus infestatin. Prper agrnmic practices t retain plant vigur Remve lse scaly bark t discurage egg laying 10% lime applicatin n main stem and thick primaries during flight perids Repeated applicatin f neem il n the stem Use f phermne traps t mnitr incidence Judicius and timely applicatin f pesticides n the stem during flight perid 2. Red brer-zeuzera cffeae Nietn. (Cssidae: Lepidptera) The red caterpillar bres int the stem and branches causing wilting f branches. Presence f bre, hles plugged with excreta at the base f the plant is the typical symptm f attack. Binmics The adult is white mth with black r steel blue spts in the wings. The larva is range red and smth 3. Cffee bean beetle Araecerus fasciculatus D. (Anthribidae : Cleptera ) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

356 The grub bres in t the ripening berries. The infested berries have small hles n them and becme blackened and shrunk. The berries in stre are mre seriusly attacked than thse in field. Binmics Adult is pale grey, elngate, val and slightly flattened tapering anterirly entire bdy clthed with hairs. Grub is white, sft and apdus. 4. Cffee berry brer - Hypthenemus hampei (Cleptera:Sclytidae) The cffee berry brer is the mst serius pest f all cffee cultivars the wrld ver. The pest was first nticed in India n a few plantatins in Nilgiris in early Life histry The adult berry brer is a small black beetle with a sub-cylindrical bdy cvered with thick hairs. Females are apprximately 2.5 mm lng. Males are smaller. The female beetle bres int the berry thrugh the navel regin. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

357 Thugh berries in varius stages f develpment are attacked, tunneling an vipsitn ccur nly in hard beans. The mther beetle lays abut 15 eggs in the tunnel. Eggs hatch in abut 10 days. The larvae feed n the beans making small tunnels. Larval perid lasts fr abut 20 days and the pupal perid fr a week. Develpment frm egg t adult takes just ver a mnth. The rati f male t male is apprximately 10:1. Mating takes place inside the berries. The shrt life cycle enables the pest t cmplete several generatins in a year, in quick successin, under favrable cnditins. The beetle in the berries either n the plant r n the grund can survive fr mre than five mnths. This enables the pest t carry ver frm ne seasns crp t the next. The pest usually cmes ut and infests fresh berries in the evening hurs. The pest usually cmes ut and infests fresh berries in the evening hurs. The brer incidence culd be prnunced at an altitude range f 500 m t 1000 m abve sea level. A typical pin hle at the tip f the berries indicates the presence f the pest. In case f a severe infestatin, tw r mre hles may be seen, either in the navel r n the sides. A pwdery substance pushed ut thrugh the hles reveals the active tunneling and feeding within the beans. The pest damages yung as well as ripe berries. Infested tender berries may fall due t injury r secndary infectin by fungi. Breeding ccurs in develped berries frm the time the bean becmes hard and cntinues in the ripe and ver-ripe berries either n the plant r n the grund. Generally nly ne f the beans in a berry is affected. t bth the beans culd be nticed ccasinally, especially during the fag end f the crpping seasn. In case f severe infestatin 30 t 80% f the berries may be attacked, resulting in heavy crp lss. Cntrl measures Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

358 Timely harvest Reduces carry ver inculums and thrugh harvest breaks the life cycle. Remval f ff-seasn berries t break the cntinuity f the breeding Spread gunny/plastic sheets (picking mats) belw the plants minimizes the gleaning. If gleanings culd nt be cllected they may be swept alng with the mulch and buried belw a depth f 0.75 m in the sil. Avid excess shade. Train bushes prperly. Avid planting tree cffee Dry cffee t the prescribed specificatin: Arabica/rbusta parchment 10.0% (15.5 kg/fr lit) Arabica cherry % (16.0 kg/fr lit) Rbusta cherry % (18.0 kg/fr lit) D nt transprt infested crp t ther areas. Dipping infested berries in biling water fr 2-3 minutes kills all the stages inside. Use nly fumigated gunny bags t avid crss infestatin. Spray a suspensin f the fungus Beauveris bassiana when the beetles are in the pulp. Use f parasitids Cephalanmia stephanderis 5. Sht-hle brer: Xylsandrus cmpactus (Cleptera : Sclytidae) The shrt hle brer is a majr pest f rbusta cffee. Life histry The adult beetle is brwn t black with a shrt, sub-cylindrical bdy. The pest usually infests the green succulent branches f ld plants. In yung plants, the main stem als may be attacked. After entering int the twig thrugh the sht hle made n the underside, nrmally between the ndes, the female makes a lngitudinal tunnel. The beetle then lines the wall f the gallery with an ambrsia fungus. After grwing the fungus, the female lays abut 50 eggs in batches. The eggs hatch in 2 t 3 days, the milky white larvae feed n the ambrsia. The larval stage lasts fr 13 t 21 days, and the pupal stage fr abut 11 days. Egg t adult emergence takes fur t five weeks. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

359 Matting ccurs inside the gallery. Unmated females give birth t male prgeny. Males have n functinal wings. The shrt life cycle enables the pest t cmplete several generatins, in quick successin, under favurable cnditins. The incidence is generally lw befre the nset f the suthwest mnsn, reaches a peak frm September t January, and gradually declines during the dry perid. Withered r dried branches with sht hles indicate the presence f the pest. The attacked branches dry up fast. Leaves distal t the pint f attack fall prematurely. The terminal leaves wilt, drp and dry up. Cntrl measures Prune the affected twigs 5 cm t 7.5 cm beynd the sht hle and burn. This peratin shuld be cmmenced frm September nwards and cntinued as a rutine measure at regular intervals. Remve and destry all the unwanted/infested suckers during summer. Maintain thin shade and gd drainage. 5. Sht-hle brer: Xylsandrus cmpactus (Cleptera : Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

360 Sclytidae) The shrt hle brer is a majr pest f rbusta cffee. Life histry The adult beetle is brwn t black with a shrt, sub-cylindrical bdy. The pest usually infests the green succulent branches f ld plants. In yung plants, the main stem als may be attacked. After entering int the twig thrugh the sht hle made n the underside, nrmally between the ndes, the female makes a lngitudinal tunnel. The beetle then lines the wall f the gallery with an ambrsia fungus. After grwing the fungus, the female lays abut 50 eggs in batches. The eggs hatch in 2 t 3 days, the milky white larvae feed n the ambrsia. The larval stage lasts fr 13 t 21 days, and the pupal stage fr abut 11 days. Egg t adult emergence takes fur t five weeks. Matting ccurs inside the gallery. Unmated females give birth t male prgeny. Males have n functinal wings. The shrt life cycle enables the pest t cmplete several generatins, in quick successin, under favurable cnditins. The incidence is generally lw befre the nset f the suthwest mnsn, reaches a peak frm September t January, and gradually declines during the dry perid. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

361 Withered r dried branches with sht hles indicate the presence f the pest. The attacked branches dry up fast. Leaves distal t the pint f attack fall prematurely. The terminal leaves wilt, drp and dry up. Cntrl measures Prune the affected twigs 5 cm t 7.5 cm beynd the sht hle and burn. This peratin shuld be cmmenced frm September nwards and cntinued as a rutine measure at regular intervals. Remve and destry all the unwanted/infested suckers during summer. Maintain thin shade and gd drainage. 1. Leaf miner Melanagrmyza cffeae H. (Agrmyzidae: Diptera) The maggt mines int leaves. 2. Hairy caterpillar Eupterte canaraica M-, E.fabia Cram. (Bmbycidae: Lepidptera) It causes defliatin Binmics See under cardamm. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

362 Management Cllect and destry the caterpillars and pupae frm January - March. Set up light traps in June - July t attract and kill the mths. Spray Dimethate 0.03 % r fenitrthin 50 EC 240 ml alng with ne litre f emulsified il f 1 kg f fish il rsin sap in 200 litres f water. 3. Leaf caterpillar Agrtis segetum Dams. (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n the seedlings f cffee plant and destrys nurseries. 4. Cffee grasshpper Autarches miliaris D. (Acrididae: Orthptera) It causes severe defliatin. 5. Wly bears Pericallia ricini Fab. (Arctiidae: Lepidptera) See under ptat. 1. Green Scale - Cccus viridis (Cccidae: Hmptera) Green scale is an imprtant sucking pest f Arabica, but attacks rbusta als. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

363 Life histry The adult scale is flat, val, light green with an irregular dark distinct lp n the middle f the drsum. The adult is sedentary and spends its whle life in ne place, it lays eggs. The duratin f the life cycle is 4-6 weeks. Adult lives up t 2-5 mnths. The scale attacks tender parts, setting dwn n the underside f the leaves clse t midrib, veins, and tips f green shts. The cntinuus sucking results in excess lss f sap frm the plant which leads t debilitatin f the lder plants and death f nursery plants. The hney dew secreted by the scale frms a film n the leaves and a black fungus (sty muld) grws n it, which hinders phtsynthesis. Ant assciatin Assciatin f ants with green scale is similar t that explained fr mealybugs. Cntrl measures Maintain ptimum shade Cntrl ants by dusting quinalphs 1.5% r methyl parathin 2% r malathin 5% dust arund the base f the bush and shade trees. Destry ant nests. Remve and destry weeds, as many f them harbr the pest. Use recmmended dse f insecticide when the attack is abve ETL. 2. Rt lesin nematde Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

364 Plant parasitic nematdes are micrscpic rund wrms attacking almst every crp. The rt lesin nematde is highly distractive t Arabica cffee. Rbusta is tlerant t Arabica cffee. Rbusta is tlerant t nematdes. Life Histry The nematde lays eggs in the rt-lesins. Develpment frm egg t adult takes abut a mnth. All stages f the nematdes are attracted t the yung and vigrusly grwing rts but nly the secnd stage juveniles enter the rts at the piliferus zne. Rbusta exhibits tlerance t the nematdes at all stages, and the nematde takes mre time t cmplete its life cycle in rbusta than in Arabica. The nematde spreads t ther areas thrugh estate implements, rain water, plants taken frm the infested nurseries and sils taken frm infested blcks. The pest is persistent in the sil and rts all rund the year. Higher ppulatin is nticed during the mnths f July, August and September when there is heavy rainfall and increased rt activity. The ppulatin declines frm December t March. and symptms f attack Nematdes feed and destry the tap rt, secndary rts and feeder rts. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

365 Affected plants put frth adventitius rts at the cllar regin during rainy seasn. Such plants have lse anchrage and culd be easily disldged. Affected ld plants lack secndary and tertiary rts. Affected yung plants becme unhealthy with lean and lanky stem. Older leaves becme yellw and drp, leaving very few undersized, chlrite and crinkled leaves at the tip f the main stem giving a tufted appearance. Affected bearing plants shw thinner main stem and have inadequate fliage t supprt the crp. Fresh leaves prduced during pre-mnsn perid are smaller, crinkled, chlrtic and leathery, but the leaves prduced during mnsn are nrmal and healthy. Death f leaves will cntinue till December, leaving ne r tw pairs f leaves at the tip during next summer r prducing a gse-neck after the receipt f rains. Cntrl Measures In The Nursery Dig up the nursery site and expse the sil t the sun during summer. Sieve and dry jungle sil and farmyard manure thrughly befre use. Avid btaining nursery plants frm infested areas. In The Filed Uprt and burn the affected plants. Dig up pits and expse the sil t the sun fr at least ne summer Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

366 Take care t keep the pits free frm weeds. Plant the area with Rbusta (if suitable) r Arabica Rbusta grafted plants (Arabica scin grafted n t Rbusta rt stck at tpee stage) 3. Brwn scale - Saisettia cffeae Wlk. (Cccidae Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults infest the leaves and tender shts causing yellwing and drying f leaves. Binmics Adult is hemispherical and the bdy cvered by a snuff clured hard shield. Nymph is yellw r greenish brwn in clur. 4. Aphid Txptera aurantii Byen. (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm the leaves resulting stunting, curling f leaves and falling f flwer buds and develping fruits. The infested leaf attracts sty muld due t hneydew secretin f the insect. Binmics The adult fly is dark range with smky wings and fre wings having fur whitish areas f the irregular shape. The female fly lays yellwish brwn, val eggs arranged in spiral n brad leaves. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

367 The egg perid is 7-14 days. The nymphal perid is days with fur nymphal instars. It pupates n leaf surface. The pupal perid last fr days. There are tw generatins in a year. Management Spray mncrtphs 36 WSC at 1.5 ml/litre f water. 5. Thrips Scirtthrips bispinsus Bagn. (Thripidae: Thysanptera) Bth nymphs and adults lacerate and suck the tender leaves. Due t the punctures caused by stylets the feeding site appear as brwn spts r as cntinus lines called "sand paper lines" In severe cases f infestatin leaf grwth is arrested, leaves becme brittle, crinckled and crky and fall prematurely. Binmics S. drsalis - This is knwn as Assam thrips, causes severe damage t tea bushes in Nrth India. Its life cycle is cmpleted in days but the duratin may vary in the different seasns. S. bispinsus - This is yellwish brwn in clur which is fund in large numbers in mst tea grwing areas f suth India. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

368 The peak perid fr the ppulatin build up is between May and December. This life cycle is cmpleted in 19 days. 1. White grub Hltrichia cnferta S. (Mellnthidae : Cleptera) The grub feeds n rts f the yung seedlings. Distributin, hsts and natural enemies f pests f Cffee Cmmn name White stem brer Red brer Sht-hle brer Cffee berry brer Scientific name Distributin Hsts Natural enemies Xyltrechits Cffee, Ixra Parasitid quadripes Olea diica Metapdma sp. Chevrlat Zeuzera cqffeae Nietn Xylsandms cmpactus Eichhff Hypthenemus hampei Ferr. Cffee green Cccus viridis scale Green. Suth India, Assam, Burma, Srilanka, Thailand, Philippines and Indnesia. India, Malaysia Cca, cffee India, Papua, Madagascar, Suth-East Asia and New Guinea Trpical Africa India, Srilanka, Suth East Asia Indnesia, Brazil New Guinea, Clmbia, Surinam. India, Ceyln, Burma, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malayia. cffee, tea, citrus, avcad, castr, rubber, cinchna etc. Cffee, hibiscus, Rubiaceae Leguminus plants Cffee, citrus guava, mang and tea. Predatrs Uganda Wasp - Prrps nasuta Waterstn Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

369 Brwn scale Saisettia cffeae Wlk. Striped mealy bug Ferrisia Virgata Ckll. Csmplitan Pan trpical, India, Srilanka, Pakistan, Burma, Bangladesh and Malaysia. Cffee, citrus, ea, guava and mang Cffee, cca, cttn, jute, citrus, beans, grundnut, cassava, sugarcane, sweet ptat, guava, cashew and tmat Parasitids Aneristrus cerplastae Hw. Cccphagus flavescens Hw. Cccphagus cwperi Gir. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

370 TEA 1. Tea msquit bug - Helpeltis theivra Waterhuse. H.antnii (Miridae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm yung leaves, buds and tender shts resulting dry spts n leaves and brwnish patches in the tender shts, buds and stem. In severe cases, the leaves curl up and sht dry up. The attacked sht may present die - back symptms. Binmics The adult is a small, active elngated bug with black r live green head. It has yellw and black thrax and yellw and greenish black abdmen. It thrusts the eggs in t the surface tissues f tender shts, buds, mid ribs and petiles Eggs are elngated sausage shaped with tw minute hairs n its perculum which prject ut f the eggs. The egg perid is 5-7 days. The nymph is dirty yellw with lng legs and antennae which resemble ants. They becme full grwn in 3 weeks under ging five instars. Bth nymphs and adults are active mving abut n the bushes, flying swiftly in the early hurs f the day. Management Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

371 Cllect nymphs and adults with hand nets early in the mrning r in the evening and destry them. Spray the bushes with malathin 50 EC at 2 ml / litre f water. 2. Leaf hpper - Empasca flavescens Fab. (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults desap the leaves resulting curling and crinkling f leaves. The margins f the leaves turn brwnish and dry up causing the symptm "rim blight." Binmics It is a small yellwish green jassid. It lays eggs singly n the veins and midribs f leaves and n yung stems. The egg perid is 6-13 days. The nymphal perid ranges frm 8-12 days with five instars. The insect is fund n the plants thrughut the year. 3. Tea Aphid -Txptera aurantii Byen. (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Clnies f dark brwn t black aphid desap the tender stem, underside f yung leaves and buds. The infested leaves curl and crinckle. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

372 Sty muld develps n the leaves due t hneydew secretin f the aphid 4. Tea thrips -Scirtthrips bispinsus Bagn., S.drsalis Hd and Taenithrips setiventris Bagn. (Thripidae: Thysanptera) Bth nymphs and adults lacerate and suck the tender leaves. Due t the punctures caused by stylets the feeding site appear as brwn spts r as cntinus lines called "sand paper lines" In severe cases f infestatin leaf grwth is arrested, leaves becme brittle, crinckled and crky and fall prematurely. Binmics S. drsalis - This is knwn as Assam thrips, causes severe damage t tea bushes in Nrth India. Its life cycle is cmpleted in days but the duratin may vary in the different seasns. S. bispinsus -This is yellwish brwn in clur which is fund in large numbers in mst tea grwing areas f suth India. The peak perid fr the ppulatin build up is between May and December. This life cycle is cmpleted in 19 days. 5. Brwn scale - Saisettia cffeae Wlk. (Cccidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults infest the leaves and tender shts causing yellwing and drying f leaves. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

373 Binmics Adult is hemispherical and the bdy cvered by a snuff clured hard shield. Nymph is yellw r greenish brwn in clur. 1. Lper - Bistn suppressaria Guen. (Gemetridae: Lepidptera) The lper caterpillar causes severe defliatin Binmics The adult mth is greyish finely specked with black and yellw bands and spts alng the ther margins f wings. It lays eggs in grups f n the trunk f shade trees and cvered with buff clured hairs. The egg perid is 8-9 days. The larva is greyish brwn resembling clsely as that f tea twigs which becme full grwn in days. It pupates in sil fr days. 2. Leaf rller - Gracillaria theivra Wism. (Gracillaridae: Lepidptera) The secnd instar larva mines the tender leaf making serpentine tunnels fr few days after which it reaches leaf margin. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

374 The furth instar larva rlls the leaves frm tip dwnwards. Binmics The purplish brwn tiny mth lays eggs singly n the underside f leaves. The egg perid is 2-3 days. The larva is yellwish. It pupates in a silken ccn n the underside f the leaf fr 9-13 days. 3. Bunch caterpillar - Andraca bipunctata Wlk. (Bmbycidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n the surface tissues and later n leaf blades causing defliatin. It remain clustered in characteristic bunches n branches hence the name bunch caterpillar. Binmics The adult mth is brwnish with dark wavy lines n the wings and tw white spts distally n fre wings. It lays eggs in clusters f up t 120 eggs n the undersurface f leaves. Fecundity is abut 500 eggs/female. The egg perid is days. The larva is smth, greyish in clur with brwn patches. It pupates n the grund amng dried up leaves. The pupal perid is abut days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

375 Management Cllect and kill the caterpillar Spray malathin 50 EC at 2ml/lit f water. 4. Lbster caterpillar - Nestaurpus (= Staurpus) alternus Wlk. (Ntdntidae: Lepidptera) The adult is brwnish grey mth. The female mth lays eggs in small clusters n the undersurface f the leaves and hatch in 4-20 days. The grwn up larva is abut mm, lng with varying clratin f brwn t black and is speckled, mttled r pubescent. The thracic leg and abdminal claspers are elngated giving the larva the appearance f lbster when disturbed. It pupates between webbed up leaves in a ccn. The pupal perid is days. 5. Flush wrm - Cydia (= Laspeyresia) leucstma Meyr. (Eucsmidae: Lepidptera) The larva webs tgether the bud and feeds frm inside n the surface tissues resulting the leaves becme rugh and disclured. Binmics The adult mth is brwnish with yellw and white streaks in fre wings. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

376 It lays eggs singly n under surface f leaves. The larva is green r brwn in clur. The pupatin takes place inside the leaf fld. 6. Tea trtrix - Hmna cffearia Nietn. (Trtricidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar makes leaf nests by webbing the leaves. Binmics The adult mth is brwnish yellw in clur. The fre wing has an blique band and a few transverse wavy lines. It lays scale like eggs in clusters f n the upper surface f leaves. The egg perid is 6-8 days. The larva is greenish with black pr-thrax. The larval perid is 3-4 weeks. It pupates within the leaf fld fr 6-8 days. 1. Sht-hle brer - Euvallacea frhicatus Eichh. (Sclytidae: Lepidptera) The grub tunnel in t the stem which interferes the flw f sap, weakening the stems. Presence f rund sht hles in primary branches, mrtality f buds, dieback in branches and circular r lngitudinal tunnels inside the stem are the symptms f attack. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

377 The adult xylebrus beetle is minute measuring 3-4 mm in length. It lays eggs at junctin and pening f side branch and cvers with a wad f damp saw dust. 2. Red brer - Zeuzera cffeae Nietn. (Cssidae: Lepidptera) The red caterpillar bres int the stem and branches causing wilting f branches. Presence f bre, hles plugged with excreta at the base f the plant is the typical symptm f attack. Binmics The adult is white mth with black r steel blue spts in the wings. The larva is range red and smth. 1. White grub- Hltrichia impressa Burm. (Mellnthidae: Cleptera) The grub feeds n rts causing drying f yung plants. It als eats away the bark f stem belw the sil surface. Binmics The adult beetle is redddish brwn in clur. It lays eggs in sil. The grub is white, fleshy, 'C shaped. It pupates in an earthern cell. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

378 The life cycle ccupies a year in the plains while at higher altitudes it may takes up t tw years. 1. Red spider mite - Olignychus cffeae Nietn. (Tetranyehidae: Acarina) It infests the upper surface f the lder leaves making webbing n the leaf surface fr shelter. When the infestatin is higher the yung leaves may als get attacked which turn brwnish, dry up and fall. Binmics The adult mite is runded and brick red in clur. It lays eggs singly n the surface f leaves mstly alng the midrib and veins. Fecundity is abut 137 eggs / female. The egg perid is 4-6 days. The larval stage is fllwed by tw nymphal stages. The larval nymphal perid ccupies 6-8 days. 2. Scarlet mite - Brevipalpus califrnicus Geij. (Tenuipalpidae : Acarina) The mite infest n the lwer surface f the leaves causing yellwing f leaves. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

379 The bark n the leaf petile f the affected sht split, turn brwn and dry up. Binmics The mite is flat, elngated and val and scarlet in clur with black marks drsally. It lays bright red eggs n the under surface f leaves. Female lays abut 47 eggs during vipsitn perid f 40 days. The egg perid is 6-13 days. The life cycle is cmpleted in days. 3. Purple mite - Calacarus carinatus Green. (Eriphyidae: Acarina) The mite infests bth sides f the leaves causing cppery brwn r smky disclratin f the leaves. Binmics The mite has a spindle shaped purple bdy with 5 lngitudinal white waxy ridges drsally. The life cycle is cmpleted in 7-15 days. 4. Pink mite r range mite - Acaphytta theae Keifer. (Eriphyidae: Acarina) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

380 It infests the bth sides f leaves, petiles and tender stems. The affected leaf becmes disclured and leathery, the veins shwing a pink disclratin the bushes in general present a sickly appearance. Management Spray methyl demetn ml r dimethate ml. / hectare. Cmmn name Tea msquit bug Tea mite Yellw tea mite Distributin, hsts and natural enemies f pests f Tea Scientific name Distributin Hsts Natural enemies Helpeltis iheivra Water huse Brevipalpus phenicis Geij Plyphagtarsnemus latus Banks India, Srilanka, Vietnam, Indnesia India, Srilanka, Malaysia. Csmplitan, Eurpe, U.S.A. Central America, Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Srilanka, Philippines Tea, guava, grapevine, cashew, mahgany neem5 caca, cinchna, pepper, tamarind and cinnamn apple Tea, citrus, cffee, rubber, Phenix spp Parthenium Tea, cttn, jute, cffee, tmat, ptat, chillies, rubber, mang, sesame, caster, bean, peppers, avacad and citrus Predatry mite Typhldrmus pyri Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

381 Lecture N.24 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Cca 1. Red brer - Zeuzera caffeae Nietn. (Cssidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar bres in t the stem f 3-4 year ld plants resulting in wilting and drying f entire plants. The affected plants shw bre hles n the stem and accumulating chewed fiber at the base f the plant. Binmics Adult mth has dirty white bands and black r steel blue spts n the wings. The larva is range red in clur. The full-grwn larva is abut 42 mm lng. Management Prune and destry the affected branches. Spray carbaryl 50 WP 2 g / litre f water. 2. Fruit brer - Dichcrcis (=Cngethus) punctiferalis Guen. (Pyraustidae: Lepidptera) The larva brers int the central cre f the pseudstems resulting in the death f the central spindle causing charactersic dead heart symptm. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

382 In the case f capsules, the caterpillars bre int the immature capsules and feed n the seeds rendering them empty. The caterpillars ccasinally tunnel int the panicle als. A characteristic indicatin fr the presence f the larvae is the zing ut f excreted frass materials at the muth f the bre hle, which are very cnspicuus n the stem r pds. Binmics The adult is a medium sized brwnish yellw clured mth with a number f dark spts n the wings. It lays eggs n the tp leaf axils f yung pseudstem. The larva bre int the tender parts f the panicle, flwer buds and immature capsules nly, the later stage larva bre int the stem. The full grwn larva is measuring mm lng and it pupates within the larval tunnel inside the pseudstems. The life cycle is cmpleted within days. Management Cllect and destry the affected plant parts. Destry the alternate hst plants frm the vicinity f the plantatin Spray phsalne 3 ml/litre r Dimethate 0.03 % /litre r quinlphs 4 ml/litre r fenthin 1.25ml / litre f water. 3. Stem girdler - Sthenias grisatr Fab. (Cerambycidae: Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

383 Cleptera) The grub bres int the bark and tunnels int the dry wd. The infestatin resulted in wilting f branches and then the entire vine. The beetles have the habit f ringing the vines resulting in drying up f the regins beynd the cut. Binmics The adult beetle is greyish brwn with white and brwn irregular marking resembling the bark clur, elytra have an elliptical greyish median spt and an eye shaped patch measuring 24 mm lng. The eggs are thrust in between barks and sapwd in clusters f 2-4 eggs by female beetle, which cuts branches slits under the bark f girdled branch. The egg perid is 8 days. The hatched ut grub feed inside the stem and cmpletes its larval stage by 7-8 mnths. The ttal life cycle ccupies mre than a year. Management Cut and burn the infested branches belw the girdling pint. Hand picks the beetles and destrys them which may help in migrating this lnging hrn beetle. Swab the trunk with carbaryl 50 WP 4 g / litre f water. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

384 1. Brwn lper - Hypsidra talaca Walk. (Gemetridae: Lepidptera) It is a lper caterpillar causing extensive defliatin. Binmics Adult mth is pink in clur. The eggs are laid in the leaves. Fecundity is abut 250 eggs / female. EP: 4 days and LP: days. The full grwn larva is brwn with range clured dts laterally. It pupates in fallen leaves. The life cycle is cmpleted in days. 2. Hairy caterpillar - Argina syringa Cl and A. cribraria (Hypsidae: Lepidptera) They cause defliatin in early stages and bre in t capsules in the later stages Binmics A. cribraria - Adult is yellwish brwn with black spts. Larva is hairy caterpillar with black transverse markings and white spts. A. syringa - Adult has reddish brwn frewings with black spts. Larva is similar t that f A. cribraria but has reddish markings laterally. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

385 3. Wly bear - Pericallia ricini Fab. (Arctiidae: Lepidptera) It causes defliatin Binmics See under brinjal and sweet ptat. 4. Hairy caterpillar - Diacrisa bliqua Wlk. (Arctiidae: Lepidptera) It causes defliatin Binmics See under brinjal and sweet ptat. 5. Hairy caterpillar - Metanastria hyrtaca Cram. (Lasicampidae: Lepidptera) The hairy caterpillar feeds n leaves causing defliatin. Binmics The adult is stut grayish brwn mth exhibiting sexual dimrphism. Male mth has pectinate antenna and chclate brwn patch in the middle f fre wings. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

386 Female mth is bigger in size with lnger and brader wings having wavy transverse bands. The larva is ncturnal, cylindrical grayish brwn, stut and hairy. Management Kill the aggregating larvae n the bark using a trch f fire r with a bucketful f cwdung slurry during the day time in husehlds. Spray fish il rsin sap t kill the larva because f asphyxiatin. Spray Dimethate 0.03 % r carbaryl 0.1 % r malathin 0.1%. 6. Grey weevil - Myllcerus subfasciatus G.M., M.disclr Fab and M.viruidu Fab. (Curulinidae: Cleptera.) Adult weevil cause ntching f leaf margins. Grub feeds n rts resulting wilting f plants. Binmics M. Subfasciatus Brwnish weevil; M. disclr Brwn with white spt n elytra; M.viridanus Small light green weevil. Management Cllect & destruct the adult weevils Apply carbfuran 3 G at 15 kg/hectare at 15 days after planting. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

387 1. Mang hpper - Idiscpus clypealis (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck the sap frm tender shts and inflrescence resulting in withering and shedding f flwer buds and flwers leads t wilting and drying f shts and leaves. The flwer stalks and leaves f infested trees becme sticky due t the depsitin f hneydew secreted by the hppers that encurages the grwth f black sty muld n fliage and ther plant parts. The peak activity is cnfined during blssm and the lss ranges frm 25 t 60 %. During the ff - seasn, the hppers cngregate n newly develped shts and suck the sap, results in malfrmatin the leaves feeding n them. As a cnsequence, leaves becme malfrmed and undersized. The hppers take shelter in cracks and crevices n the barks during nn-flwering seasn. Binmics Of these three species, A. atkinsni is the largest ne ccurring right thrugh the year and ther tw species have been bserved t be mstly present during the blming f the tree. The largest A. atkinsni has tw spts n scutellum while the smalll. clypealis has tw spts n scutellum and dark spt n the vertex, while the least sized 1. nivesparsus has three spts n scutellum. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

388 The adult hpper is light greenish-brwn with black and yellw markings, wedge shaped with brad head measures 3-4 mm in length. It inserts the eggs singly int the plant tissues f yung leaves, shts, flwer stalks and unpened flwers. A female lays abut 200 eggs. The eggs hatch in 4-7 days. The nymph with red eyes appeared while yellwish green t greenish brwn during the 5 instar ccupying 8-13 days. The ttal life cycle frm egg t adult takes 2-3 weeks fr cmpletin. Management Grw less susceptible varieties viz., Banganapalli, Chinnarasam and Alphnsa. Avid clse planting, as the incidence is very severe in vercrwded and neglected rchards. Spray tw runds, f acephate 75 SP at 1 g /litre r phasalne 35 EC at 1.5 ml / litre r carbaryl 50 WP at 42 g / litre f water, first rund at the time f new flesh panicle emergence and 2nd at tw weeks after the first spray. Spray wettable sulphur at 2 g / litre f water after spraying carbaryl t avid mite resurgence Cllect and destry affected inflrescence r sticky inflrescence t minimize ppulatin build-up. 2. Scale - Drsicha mangiferae Gr. (Margardidae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults are fund in clusters n tender shts and desap the tissues resulting in drying f the shts. 3. Aphid - Txptera aurantii Byen. (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults infest flwer stalks, tender leaves, buds and tender pds the infested flwers wilt and the leaves crinckle and fall. 4. Tea msquit bug - Helpeltis theivra Sign. (Miridae: Hemiptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

389 The nymphs and adults feed n the yung leaves, buds and tender shts the tissues arund the feeding punctures die and dry up due t txic actin f saliva injected. It results the water saked lesins fllwed by brwnish spts at the feeding site. Resin exudes frm the feeding puncture. Blssm r inflrescence blight and die back symptms appear. The terminal shts are als dried. Shedding f flwers and nut als takes place. Binmics The adult is a reddish brwn bug with red thrax and black and white abdmen. The eggs are inserted int the epidermis f tender shts, axis f inflrescence, the buds and midribs. The eggs are sausage shaped, 2 mm lng, slightly cvered with a pair f breathing filaments which prject ut its perculum. The egg perid is 5 t 7 days. Nymphal perid is 15 days. The reddish brwn and ant like nymphs underges five instars. The life cycle is cmpleted in 22 days. This pest attacks guava, cca, pepper, cinchna, tamarind, mang, neem, cttn and avcad. Management Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

390 Spray Dimethate 0.03 % /litre + urea 3% thrice. The first at the time f emergence f new flushes the secnd at flral frmatin and the third at fruit set. Remve dead wd and criss crss branches in cashew plantatins atleast nce in tw t three years will help in effective spraying f insecticides against the pest. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

391 Lecture N.25 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Rubber and Cinchna 1. Bark caterpillar-aehterastic circulata Meyr.(Hypnmeutidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar usually feeds n the dead bark. It becmes trublesme when it happens t feed n the renewing bark. Binmics The adult mth is small white and black sptted. It lays the eggs n the barks. The larva is small, bright red and flat. The larva feeds under a web n the bark. The larval duratin is abut 3 weeks. It pupates under a piece f bark in web fr abut 10 days. 2. Bark caterpillar- Cmcritis plena Meyr. (Hypnmeutidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar cnstructs galleries n the bark and feeds n the bark surface. 3. Stem brer- Batcera rufmaculata Dejean. (Cerambycidae:Cleptera ) The grubs bre in t the branches causing drying f the branches. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

392 The grubs feed by tunneling thrugh the bark f branches and main stem. The damage may als shw itself by the shedding f leaves and drying f terminal shts in early stage f attack. When the damage ccurs at the main stem, the whle tree succumbs. Binmics The adult is a large lngicrn beetle abut 5 cm lng and 1.6 cm brad and yellwish brwn in clur. It has tw pink dts and lateral spines n thrax. It lays eggs singly n the bark, r cracks and crevices n the tree trunk r branches hatch in abut 1-2 weeks. The grub is stut with well-defined segmentatin and yellw in clur. The grub makes zig - zag burrw beneath the bark. The grub feeds n the internal tissues and becme full fed in abut six mnths. It pupates inside the tunnel itself. The pupal perid is days. Management Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

393 13. Remve and destry the dead trees and affected branches frm the garden. 14. Swab trunk with carbaryl 20 g/ Use light trap 1 / ha t attract adult mths r beetles. 16. Lcate bre hles, spike ut grubs using a needle r irn wire. 17. Exclude the alternative hst, silk cttn frm mang rchards. 18. Grw less susceptible varieties viz., Neelam, Humayudin, and Panchavarnam. 19. Swab cal tar + Kersene (1 :2) n the basal part f the trunk up t 3 feet high after scraping the lse bark t prevent the female frm egg laying. 20. Spike ut the grub if the bre hles are lcated, and add insecticide emulsin (mncrtphs 0.1 % at 20 ml / hle) a fumigant tablets (3 g aluminium phsphide) r petrl and seal the hles with the mud. 21. Fllw padding with mncrtphs 36 WSC 10 ml per tree saked in absrbent cttn when the trees are nt in bearing stage. 22. Apply carbfurean 3-5 g per hle and plug with mud after remving the grub by using needle. 23. Apply carbfuran granules in the sil at 75 g / tree basin. 1. Scale -Aspiditus destructr Sign and Saisettia nigra NMetn.(Cccidae: Hemiptera) The scales infest the twigs and leaves causing drpping f leaves. 1. Basket wrm -Acanthpsyche snelleri Heye. (Psychidae ; Lepsdptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

394 The larva attacks newly tapped surface making small wund frm which latex flws ut freely. 2. Weevil- Apderus chryschlrus Wied. (Curculinidae: Cleptera) The reddish brwn adult weevil twists the leaf tips. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

395 Lecture N.26 Distributin, hst range, bi-eclgy, damage and integrated management f imprtant insect and mite pests f Cashew 1. Cashew tree brer Plcaederus ferrugineus Linn. (Cerambycidae: Cleptera) The grubs tunnel and feed inside the tree trunks and branches and damage cambial tissues and stp the flw f sap. It results in weakening and death f the plant. Binmics The adult beetle is reddish brwn measuring mm in length. It lays eggs in the cracks and crevices f the lse bark n the trunk. The eggs are vid r elliptical and dirty white in clur hatch in 4-6 days. The newly hatched grubs start feeding n sft tissues and bre in t the bark and make tunnels. The grub is ff-white clur and the grwn up grub measures mm in length. The fully grwn grub decends t rt zne thrugh tunnels. The grub stage last fr 6-7 mnths. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

396 The pupal perid last 60 days inside the ccn. Management Uprt and remve the dead trees frm the plantatin as they serve as surce fr multiplicatin f the brer. Avid any injury r damage t the stem and expsed prtin f the rt. Apply cal tar and kersene (1:2) n the trunk up t 1 metre height which prevent the beetles frm egg laying. Detect the infestatin in the early stage and swab the tree trunk with carbaryl 50 WP 0.1% suspensin t save the tree. Adpt stem padding with cttn wl saked in mncrtphs at 30 ml /tree gives gd recvery. Fllw the rt feeding f mncrtphs 36 WSC 10 ml +10 ml f water kept in a plythene bag in tw places (20 ml / tree) gives gd prtectin t the trees. 2. Bark caterpillar-indarbela tetranis M. (Metarbelidae: Lepidptera) The larva chews ut the bark resulting zig-zag galleries and silken webbed masses cmprising f chewed materials and excreta. Binmics Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

397 Adult mth is pale brwn with fre wings having brwn spts and streaks and white hind wings. The larva is mm lng, stut and dirty brwn in clur. 3. Apple brer- Nephpteryx sp (Phycitidae: Lepidptera) The larva bres int the tender cashew apple and feeds n the internal tissues f false fruit. Binmics The adult mth is medium sized with dark fre wings and pale hind wings. 4. Apple and nut brer -Thylcptila paursema (Pyraustidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar brers int the tender apple and nut and feeds n them. 1. Sht and blssm webber- Macalia mncusalis Wlk. (Pyraustidae: Lepidptera) The larva webs tgether the tender leaves and inflrescence and feeds n the same. 2. Sht tip and inflrescence caterpillar- Hypatima (= Chelaria) haligramma M. (Gelechiidae: Lepidptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

398 The caterpillar webs tgether the terminal leaves and inflrescence and bres int the sht tips. 3. Tea msquit bug-helpeltis antnni Sign. (Miridae: Hemiptera) The nymphs and adults feed n the yung leaves, buds and tender shts the tissues arund the feeding punctures die and dry up due t txic actin f saliva injected. It results the water saked lesins fllwed by brwnish spts at the feeding site. Resin exudes frm the feeding puncture. Blssm r inflrescence blight and die back symptms appear. The terminal shts are als dried. Shedding f flwers and nut als takes place. Binmics The adult is a reddish brwn bug with red thrax and black and white abdmen. The eggs are inserted int the epidermis f tender shts, axis f inflrescence, the buds and midribs. The eggs are sausage shaped, 2 mm lng, slightly cvered with a pair f breathing filaments which prject ut its perculum. The egg perid is 5 t 7 days. Nymphal perid is 15 days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

399 The reddish brwn and ant like nymphs underges five instars. The life cycle is cmpleted in 22 days. This pest attacks guava, cca, pepper, cinchna, tamarind, mang, neem, cttn and avcad. Management Spray Dimethate 0.03 % /litre + urea 3% thrice. The first at the time f emergence f new flushes the secnd at flral frmatin and the third at fruit set. Remve dead wd and criss crss branches in cashew plantatins atleast nce in tw t three years will help in effective spraying f insecticides against the pest. 1. Leaf miner- Acrcercps syngramma M. (Gracillaridae: Lepidptera) The larva mines int the tender leaves causing whitish bltches. Binmics The adult is silvery greyish mth with fringes f hairs n the wing margins. The larva is reddish brwn in clur. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

400 2. Wild silk mth- Cricula trifenestrata H. (Saturnidae: Lepidptera) It causes defliatin. Binmics The adult mth is reddish brwn in clur, female mth has 3 clear hyaline spts, in fre wings and a smaller ne in the center f hind wings. The caterpillar is stut, dark brwn in clur. They pupate in glden yellw silken ccn. The pupae are als reddish brwn in clur and abut 40mm lng. Management Spray quinlphs 25 EC 2 ml/litre f water. 3. Hairy caterpillar - Metanastna hyrtaca C, (Lasicampidae: Lepidptera) The hairy caterpillar feeds n leaves causing defliatin. Binmics The adult is stut grayish brwn mth exhibiting sexual dimrphism. Male mth has pectinate antenna and chclate brwn patch in the middle f fre wings. Female mth is bigger in size with lnger and brader wings Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

401 having wavy transverse bands. The larva is ncturnal, cylindrical grayish brwn, stut and hairy. Management Kill the aggregating larvae n the bark using a trch f fire r with a bucketful f cw dung slurry during the day time in husehlds. Spray fish il rsin sap t kill the larva because f asphyxiatin. Spray dimethate 0.03% r carbaryl 0.1 % r malathin 0.1%. 4. Slug caterpillar - Parasa lepida Cramer. (Cchlididae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar feeds n the leaves gregariusly in the beginning, subsequently they disperse. It causes severe defliatin. Binmics The adult mth is stut with wing expanse f 4.0 cm and having green wings fringed with brwn patches. The eggs are laid in batches f n the under surface f leaves. The eggs are vals flat scale- like in shape. The fecundity is n an average 167 eggs / female. The egg perid is 7 days. The caterpillar is fleshy, slug-like with yellwish green bdy bearing a greenish blue stripe drsally and yellwish green stripes laterally. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

402 The larval perid is 5-6 weeks underges seven instars. It pupates in a hard shield - like greyish ccn n the tree trunks fr 4-5 weeks. Management Set up light traps t mnitr and kill the adult mths. Spray the crwn with carbaryl 0.1 % (r) dichlrvs 0.02 % r malathin 0.05 % slutin. In severe cases, rt feeding f mncrtphs as explained earlier under leaf eating caterpillar may be taken up with safety precautins. Cllect all the stages f pests viz. eggs n tree trunks, leaves, larvae during migratin stage, pupae in sil and leaf sheath and adult mth during emergence and destructin. Organise mass cllectin campaign invlving farmers, schl children and cllege students. Spray 2 ml / litre using specially designed tractr munted tall tree sprayer. Dust methyl parathin r endsulfan 1 kg / tree using pwer perated bellwed crane duster t reach tall trees. Encurage the predatry birds t pick up the larval stages. 5. Leaf twisting weevil - Apderus tranquebaricus Fab. (Curculinidae: Cleptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

403 The adult weevil has the habit f cutting and twisting the mang leaves int shapely thimble like rlls which remain attached t the parent leaves. The grub feeds n the leaf tissue within the leaf rll. Binmics The adult weevil is medium sized, reddish brwn with a lng snut. Eggs are laid in each leaf rll. The grub pupates within the leaf rll. Management Spray insecticides like mncrtphs at 1.25 ml r Dimethate 0.03 % / litre f water t check the spread f infestatin. 6. Lper - Oenspila flavifuscata W, (Gemetridae: Lepidptera) The larva infests the leaf margins cause defliatin. 1. Red banded thrips - Slenthrips rubcinctus G. (Thripidae: Thysanptera) Bth nymphs and adults infest the leaves and cause crinkling discluratin and leaf drp. 2. Thrips - Rhipiphrthrips crueniatus Hd. (Thripidae: Thysanptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

404 Bth nymphs and adults lacerate the leaves and suck the sap. The infested leaves shws silvery white patches n leaves with excreta. 3. Flwer thrips - Scirtthrips drsalis (Thripidae: Thysanptera) Bth nymphs and adults lacerate the tender tissues and suck the exuding sap. The infested leaves begin t curl dwnwards frm the margin twards the mid rib. Heavily infested trees exhibits sickly and faded appearance, which can be recgnized even frm distance. Binmics The adult is minute measuring 1 mm in length. It is yellwish brwn insect, with fringed wings. It reprduces parthengenetically. The fecundity is eggs per female. It lays eggs n the lwer surface f leaves by inserting them singly in the tissues alng the mid rib f tender leaves. The eggs are renifrm and hyaline when laid but turn pale yellw just befre hatching. The egg perid is abut 4-6 days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

405 The nymphs are pale yellw and wingless. They mult 2-3 times passing thrugh 3-4 instars in days accrding t the prevailing temperature. Full grwn nymphs underg tw resting stages called pre-pupa and pupa. The pupal perid lasts fr 6-10 days. Management Sprays water twice r thrice during thrips ut break helps t reduce its ppulatin lad appreciably. Spray mncrtphs 36 WSC 1.5 ml r endsulfan 35 EC 2ml/ml r quinalphs 25 EC 2.0 ml / litre f water. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

406 Lecture N. 27 Pest Management in Mint, betel vine, senna MINT 1. Lace wing bug - Cchlchila bullita (Tingidae: Hemiptera) The nymphs and adults desap frm the under surface f leaves. The infested leaves turn brwn and gradually dry up. The stunted plant grwth and presence f chlrtic spt n the leaf surface are the symptm f attack. Binmics The adult bug is yellw in clur. The nymph is small, lng flat and black in clur. 1. Cut wrm - Agrtis segetum Dams and Schifffer Muller. (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) The caterpillar cuts the seedling at the grund level and eats tender parts. Binmics The adult nctuid mth is pale whitish brwn in clur. The fre wings are yellwish brwn with waxy lines and marginal series f specks. 2. Semilper - Plusia richalcea Fab. (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

407 The caterpillar cuts the edges f lamina, flds it ver the leaf and feed frm within the leaf rll causing defliatin. Binmics The adult is stut dark brwn with shiny fre wings. The larva is green the bdy having black warts and hump n its anal segment. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

408 OPIUM POPPY Lecture N.29 Pest Management in Lng pepper, medicinal yam, Aswagandha, Sarpagandha, Opium pppy and geranium 1. Rt weevil - Sterncarus fuliginsus (Curculinidae: Cleptera) Grubs feed n rts. Management Apply lindane 1.3 D 25 kg/ha n sil at planting is it available in market. 2. Cutwrm-Agrtis suffusa (Nctuidae: Lepidptera) Larva cuts yunger plants at the base abve grund level. Larva remains cncealed in cracks in the grund and becme active at night. Binmics Larva is dark with red clured head. 3. Green peach aphid - Myzus persicae (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Bth nymphs and adults suck sap frm leaves. Bdy clur f apterus frm is yellwish green and rarely reddish. 4.Gram pd brer - Helicverpa armigera (Nctuidae: Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

409 Lepidptera) Larva feeds n flwer heads and seeds. Adult is a medium sized mm with 'V' shaped speck and dull black brder n hind wing. Full-grwn larva is greenish with dark brwn grey lines alng sides f bdy. Spherical, yellwish white eggs are laid singly n buds and flwers. Binmics Larval perid lasts fr 15 t 20 days. It pupates in the sil and pupal perid is 10 t 15 days. Management Hand pick and destry larvae. Use phermne traps t attract and kill adult mths. Spray dimethate 0.03 % /l. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

410 Lecture N.30 Imprtant insect pests attacking stred fruits and plantatins I. Internal feeders 1. Rice weevil - Sitphilus yzae Linn. S. zeamais, S. granarius (Curculinidae : Cleptera) Nature f damage Bth grubs and adults cause damage t grains. Adult weevil cuts circular hles f 1.5 mm. dia n grains. During heavy infestatin heating takes place which is knwn as dry heating. The grub feeds internal cntent f the grain. It attacks the grains f rice, wheat, srghum, barley, maize befre harvest and in stre. Binmics The adult weevil is small in size f 3 mm reddish brwn r chclate t almst black clur having characteristic beak r snut. The antenna is elbwed and slightly clubbed. The elytra have 4 yellw spts. The female makes a cavity n the grain and depsits white translucent eggs singly and cvers it with gelatinus fluid. The fecundity f weevil is eggs per female. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

411 The grub is white, apdus with yellwish brwn head, which feeds inside the grain. The larval duratin is abut 20 days. It pupates inside grain itself fr 3-6 days. The adult lngevity is 3-5 mnths. The life cycle ccupies 26 days at 30 C and 75% relative humidity. 2. Lesser grain brer - Rhyzpertha dminica Fab.(Bstrychidae: Cleptera) Nature f damage Bth grubs and adults make irregular hles f 1 mm diameter n the grain and feeds n the internal cntent f it. The grain r kernels are reduced t mere pwder. It attacks paddy, rice, wheat and maize. Binmics The adult beetle is dark brwn measuring abut 3 mm in length. The head is deflexed dwnwards with a pair f antenna having serrated and three segmented club. There is a prminent cnstrictin between prthrax and elytra..it lays eggs singly r in clusters n the surface f cereal grains. A single female lays eggs up t 550. The grub is white, apdus with brwn head. It develps within the grain r kernel and feeds n starchy material. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

412 It pupates inside the grain after 3rd instar. The ttal life cycle is cmpleted in 25 days under ptimum cnditins. 3. Cigarette r tbacc beetle -Lasiderma serricrne Fb.(Anbiidae: Cleptera) Nature f damage Bth grubs and adults bre int tbacc prducts viz., cigarettes, cherts and chewing tbacc. Presence f circular pin head sized bre hles n prcessed tbacc is the typical symptm f attack. It als attacks the grain f wheat, peanut, cca, bean, cttn seed etc. Binmics Adult light brwn rund beetle with its thrax and head bent dwnwards and this presents a strngly humped appearance t the insect. The elytra have minute hairs n them. Antenna is f unifrm thickness. The creamy white val eggs are laid n the surface f stred material and the incubatin perid is 9-14 days. The larval and pupal perids range respectively frm days and 2-8 days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

413 Grub whitish hairy grub feed n stred tbacc, ginger, turmeric and chillies. 4. Drug stre beetle - Stegbium paniceum Linn. (Anbiidae: Cleptera) Nature f damage Circular pinhead sized bre hle n turmeric, criander, ginger, dry vegetable and animal matter. Binmics Adult reddish brwn small beetle has striated elytra and measures 3mm lng. Antenna is clubbed. It lays the eggs in batches f Grub is nt hairy but is pale white, fleshy with the abdmen terminating in tw dark hrny pints. LP: and PPL 8-12 days. 5. Pulse beetle - Callsbruchus thebrmae Linn.(Bruchidae: Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

414 Nature f damage Cleptera) Grub alne eats away the entire seed cntent make a cavity. Adult beetles are harmless and d nt feed n stred prduce at all. The infestatin starts in the field itself frm where the infestatin is carried ver t gdwn and pulse seed with rund exit hles and cigar like eggs cnsented f them. It attacks all whle pulses, bean and gram. Binmics Adult is brwnish grey clured with characteristic elevated ivry like spts near the middle f the drsal side. Elytra d nt cver the abdmen fully. It lays eggs singly and glued n the surface f pd in the field r n grain in stres. The egg perid is abut 5 days. The grub is fleshy, white, creamy in clur which mulds fur times. Grub bres int the pd r grain. The larval perid lasts fr days. It pupates in a pupal cell prepared beneath the seed cat. Pupal perid last fr 4 days in summer and tw weeks in winter. The life cycle is cmpleted in 23 days at 30C and 70% relative humidity. 6. Tamarind beetle - Pachymeres gnagra Fb. (Bruchidae: Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

415 Nature f damage Cleptera) Circular hles n fruits f tamarind bth in tree and strage. Binmics Adult small grey clured beetle. 7. Angumis grain mth - Sittrga cerealella Olivier (Gelechiidae: Lepidptera) Nature f damage The larva bres int the grain and feeds n the internal cntent f it. Exit hles f 1 mm diameter with r withut a trap dr n the damaged grain are typical symptms f attack. It attacks paddy, maize, srghum, barley and wheat befre harvest and in stre. Binmics The adult mth has pale fre wings and unifrmly grey pinted wings with fringe f hairs. It lays abut 100 white eggs singly in stres r fields n the surface f damp grains. The egg perid is 4-30 days. The larva is white in clur with yellw head measuring 5 mm in length. It underges fur instars. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

416 It feeds in side and remain in a single grain nly. It ver winters in pupal stage. It spins a ccn and pupates fr 7 days II. External feeders 1. Red flur beetle - Triblium castaneum Herbst.(Tenebrinidae: Cleptera) Nature f damage Bth grubs and adults feed n milled prducts. Adult beetles are readily bserved even in mderately infested stred fds. They cnstruct tunnels as they mve thrugh flur and ther granular fd prducts. In additin they release gaseus quinnes t the medium which may prduce a readily identifiable acid dr in heavy infestatins. It attacks brken grains r mechanically damaged grains and milled prducts. Binmics The beetle is small, blng, flat, brwn in clur measuring 3-4mm in length. In T. cnfusium the cmpund eyes are cmpletely ntched and antennae are nt gradualy thickened in the latter where as in T. castaneum nt ntch is nt cmplete and antennae have a clear 3 segmented club. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

417 It lays eggs in stred grain at randm fr several mnths. The eggs are white and cylindrical. The egg perid is 5-12 days. The grub is white wrm like having tw spine like appendages at the last abdminal segment. The larval perid is 3-12 weeks. The pupal stage lasts fr 5-9 days. The life cycle is cmpleted in 3-4 weeks at C at 70% relative humidity. 2. Indian meal mth - Pldia interpunctella Huebn (Phycitidae: Lepidptera) Nature f damage The larvae feed n the grain and cntaminate with excrement, webbing, dead individuals and ccns. It attacks maize cereals, dry fruits grundnuts and cereal prducts. Binmics The adult mth has brwn fre wins with white band. It lays greyish white clured eggs n the surface f grain. The fecundity f this insect is eggs per female. The egg perid is 2-17 days. The larva is dirty white in clur. The larval perid is days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

418 It pupates in silken ccns fr 10 days. The life cycle is cmpleted in abut 5-6 weeks. 3. Fig mth - Ephestia cautella Walk. (Phycitidae: Lepidptera) Nature f damage The larva mainly feeds n germ prtin leaving the rest f the kernel undamaged. It frms webs n the surface f cmmdity r n the bags by silk and silk strands. It attacks wheat, rice, maize, srghum, grundnut and spices. Binmics The small mth has dirty white t grayish wings with indistinct black bands abut 4 mm frm the head. It lays eggs n grains expsed at the sampling tube spts in jute bags. The caterpillar is grayish white, hairy with dark brwn head with 2 dark areas n the first segment behind the head. It pupates in a silken ccn at the junctin f tw verlapping edges f stalked bags. The adult lngevity is 14 days. The entire cycle is cmpleted in 25 days. 4. Rice mth - Crcyra cephalnica Staint. (Galleriidae: Lepidptera) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

419 Nature f damage: The larva feeds n the grains and pllutes them with frass, mult and dense webbings. It attacks rice, srghum, ther millets whle cereals, deals, prcessed prducts f cereals, pulses ilseeds, nuts, dry fruits and milled spices. Binmics: Adult mth has pale yellwish green fre wings and grey white hind wings. It lays small, val, elliptical eggs n walls, bags r n grain. The egg perid is 3-5 days. The larva is creamy with prthracic shield. The grwn up larva is fleshy, 12 mm in size. It pupates in a silken ccn sticking n t gunny bags. The pupal perid is 10 days. 5. Khapra beetle - Trgderma granarium Everts. (Dermestidae: Cleptera) Nature f damage It chews up the seed cat in an irregular manner n all cereals and reduces the grain int frass. It attacks wheat, maize srghum, rice, pulses, ilseeds and their cakes. Binmics Adult beetle is reddish brwn measuring 4-6 mm in length. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

420 The male beetles are smaller than females in size. It lays abut eggs. The yellwish brwn grubs are clthed with lng hairs. The grubs are active, mve and feed freely. It pupates n the surface f the grain in bulk and verlapping edges f bags. The pupal perid last fr 5-8 days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

421 Lecture N. 31 Secndary pests and scavengers f stred prduct 1. Saw tthed grain beetle - Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linn.(Cucujidae: Cleptera) Nature f damage It feeds n grains, dried fruits etc. by scarving f grain surface r burrwing hles in them. It attacks rice, wheat, maize, cereal prducts, il seeds and dry fruits. Binmics It is slender, dark brwn, narrw, flattened beetle having a rw f saw like sharp teeth n each side f the prthrax. The antenna is clubbed and elytra cver abdmen cmpletely. It lays 300 whitish eggs lsely in cracks f strage receptacles f gdwn. The eggs perid is 3-17 days. The larva is sender, pale cream in clur with n slightly darken patches n each segment. The larval perid is days. It pupates in a prtective ccn like cvering with sticky secretin. The pupal perid is 7-21 days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

422 2. Lng headed flur beetle - Latheticus ryzae Water huse.(tenebrinidae: Cleptera) Nature f damage Bth grubs and adults beetles feed n the milled prducts. It ccurs as secndary infestatin in stred grain. It attacks cereal flur, packaged fd, rice and rice prducts. Binmics The beetle is light brwn in clur with elngated bdy, measuring 2-3 mm in length and resembles Triblium castaneum. It lays 400 white eggs singly n grain and seams f the bags. The incubatin perid is 7-12 days. The grub is small, white active which feeds vraciusly. The larval perid is days. It pupates fr 5-10 days. Life cycle is cmpleted in 25 days at 35 C and 70% relative humidity. 3. Flat grain beetle - Cryptlestes minutus Olivier.(Cucujidae: Cleptera) Bth grubs and adults feed n brken grains r n milled prducts. In case f heavy infestatin it cause heating in grain and flur. It attacks rice, maize, wheat with excessive brken, different flurs, grundnut particularly with high mistures and muldy grain. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

423 Binmics It is smallest amunt the stred grain insect pests. It is light t dark reddish brwn beetle measuring 1.5 mm t 2.0 mm. It lays white eggs lsely in flur, grain r crevices. The egg perid is 5 days. The larva is cigar like, yellwish white with tw reddish brwn spts at anal segment. The larval perid is 21 days. It pupates in a gelatinus ccn. The life cycle is cmpleted in 42 days. 4. Grain lice - Lipscelis divinitrius Muli. (Pscptera) They are scavengers affecting nly germ prtin in heavy infestatin..it thrives n insect fragments and brken grains. It attacks all starchy material. Binmics It is pale grey r yellwish white clured, small, pin head sized luse with filifrm antenna. It lays abut 7-60 eggs. The metamrphsis is incmplete. 5. Grain mite - Acarus sir Linn. (Acarina) Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

424 It feeds n the surface f the grains. It attacks cereal grains, flur and ther eatables. Binmics It is pale straw t dark reddish brwn mite. It lays abut 100 eggs. The eggs are hatched int 6 legged larvae which muld int nymphs. There are 1-3 instars. The life cycle is cmpleted in 9-12 days at 23 C and 70% relative humidity. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

425 Lecture N. 32 Integrated Management f Stred Prduce Pests Cntrl methds The cntrl methds f stred prduce pests can be categrized int preventive and curative measures. A. Preventive measures Brush the cracks, crevices and crners t remve all debris in the gdwn. Clean and maintain the threshing flr / yard free frm insect infectin and away frm the vicinity f villages. Clean the machines like harvester and thresher befre their use. Made the trucks, trlleys r bullck carts free frm infestatin. Clean the gdwns/strage structures befre string the newly harvested crp t eliminate varius bi stages f pest hiding. Prvide a metal sheet upt a height f 25 cm at the bttm f the wd in drs t arrest the entry f rats. Fix up wire meshes t windws, ventilatrs, gutters, drains etc. t prevent entry f rats, birds and squirrels. Remve and destry dirt, rubbish, sweepings and webbings etc. frm the stres. Clse all the rat burrws fund in gdwn with a mixture f brken glass pieces and mud and plastered with mud / cement. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

426 Plaster the cracks, crevices, hles fund n walls, and flrs with mud r cement and white wash the stres befre string f grains. Prvide dunnage leaving gangway r alleyway f 0.75 t 1 m all arund t maintain gd strage cnditin. Stre the fd grains in rat and misture prf strage structures. Disinfest the strage structures receptacles by spraying malathin 50 3 lit 100 m befre their use. B. Curative measures i. Eclgical methds Manipulate the eclgical factrs like temperature, misture cntent, and xygen thrugh design and cnstructin f strage structures/gdwn and strage t create eclgical cnditins unfavrable fr attack by insects. Temperature abve 42C and belw 15C retards reprductin and develpment f insect while prlnged temperature abve 45C and belw 10C may kill the insects. Dry the prduce t have misture cntent belw 10% t prevent the buildup f pests. Kill the pests bi stages hrbured in the strage bags, bins etc. by drying in the sun light. Stre the grains at arund 10% misture cntent t escape frm the insects attack. Manipulate and reduce xygen level by 1% t increase the CO2 level autmatically, which will be lethal t all the stages f insects. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

427 ii. Physical methds Prvide a super heating system by infrared heaters in the flr mills and fd prcessing plant t btain effective cntrl f pests since mstly the stred prduce insects' die at 55-60C in minutes. Mdify the strage atmsphere t generate lw xygen (2.4% and t develp high carbn dixide ( ) by adding CO2 t cntrls the insects. Seed purpse Mix 1 kg f activated kalin (r) lindane 1.3 D (r) Malathin 5 D fr every 100 kg f seed and stre / pack in gunny r plythene lined bags. Grain purpse Mix 1 kg activated kalin fr every 100 kg f grain and stre. T prtect the pulse grains, mix activated kalin at the abve dsage r any ne f the edible ils at 1 kg fr every 100 kg f grin r mix 1 kg f neem seed kernel fr every 100 kg f cereal r pulse and stre. D nt mix synthetic insecticides with grains meant fr cnsumptin. iii. Cultural methds Split and stre pulses t escape frm the attack by pulse beetle since it prefers t attack whle pulses and nt split nes. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

428 Stre the fd grains in airtight sealed structures t prevent the infestatin by insects. iv. Mechanical methds Sieve and remve all brken grains t eliminate the cnditin which favur strage pests. Stitch all trn ut bags befre filling the grains. v. Chemical methds Treat the walls, dunnage materials and ceilings f empty gdwn with Malathin 50 EC 10 ml / 1 (r) DDVP 76 WSC 7 ml / 1 at 31 spray slutin / 10 sq.m. Treat the alleways and gangways with Malathin 50 EC 10 ml / 1 r DDVP 76 WSC 7 ml / 1 (1 litre f spray fluid / 270 M3). Spray Malathin 50 EC 10 ml / 3 1 f spray fluid / 100 M2 ver the bags. D nt spray the insecticides directly n fd grains. Use knck dwn chemicals like lindane smke generatr r fumigant strips pyrethrum spray t kill the flying insects and insects n surfaces, cracks and crevices. Use seed prtectants like pyrethrum dust, carbaryl dust t mix with grains meant fr seed purpse nly. Decide the need fr shed fumigatin based n the intensity f infestatin. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

429 Check the black plythene sheets r rubberized aluminum cvers fr hles and get them ready fr fumigatin. Use EDB ampules (available in different sizes f 3 ml, 6 ml, 10 ml, 15 ml and 30 ml) at 3 ml / quintal. At fr wheat the pulses and 5 ml / quintal fr rice and paddy (D nt recmmend EDB fr fumigatin f flur il seeds and mist grains). Use EDCT (available in tin cntainers f 500 ml, 1 liter and 5 litres) at litres / 100 cubic meter in large-scale strage and 55 ml/quintal in small-scale strage. Use fumigants like Ethylene dibrmide (EDB), Ethylene dichlride carbn tetra chlride (EDCT), Aluminium phsphide (ALP) t cntrl stred prduce pests effectively. Apply Aluminium phsphide (available in 0.6 g and 3 gram 2 tablets (3 gram each) per tnne f fd grains lt with help f an applicatr. Chse the fumigant and wrk ut the requirement based n the fllwing guidelines. 3 tablets f aluminum phsphide 3 g each per tnne f grain (Fr cver fumigatin) 21 tablets f aluminium phsphide 3 g each fr 28 cubic meters (Fr shed fumigatin) Perid f fumigatin is 5 days. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

430 Mixclay r red earth with water and make it int a paste frm and keep it ready fr plastering all rund the fumigatin cver r keep ready sand snakes (Fr cver fumigatin). Place the required number f aluminium phsphide tablets in between the bags in different layer. Cver the bags immediately with fumigatin cver. Plaster the edges f cver all rund with wet red earth r clay plaster r weigh dwn with sand sankes t make leak prf. Keep the bags fr a perid f 5-7 days under fumigatin based n fumigant chsen. Remve the mud plaster after specified fumigatin perids and lift cver in the crner t allw the residual gas t escape. Lift the cver after few hurs t allw aeratin. General precautins Read the label carefully and fllw the instructins given by manufactures Keep the pesticides in labelled cntainers nly Stre pesticides under lck and key beynd the reach f children D nt stre insecticides near fd stuff and stre them in cl places Never use empty cntainers fr any ther purpses except fr insecticides Destry and dump the waste cntainers Wash hands with sap and water after using pesticides D nt use mth fr cleaning nzzles etc. f sprayers. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

431 Avid swallwing, inhalatin, r cntact with skin as far as pssible. Keep first air bx ready alng with universal antidte. Activated charcal 2 parts + tannic acid 1 part + magnesium xide 1 part (Dse: 15 grams in half tumblers f water). Cnsult a dctr in case f signs f illness eg. giddiness, nausea, head ache, blurred visin, vmiting, depressin, respiratry prblem and infrm abut the pesticide the patient had handled. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

432 Lecture N. 33 Integrated pest management f rdent pests Intrductin Integrated pest management is a system which in the cntext f the assciated envirnment and the ppulatin dynamics f the pest species, utilize all suitable techniques and methds in a cmpatible way and maintains pest ppulatins at levels belw the ecnmics injury level. Rdent cntrl is a prblem f applied eclgy factrs int management plity. The primary aim is t reduce damage, rather than t kill the pest. Hwever, mst ften this is achieved by use f a lethal chemical. Hwever, if lethal cntrl is fllwed by rapid immigratin then the damage reductin may be shrt lived. Thus it is imprtant t take accunt f spatial dynamics f the pest. Simple eclgical thery treats a ppulatin as a grup f rganisms in ne place at ne time, the number f which change thrugh time accrding t the number f births, deaths, immigrants and emigrants. Althugh rdents have ptentiality fr fast breeding, the gemetrical prgressin is cuntered by varius limiting factrs perated by nature. Implantatin failure, intra uterine mrtality, maternal cannibalism and pstnatal mrtality due t scial strife etc. limit their number. Hwever, the higher carrying capacity f crp fields result in maintaining mre number f rdents resulting in significant crp lsses. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

433 A number f vegetables, grundnut, pulses, sugarcane, cttn bll finger millet, sesame and tender ccnuts in the field and als stred grains in ware huse and stre rms are damaged by rats and nice. Rats are amng the mst destructive pests f paddy in field causing abut 5-10% damage. It has been estimated that there are abut 2500 millin rats in ur cuntry. Five species f rats and three species f mice are imprtant pests f cultivated crps in the field in Tamil Nadu. They are as fllws. 6. Mle rat r lesser bandict r field rat - Bandicta bengalensis 7. Bandict rat - Bandicta indica 8. Grass rat - Millardia meltada 9. Gerbil rat - Tatera indica 10. Cmmn huse rat - Rattus rattus rufescens 11. Indian field muse - Mus bduga 12. Brwn ring muse - Mus platythrix 13. Huse muse - Mus musculus 1. Mle rat - Bandicta bengalensis Gray. (Muridae: Rdentia) Nature f damage The rat enters the paddy nursery and nibbles the seeds. After transplantatin the seedlings are cut. In shrt stage it cuts the tillers and the affected area is seen as circular patches in a field. The rat revisits the same area next night and spread the damage. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

434 It cuts ear heads and carries t its burrw and in a burrw up t 2 kg f harded grain can be nticed. It als feeds n pulses, grasses and grains. Binmics The rat lives in burrws made in the sides f bunds channel bunds and in waste lands adjining the fields. Mle rat is rbust, dark brwn t black with a shrt, stumpy truncated and pig like face. Tail has scaly rings, nrmally smaller but smetimes equal t head and bdy. The adults weigh 300 grams. It breeds rund the year with 5-8 litters year. Life span is apprximately 7-8 mnths. It is expert in digging burrws, excellent swimmer and aggressive fighter. 2. Bandict rat - Bandicta indica Bechstein. (Muridae: Rdentia) Nature f damage It weakens the fundatin f walls, river bunds, railway tracts by making bug burrws. It cuts the tillers / leaves in the rice field and reduce the yield drastically. It hards grain in burrws. It feeds n grain in burrws. It feeds n grain, animal prducts, meat etc. in stres. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

435 Binmics It is the largest rat in size with a fercius lk and brwnish t black in clur head is brad, truncated, pinted with lng black whiskers. Eyes are small with white eye brrws and ears are shrt, runded paque and nude. Fur is thick carse with spines. It weighs abut grams. The tail is equal t the length f bdy but nt unifrmly tapering Drppings are scattered and spindle shaped. 3. Grass rat - Millardia meltada Gray. (Muridae: Rdentia) Bdy small and slender, dark brwnish grey abve and pale grey belw with sft fur. Head and bdy is abut 13 cm lng and tail 10 cm lng. The burrws f the grass rat are similar t that f the mle rat excepting that they are smaller in length and diameter and that usually mre than ne adult rat ccupies a single burrw. It attacks rice in all stages and feeds upn yung germinating grains. It damages green cttn blls in black cttn sils. 4. Gerbil rat - Tatera indica Hrdwicke. (Muridae: Rdentia) It is reddish grey in clur with white under side and it equals the cmmn huse rat in size with abut 18 cm lng head and bdy and a hairy tail little lnger than the head and bdy. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

436 It generally feeds n grams, grass, rts and fruits. 5. Cmmn huse rat- Rattus rattus rufescens Linn. (Muridae: Rdentia) Nature f damage It feeds upn all kinds f vegetable and animal fd. Its damage is great in ware huse and strage gdwns n vegetable grains and preserved fd materials. It is respnsible fr plague. Binmics It is brwnish grey with dark under surface. It has small eyes, large sparsely hairy ears and pinted snut. The tail is unifrmly dark clured and is equal t the size f bdy plus head. It weighs abut gram. The drppings are banana shaped and fund scattered. It has 5-7 litters per year, each having 6-14 yung nes after gestatin perid f abut 25 days. The life span is 1 year in field and 2 years in labratry cnditin. It lives in rts f huses and undergrund burrws. 6. Indian field muse - Mus bduga Gray. (Muridae: Rdentia) It is abut 5 t 8 cm lng with 5 cm lng tail. It is brwn in clur with a white belly. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

437 It burrws in field bunds causing extensive damage t bunds and wastage f water. It prduces 3 t 9 yung nes per litter. It cuts and remves grains frm rice crp. It feeds n gram and grain. 7. Brwn ring muse - Mus platythrix (Muridae: Rdentia) Bdy-small, fur crisp and tends t be spiny grayer basally, brwner terminally, abve dark brwn t pale brwn, under part with a clear line f demarcatin alng the sides. Tail stut averaging belw 90% f the length f the bdy. It feeds n grains and grasses. 8. Huse muse - Mus musculus Linn. (Muridae: Rdentia) Nature f damage It feeds n cereals, cereal prducts, vegetables, meat, fat, carbhydrates etc. It als damage wden furnitures, paper clthes, rubber and leather gds etc. It cnsumes 3-4 grams per day. Binmics Adult is dark brwn t sandy brwn rat with shrt hairs, undersurface light grey. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

438 It weighs abut grams. Tail is lnger than head and bdy and drpping are scattered and spindle shaped. There are 8 litters per year with gestatin perid f 19 days. 9. Brwn rat f ship rat - Rattus nrvegius Birken (Muridae : Rdentia) Nature f damage It feeds n gains damages bags, cartns and pllutes gain with excreta, drpping and hairs. Binmics Adult is sft skinned brwnish grey rat with whitish belly. It weighs abut grams. The snut is wide and blunt. The tail is shrter than head and bdy. There are 6-14 liters per year with a litter size f 5-7 yung nes. The gestatin perid is 4 weeks. The life span is ne year. Integrated Rdent Management The fllwing integrated appraches can be adpted fr the management f rdents bth in field and strage. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

439 1) Cultural methds 2) mechanical methds 3) bilgical methds and 4) chemical methds. I. Field 1. Cultural methds Dig burrws and kill rats at the beginning f crp seasn while rectifying bunds fr cultivatin and plan t have narrw bunds in the field, which are adequate fr the rats t cnstruct furrws. Avid keeping hay stakes near the fields as they prvide excellent harbrage fr rats. Plugh the field deeply up t 18" t unearth rat burrws and t expse the rats t enemies like cats and kites befre the swing peratin. Fld the field with water t suffcate and kill the rats. Organise campaigns t dig ut rat burrws and kill them sn after the harvest. 2. Mechanical methds Kill the slitary rats by sticks and brms Set up indigenus lcal trap like bw traps at per acre. 3. Bilgical methds Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

440 Keep up the trained dgs t prey upn rats r even dig ut rats frm burrws by smelling. Cnserve snakes and mangses t reduce the rat ppulatins. Set up wl perches in the paddy field t reduce rate damage. 4. Chemical Methds a. Single dse pisn Use acute r single dse pisin bait at 1 part Zinc phsphide with 49 parts ppped crn / rich / dry fish. b. Multi dse pisn Use ready t feed anticagulant like warfarin 0.5% cakes t cause bld haemrrhage in rats. Prepare dry bait by mixing flur (ie. cereals r millets) 450 g (4 tea cupful) any edible il 10 g (2 teaspnful) sugar r jaggery 15 g (3 teaspnful) and anticagulant, warfarin 0.5% 25 g (5 teaspnful) fr effective rat cntrl. Prepare water-sluble bait by mixing 1 part anticagulant and 19 parts f water (2.5 grams f anticagulant disslved in 475 ml f water). Use ready t use secnd generatin anticagulant namely brmdilne at 125 grams (1 teacupful). Befre prviding pisn bait keep the plain r nn pisned bait fr 2-3 days as a pre bait t make the rats used t the fd prvided. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

441 c. Fumigatin Cntrl the rats by fumigating the burrws with aluminium phsphide tablets during the prcess f baiting with rdenticides. Plug the entry hles f all rat burrws and lcate the burrws which have the entrance pened by the rats and inset tw tablets each f 0.5 r 0.6 g aluminium phsphide per burrw. II. Strage Cnstruct the pucca masnry cement cncrete strage structures n plinth f 75 cm high withut steps r ladder. Plaster the walls and flrs f gdwns with cement. Prvide a metal sheet up t height f 25 cm at the bttm f the wden drs and fit the wire meshes t windws, ventilatrs, gutters, and drains t prevent the entry f rats, birds and squirrels. Plug the rat hles and plaster with glass pieces and cement. Prvide autmatic dr clsures in huses t prevent the entry f rat. Prepare and keep dry bait and water bait with rdenticide as detailed abve. Keep the bait with multi dse r chrnic anticagulant in small cups n the rat runs, dark places etc. where rat frequently mve. Replace cnsumed bait daily, cllect the rats which begin dying after 5 r 6 days and bury them. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

442 Use als water sluble bait by mixing 25 g water sluble cagulant in 475 ml f water and keep them in shallw cups r plates in a number f places inside the gdwn fr the rats t drink the pisned liquid and get killed. Discntinue the baiting r remve all the baited fd and destry as sn as the rat ppulatin is cntrlled Factrs fr rdent incidence Climate affects the fd supply in nature. Based n this the rdents exhibit unimdal r bimdal peaks in breeding activity ften cinciding with the crp maturity perids. Bimdal pattern f breeding is bserved in Bandicta bengalensis, Millardia meltada, Funambulus pennant, Tatera indica and Merines hurrianae. Hwever, wherever single crpping is practiced unimdal pattern is reprted fr these species in the cuntry. Harburage r cver is an imprtant parameter that limits the rdent infestatin. Weeds affrd bth shelter and fd t the rdents. Bunds with mre vlume have mre weeds, thereby mre rdent infestatin. Similarly, denser fields with mre tiller density affrd cver and energy, which enhance reprductive activity f rdents. Wider spacing and even maintenance f alleys in rice fields prevent rdent damage. Cver / shelter in strage f cmmdities is ne f the majr factrs influencing the rdent ppulatin. Rdents are highly mbile and frm limited scial structures based n a hierarchy. These hme ranges depend n fd reserves, cver, and presence f ther individuals f it r ther species. Hme ranges change Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

443 with altered resurces. Rdents emigrate frm their ecsystems nce the fd surce is remved/shifted. This is particularly imprtant since rat cntrl is dne in sme places at harvest time. They als immigrate very fast. Sustained trapping and pisning which may reduce 80-90% f rdent infestatin ften fail t prevent the damage because f cnstant immigratin frm untrapped and unpisned areas nearby. In cereal crps bting stage attracts rdents, which n arrival settle in the field and start breeding due t abundant availability f quality fd. This is ne f the factrs t planning timing the rdent cntrl peratins. Pre seasnal rat cntrl peratins are vgue in sme f the States. Such cntrl may have limited result due t this dispersal behavir. Further the cmpensatry capacity f the cereal crps befre bting stage als makes it imperative t take up rat cntrl peratins at late tillering stage Mnitring rdent incidence Since the aim is primarily fr damage reductin, but nt individual rat killing, there is a necessity f mnitring the situatin in different ecsystems thrugh either their damage r thrugh their levels f infestatin. The cntrl decisin may be taken depending n the mnitring surveys. Limited wrk undertaken n mnitring indicated that damage index f 15% f rdent affected hills r 2% tiller damage may be taken as threshld value. Lking at Natinal perspective it is recmmended that effrts fr peridic mnitring f rdent infestatin in crp fields at tehsil levels be made Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

444 based n the number f active burrws per hectare (25 burrws per hectare: lw intensity, 25 t 50 burrws/ha: medium intensity and mre than 50 burrws/ha : severe intensity) Rdent management measures Different methds exist in cntrlling rdents. Hwever, each methd has its wn limitatin. The methds that are in vgue and limiting factrs are given belw. Rle f predatrs/bilgical cntrl Snake and wls have been the natural predatrs fr field rdents. Bird perches are used fr attracting wl perching in the nights t facilitate hunting the clnizing rats. The perches shuld be used at tillering stage f the crps t tackling immigrating rdents. Hwever, if these perches are cntinued in later stages, granivrus birds may cause damage t the panicles. Since mst f the predatrs f rdents are general feeders, they ften tend t feed n fd ther than rdents. Cats in residential premises are ne f the examples. Declined rdent ppulatin after harvest f the crps als makes the predatrs t leave the area. There is als smetimes a pssibility f predatin triggering increase in rdent ppulatins after partial remval f the rdents. Attempts were als made with parasites and pathgens t bring successful rdent cntrl. Hwever, the effrts are s far nt fruitful since they als equally affect human ppulatins. Attempts are in prgress t use immun cntraceptin thrugh viral vectrs (VVIC) amng rdents. This Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

445 cmbinatin f inductin f sterility by activating bdy immune respnse thrugh a viral vectr appears t be prmising in mdern rdent management. Labratry results are quite prmising. Hwever, the trials are at infancy stage nly. Physical methds Trap Barrier System (TBS) is being tried in different cuntries emplying fences t the rice farming and fixing traps at different intervals. Trap crp is als is added t attract rats t immigrate by grwing a small patch f the crp n the periphery. Hwever, lking at the cst f fencing and land hldings, it may nt be apprpriate in Indian cnditins t use this methd, althugh the preliminary studies yielded significant results. Hwever, in Nrth-eastern States this methd can be fllwed in jhum cultivatin. Nn lethal electric fencing as a barrier methd were fund t be cst effective and has limited extensin value. Ultrasund and electrmagnetic devices The sense f hearing amng rdents is abve 20kHz thus extending well int ultrasnic range. Ultrasund devices are being used as deterrents t rdent immigratin. Hwever n cnvincing evidence was fund them as effective against rdents. Similarly little scientific supprt was fund fr use f electrmagnetic devices. Chemical repellents Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

446 There is n effective chemical repellent available that is nt als txic. Althugh phermnes appear t be prmising, lt f scientific wrk is required t identify, islate and bring ut the phermnes fr extensin purpse. Trapping Trapping is ne f the ldest methds f animal cntrl. A variety f traps can be used against rdents-live r snap. The efficacy f trapping, whether live r snap trap, depends n peratinal cnditins f the trap, number f traps set, type f bait, place and time f placement. Scientific literature has seldm prved trapping as effective methd against rdents as a measure f reducing their numbers. Hwever, they can be emplyed in cntrlling lcalized infestatins effectively. Tanjr kitties, bamb Palmyra traps are highly effective fr lcalized infestatins. They help in maintaining rdent numbers at a lw level nce they have been reduced by ther methds. Use f rdenticides Generally rdenticides are used fr mass scale rdent cntrl campaigns. Applicatin f rdenticides and envirnmental manipulatin shuld be cnsidered as cmplimentary t each ther rather than alternative appraches. Amalgamating varius methds as abve results in reductin in rdent damage in different situatins Suggested cntrl measures Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

447 The suggested cntrl practices under different situatins fr rdents fr large scale treatments are given belw: In field cnditins Day 1 Make a survey in the area t lcate rdent burrws n the bunds and n mans lands arund the fields. Identify the live rdent burrws, thrugh the presence f sil plugs and faecal pellets. Prepare pisn bait f Brmadilne at 0.005% a.i. in cereal base. Keep the bait apprximately 15 g. wrapped in paper packet inside the burrws. N pre baiting is required while using this anticagulant. [r] Acute rdenticide like zinc phsphide may be used when infestatins are high.keep pre bait f apprximately 20 g. brken grain f staple fd with little amunt f vegetable il. Day 4 Prepare zinc phsphide pisn bait at 2.5% using brken grain f staple fd with vegetable il as binding medium. Keep bait deep inside burrws. Day 5 Clse all rdent burrws. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

448 Lcate dead rdents and bury them. Nrmally mst f the rdents die inside the burrws. Hence, mstly dead rdents cannt be seen. Dear rats may nt be taken as a criterin t evaluate success f any rdenticide. Day 6: Treat the residual burrws with brmadilne based n the situatin. Place 1 piece f Brmadilne wax blck (16.6 g.) r g. f lse Brmadilne bait (0.005% a.i. Brmadilne mixed in bait material) in packets in all the repened burrws. With Brmadilne, rdents die between 3-10 days after the placement f bait material. In rdent endemic areas r when the rdent prblem is quite serius, fumigant like aluminium phsphide may be used t treat all the residual rdent burrws in the field cnditins. At each time f fumigatin enblck treatment shuld be fllwed. Fumigatin by individual farmers at different times shuld nt be encuraged. Residual burrws are the repened burrws after clsure f the burrw entrances with mud ne day prir t the bservatins. The fllwing prcedure may be fllwed while using aluminium phsphide fumigatin. Cver the nse and muth with a cttn clth. Cver hands with glves / plythene cver. Take a tube/pipe Take tw Aluminium phsphide pellets. Insert the tube deep inside the rdent burrw. Leave the Aluminium phsphide pellets inside the tube. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

449 Remve the tube/pipe and clse the burrw. Fumigatin shuld be dne under the technical guidance and strict supervisin f fficials frm the State Department f Agriculture In Residential Premises / strage situatins Inspectin f the residential premises fr rdent infestatin is t be perfrmed as a first step. The prcedure f the inspectin is as fllws. 1. Observe the fllwing arund the premises and mark them n the layut f the area. Rdent burrws Drainage canals Hles at the base f cmpund wall Garbage dumps 2. Observe the fllwing n the building / premises and mark them. Branches f trees verhung n the premises Wires frm ples t the premises Hles in the walls Drainage pipes 3. Observe fr rdent signs inside the premises, rm wise and mark them. Faecal pellets adjining walls r crners Rat hles, if any, active/inactive Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

450 Rat/muse paw markings Rat runways Rat smears n beams, wiring etc. Base f the drs fr space Windws/ventilatrs cnnecting any wiring r n rf Drainage Special care shuld be taken while inspecting strage areas. Based n the layut marked the fllwing actins may be initiated based n the severity/intensity f the prblem; Hygiene and Sanitatin Prper cleanliness f the premises. Left ver fds and empty fd tins shuld be kept in dustbin with tightly fitted lids. Remve piles f rubbish, timber and bricks near the gdwns/huses. Rdent prfing Use mdern rdent prf strage structure r imprve the existing nes. Fix wire meshes (24 gauge) t all windws, ventilatrs, gutters and drains Fix 25 cm. metal sheet lining r rubber sheet at the bttm f the drs Clse the rdent burrws with cncrete and cement. Remve the branches f the trees ver hung n the gdwns. Pisn baiting Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

451 Step 1. Select the rms where infestatin is reprted Step 2. Fix 10 tracking pints using fine pwder at 10 x 10 cm.n the runway f rdents r at the areas frequented by them. Step 3. Observe the 10 tracks next day fr rdent activity. Step 4. Cumatetralyl which is available as 0.75% Cncentrate Pwder may be used at % in cereal baits in huses and in strage by mixing 1 part f the pisn with 19 parts f the bait. Vegetable il shuld be used as binding medium. Brmadilne baiting can als be used at 0.005% in the baits. The pisn bait (abut 100g) shuld be placed in suitable bait statins (discarded tins, earthen pts 2-5 bait statins in the premises based n level f infestatin. The pisn bait shuld be maintained fr 5-7 days with replenishment if required. Brmadilne may als be used at 0.005% a.i. in baits distributed at number f places preferably in bait cntainers/statins. Step 5. Repeat step 2 n 15th day Step 6. Observe the tracking pints fr rdent activity Step 7. Calculate the cntrl success A-B Cntrl Success = x 100 A Where A is pre-cntrl infestatin (per cent tracks tuched) level and B is pstcntrl infestatin level. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

452 Nte: Keep vitamin K1 as stand by fr meeting any exigency f accidental pisning. 2. Applicatin Techniques The chemical cntrl f rdent infestatin is mst cmmnly accmplished by the use f pisned baits. Hence, selectin f acceptable baits and their placement is an imprtant element in a successful rdent cntrl. Bait materials mst cmmnly used fr the cntrl f rdents are crushed cereals fllwed by nuts, fruits r vegetables. Cereal-type baits have fund the widest use because rdents generally prefer them; they are mst easily mixed with pisns; and because f their lw misture cntent they als tend t keep well, bth in the stre and in the field. The baits shuld be laid in the late evening, since rdents are mstly ncturnal. Open baiting i.e. placing the baits in pen places shuld nt be resrted. In huses/gdwns, the baits shuld be expsed in prtected bait cntainers as far as pssible n the runways f rdents. Baits shuld be expsed in prtected bait cntainers, which prvide a secure place where rdents can becme accustmed t feed; their use als helps t prevent ther animals frm gaining access t pisn bait. The psitin f bait cntainers shuld nt be changed While using brmadilne small quantities f the pisn bait (10-20 g.) shuld be laid at all the places frequented by the rdents. The applicatin may be repeated n 8th day t tackle residual ppulatin. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

453 While using cumatetralyl pisn, bait f apprximately 100 g. be kept at 2 r 3 places frequented by the rdents in the residential premises. The pisn bait shuld be maintained fr 5-7 days with replenishment, if required. Precautin while using rdenticide baits: Knw-hw f the peratin shuld be tld t the public always in lcal language fllwed by demnstratins by departments cncerned. Baits shuld always be placed late in the evening, as mst f the rdents are active during night. Keep pisns away frm the reach f children, pet animals, drugs and fd. Smking, eating and drinking shuld be ttally avided while handling the pisn. Cntainers f the pisns shuld be pened in a well-ventilated rm. Unused baits, cntainers and dead rdents shuld be buried deep. Ensure that the antidtes f pisns are available with the dctr fr use in case f any accidental ingestin f pisn. Acute pisn bait is generally better accepted and an imprved kill btained by laying prebait fr a few days befre hand. The bait laid shuld be the same as that used later in the pisn treatment. Acute pisn baits shuld be expsed fr mre than ne day. 3. Prevent Rdent Management Rdents require fd and shelter fr their survival in crp fields r in strage. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

454 If any f these tw factrs are altered r eliminated, they will leave the place Crp fields Hygiene practices in the fields are ften referred t a habitat manipulatin. It simply means that the habitat the living area f rdents is managed r altered s that it is less acceptable rdents. The main principal in habitat manipulatin is t reduce the shelter t the rdents t the maximum extent pssible. Fllwing measures may be fllwed. 2. Weed remval 3. Maintenance f small bunds 4. Ruging planting etc. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

455 Lecture N.34 Txiclgy- insecticide residue prblems in fruit, plantatin medicinal and armatic crps and their tlerance limits Insecticide residues Pesticides are nrmally applied at nly very lw rates typically 1-2 kg ha -1. Even s small amunts may be fund n r in the treated crp n harvest. These traces, expressed as parts per millin (ppm) f active ingredients and, breakdwn prducts are generally knwn as residues. Residues are the left ut chemical and their metablite present in the envirnment r treated surface plant, grain, animal, ver a perid f time after the applicatin f insecticides. The ftstuff may get cntaminated by pesticides in the fllwing ways. 1. Thrugh deliberate applicatin f pesticide n plants. 2. Thrugh drift during applicatin f pesticide n plant. 3. Pesticide residues may ccur n crps gwn in sil t which the pesticides were previusly applied. 4. Pesticide residue may ccur n animal prducts (milk, egg, meat) as result f cntaminatin f animal feed with pesticide. Cmpatibility f pesticides: Fr higher crp prductin, simultaneus applicatin f insecticides, fungicides, fertilizer etc is made in a single crpping seasn. There are ften advantages f spraying tw r mre pesticides simultaneusly. The main reasn fr cmbinatin f pesticides is saving time, equipments wear and cst f applicatin. But there are als prblems assciated with this practice like physical incmpatibility (agglmeratin, phase separatin etc) chemical incmpatibility Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

456 (degradatin f native ingredient, change in PH) and bilgical incmpatibility (reductin in bi-efficacy f ne by ther, phyttxcityy.) Hence it is advised t cnsider the fllwing befre cmbinatin f pesticide is restre. D nt mix tw insecticides, as they will hasten the develpment f resistant in pests. D nt mix incmpatible pesticides. D nt mix the pesticides as a matter f rutine. Impact f pesticides n agrecsystem I. Abitic envirnment: Include sil, air and water. 1) Sil: Surce f cntaminatin. Direct applicatin; Fall ut frm plants, Rain. 2) Air: Surce f cntaminatin; Drift during cnventinal and aerial applicatin; Vlatilizatin; Thermal decmpsitin; Evapratin with water vapur. 3) Water: Surce f cntaminatin; Direct treatment; Surface run ff; Aerial spraying; Precipitatin Effect: bimagnificatins, reductin f 2cntent, txic t fishes. II.Plants:1) Presence f residual amunt health hazard 2) because f phyttxicity 3) Changes in the vegetative develpment Etilatin by heribicide III. Animals: 1) Dmestic animals: Surce, Frage treatment; Direct applicatin Effect; Chrnic pisning; strage in fat reserves. 2) Wild life: Trphic transfer f pesticides thrugh fd chain kill wild life (eg) Egg shell thinning led nn vitality f bird eggs thrugh D.D.T. pisning. 3) Natural enemies: Eliminatin f parasitid and predatrs upset the bitic balance. Effect: I) Pest resurgence: Recvery f pest ppulatin fllwing Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

457 the applicatin f insecticides t levels higher than befre treatment. (eg) BPH resurgence after quinalphs applicatin. II)Secndary pest utbreak; increase in the ppulatin f nn-target insect t damaging levels fllwed by the applicatin f pesticides due t the eliminatin f natural enemies f minr pests r ptential pests (eg) Red spider mite utbreak in apple fllwed by the applicatin f rgan chlrines. III) Pllinatrs: Pesticide applicatins during blming kill hney bees and ther pllinatrs. IV. Man: a)operatinal hazards: Manufacture Distributin Applicatin Pst applicatin, b)accidental and intentinal pisning, c)indirect hazards thrugh fd chain Handigdu syndrme, d) Disease: carcingenic, Mutagenic and Teratgenic effects. V. Fd: Residues in human fd Reasn; Use f persistent chemicals; spraying crps nearing harvest; Excessive and imprper use f pesticides. VI. Target insect: Develpment f resistance t insecticides in insects. Excessive use exerts a high selectin pressure in selecting resistant strains; (eg) Msquit resistance in DDT; Synthetic pyrethrid resistance in cttn bllwrms and diamnd black mth. Insecticide resistance insect: The resistance is the develpment f an ability in a strain f insects t tlerate dses f insecticides which prve lethal t the majrity f individuals in a nrmal ppulatin f the same species. Resurgence f insect pests: The tremendus increase in the pest Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

458 ppulatin brught abut by the insecticides, in spite f a gd initial at the time f treatment is called as resurgence r flare black. Impact f glbal warming n pests What is glbal wrming? Sun Earth reflects sme slar energy as infrared radiatin. Green huse gases. Infra red radiatin frm earth reflected back t earth by green huse gases. This increases the temperature f earth and lwer atmsphere. This is called glbal warming r greenhuse effect Slar radiatin falls n earth surface. Earth absrbs and gets heated up. EARTH Warmth frm sun heats the surface f the earth Earth absrbs mst f the energy but reflects back sme energy in the frm f infra red radiatin. Greenhuse gases (e.g.co2,methane, CFC (Chlr Flur Carbn), Nitrus xide) present in atmsphere traps the infrared radiatin and reflects back t earth. This reflected energy falls n earth and als lwer atmsphere and keeps it warmer (Heats the earth s surface). Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

459 This is called glbal warming r green huse effect. Effect f glbal warming n wrld and agriculture Increase in verall temperature n earth (e.g.) Earth s surface temperature has increased 1.4 F in Ist ne century (Frecast:5 F rise in next century). Change in climate tremendusly. Melting f ice in Plar regin. Increase in sea level and submerging f castal areas. Flding and intense dwn purs. Drught in warmer regins. Impact f glbal warming n pest status 21. Due t change in climate, temperature and water availability, the farmers may change the type f crps grwn. 22. Due t increase in temperature, there can be utbreak f certain insect pests and diseases. 23. In frest areas there will be a shift in tree species and als pest species. 24. In agriculture lands since crpping pattern is changed, new crps t suit the climate is intrduced and new pest are als intrduced. 25. When water t availability is less, crps will be raised as rainfed. It will be difficult t take up cntrl measures withut water. Surces f green huse gases Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

460 Develped cuntries Develping cuntries : Emissin frm Autmbiles and factries cntain CFCs : Defrestatin causes rise in CO2 level Methane gas frm paddy fields and livestck. Nitrus xide frm N based fertilizer. The rapid grwth f chemical industry in India, while helped in the prgress due t increased prductin, als cntributed t the pllutin f the envirnment, fllwing their extensive use. Agriculture and hrticulture sectr uses tw main grups f chemicals viz., fertilizers and pesticides t cmbat the increasing demand f fdgrains, fruits and vegetables by increasing the prductin and preventing the lsses. Pesticide chemicals have decidedly been prved t cntrl the heavy lsses f crps in field and during strage due t varius pests t the extent f Rs crres annually. Hwever, pesticide cnsumptin in India is still insignificant as cmpared t develped cuntries It is because the imprtance f their use has nt reached t the cmmn fanner. Further, these chemicals are cstly t. Therefre, nly prgressive farmers are currently using under irrigated cnditins f crp prductin. Apart frm agriculture use, the pesticide use in health prgramme fr cntrl f vectrs f varius diseases has als achieved significance. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

461 Amng the varius pesticides, used in the cuntry, insecticides cnstitute 75%, fungicides 15%, weedicides 6% and thers 4%. T date, 144 chemicals are registered with Gvt. f India that cme under the categry f pesticides pssessing insecticidal, fungicidal, nematicidal, weedicidal and mlluscicidal prperties. The majr classes f synthetic pesticides emplyed tday include: rganchlrines, rganphsphates, rgancarbamates, synthetic pyrethrids, thicarbamate, nitrchlralkyl thicyclhexane dithicarbxymide substitutes, alkyl halides, hydrxy cumarine derivatives, metal phsphides, phenxy acetic acid derivatives, bipyridium derivatives, triazine derivatives, substituted anihilides, dinitralkyl tlydines, antibitics and gibberallins. The use pattern f varius pesticides increasing sharply year by year with the grwing awareness amng farmers abut the utility f pesticides in maximising their benefits. Their bad effects becme mre relevant as the hazards caused by them start frm manufacturing state itself and cntinue upt the pst applicatin stage. The harmful effects f pesticides are well knwn. Human-beings are expsed t pesticides by fllwing ways: 34. Intentinal : Suicide 35. Accidental : Careless handling 36. Occupatinal : In prductin plants, applicatin in agriculture and public health 37. Cntaminated fd, : Residues resulting at pst applicatin stage air and water Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

462 The pst-applicatin stage hazards cncern the cmmn man, as they cme frm pesticide residues persisting n fd fllwing their use in plant prtectin resulting in the cntaminatin f fd chain. Pesticide residues are essentially the ramanents f a pesticide as any substance r mixture f substances that can be fund in r n crp, fd, sil, water, etc., resulting frm the use f pesticide chemicals fr the cntrl f pest infestatin and includes metablic and degradatin prducts alng. Cntaminatin and persistence f pesticide residues in fruits Applicatin f pesticides is assciated with fruit cultivatin s intensely that tday it has becme impssible t get ecnmic yield withut their Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

463 use. At times, their use clse t harvest as well as pst-harvest applicatins result in the build-up f pesticide residues in bicncentratins which n cnsumptin may cause txic hazards. Amng the cmmn fruits being cnsumed, mang, grape, guava, banana, citrus, apple, plum and sapta were mnitred acrss the cuntry fr the extent f cntaminatin and persistence f pesticide residues with varius pesticides. It is surprising t find that majrity f the market basket fruit samples were fund cntaminated with the residues f txic and hard t degrade chlrinated hydrcarbn insecticides like DDT and BHC Mang fruits frm Parbhani markets recrded 24.1% cntaminatin with DDT at average residues f ppm ranging between traces ppm and HCH at ranging between 0.04 and 2.25 ppm. Over 95.6% mang fruits frm Delhi-Ghaziabad markets were fund cntaminated with 0.74 ppm DDT (traces ppm) and 0.95 ppm BHC ( ppm) residues while mnitring f mang fruits in Kanpur, Lucknw and Allahabad markets shwed n detectable cntaminatin with pesticide residues. Peridic mnitring f grape berries frm the markets f Hyderabad during 1972 and 1975 recrded 81.8% samples cntaminated with 1.2 ppm malathin ( ppm) residues, 100% with 3.00 ppm BHC (tr ppm) residues, and 49% with ppm DDT ppm endrin and traces f Lindane. It was recrded 23.3% berry samples at Ludhiana market cntaminated with 1.00 ppm methyl parathin (traces ppm), 0.75 ppm DDT ( ppm), traces f lindane and 0.75 ppm malathin Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

464 ( ppm) levels. Over 56.6% samples f grape berries at Parbhani market were fund cntaminated by Jadhav, (1986) with ppm DDT ( ppm) and ppm BHC ( ppm) while 100% samples were reprted cntaminated frm the markets f Lucknw, Kanpur and Allahabad with DDT and HCH residues at ppm ( ppm DDT) and ppm ( BHC) levels. Similarly, guava fruits frm Parbhani recrded 21.6% samples cntaminated with 0.08 ppm DDT ( ppm) and 0.53 ppm BHC ( ppm) residues whereas, 84.6% samples frm Delhi-Ghaziabad markets were fund cntaminated with 1.58 ppm DDT ( ppm) and 0.68 ppm BHC ( ppm) levels. A high level f cntaminatin t the tune f 70% samples f guava fruits frm Lucknw, Kanpur and Allahabad was detected by with ppm DDT ( ppm) and ppm BHC ( ppm) residues Banana fingers at Delhi were fund t be 85.6% cntaminated with residues f ppm DDT (traces ppm) and 1.62 ppm BHC ( ppm). Over 90.9% sweet lemn fruits in Delhi-Ghaziabad markets were fund cntaining DDT residues at 0.02 ppm level (traces ppm) and BHC at 0.15 ppm level ( ppm). A mderate cntaminatin f 23.8% sapta samples frm Parbhani market were fund cntaminated with 0.55 ppm DDT (traces-1.10 ppm) and ppm BHC ( ppm) whereas 100% plum samples frm Delhi-Ghaziabad markets were fund cntaminated (Ann, 1987) with 0.82 ppm DDT ( ppm) and 0.61 ppm BHC ( ppm). Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

465 Apple fruit samples frm Delhi Ghaziabad markets (Ann; 1987) were fund t be 90% cntaminated with 0.92 ppm DDT ( ) and 1.62 ppm BHC (traces ppm). Equally cntaminated apple fruits t the extent f 100% were detected in with ppm DDT ( ppm) and ppm BHC ( ppm). Dube and Nath (1991) reprted 85% apple fruit samples f Slan markets cntaminated with residues f thi-carbamate fungicide at an average f 4.50 ppm residues ( ppm). The screening f varius fruit samples frm the markets f different cities in India fr the cntaminatin and persistence f pesticide residues wrks ut an average f 59.4% ranging between % cntaminated samples cntaining residues f persistent and txic insecticides like DDT and BHC in mst f the cases. There was wide variatin in the cntaminatin f different fruits like 41.8% mang, 57.6% grape, 47.6% guava, 85.6% banana, 90.9% sweet lemn, 23.5% sapta, 100% plum and 87.6% apple samples were fund cntaminated acrss the cuntry. The detectin f residues f DDT and BHC in mst f the fruit samples appears t be the result f pst-harvest applicatin during strage r transprt as they are nt being recmmended fr pest cntrl in fruit crps any mre. Cntaminatin and persistence f pesticide residues in vegetables Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

466 Pesticide residues in vegetables result mainly due t frequent and repeated applicatins necessitated because f heavy pest infestatin all thrugh the crp grwth stages t fruiting due t intensive crp cultivatin cutting acrss the crpping seasns. The persistence f pesticide residues in vegetables is mre imprtant and f great cncern because they are cnsumed afresh and directly withut much prcessing r strage and cnsumptin f such vegetables laded with excess txic residues can cause bth acute and chrnic txicity effects as the build-up f residues is nt even subjected t degradatin and aging. The analysis f market samples f varius vegetables viz., kra, cabbage, cauliflwer, ptat, tmat, brinjal, chillies, beans, gurds, nin, carrt and leafy vegetables acrss the cuntry shwed wide spread cntaminatin with the residues f varius insecticides smetimes in excess f prescribed maximum residue limits, that may danger the cnsumer's health Over 20% vegetable samples cmprising f varius vegetables frm Pantnagar market were reprted cntaminated with average residues f 0.72 ppm DDT. Higher cntaminatin t the extent f 44.6% f vegetable samples frm Hyderabad was recrded with 0.25 ppm DDT and 0.25 ppm BHC while Verma (1989) reprted the cntaminatin f vegetable samples frm Hissar t the extent f 33.7% with 0.76 ppm DDT, 3.45 ppm BHC and 0.81 ppm endsulfan residues. Ptat and Starchy Vegetables DDT, aldrin, endrin and chlrdane residues were detected in 60% f ptat samples t the extent f 3.25, traces and 3.00 ppm, respectively, hwever, in 1972 the cntaminatin Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

467 level being nly 10% with 0.15 ppm DDT and 0.15 ppm BHC residues. Peridical mnitring in 1975 detected DDT, BHC, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlr and lindane residues at trace levels nly in 60% ptat samples frm the same markets reprted 100 % samples f ptat cntaminated with DDT at residue range f ppm and ppm, respectively. The qualitative cntaminatin analysis f ptat shwed 48 samples cntaminated with DDT, BHC, endrin,endsulfan and lindane residues. Nrnha (1978) reprted 43.4% ptat samples frm Bmbay markets cntaminated with DDT (3.67ppm), lindane (3.90 ppm), dieldrin (0.80 ppm) and endrin (1.80 ppm) residues. All the ptat samples f Ludhiana markets were fund cntaining DDT, BHC and aldrin residues at'the cncentratin levels f 0.008, and ppm respecitvely. Abut 50% samples frm Parbhani markets were fund laded with 1.92 ppm DDT and 1.06 ppm BHC residues. The cntaminatin level f ppm DDT, ppm BHC, ppm heptachlr and ppm aldrin residues in 100% ptat samples f Delhi markets. Similarly, 100% samples frm Kanpur, Lucknw and Allahabad were fund cntaminated with ppm BHC residues. Tmat Cntaminatin level f 60% samples f tmat frm Hyderabad and Ludhiana markets with DDT residues at 0.05 and 0.08 ppm residues was reprted. Cntaminatin f 40% tmat samples with 2.16 ppm DDT and 1.65 ppm lindane frm markets. Cent per cent cntaminatin in tmat fruits with ppm DDT, 2.55 ppm BHC and 0.75 ppm endsulfan residues A lwer level f 22% cntaminatin with malathin Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

468 and rganphsphate insecticides in the range f ppm was detected and 10% with BHC ( ppm). Recently, carbn disulphide residues resulting frm thicarbamate treatments were detected n tmat fruits marketed at Slan in the range f 1-8 ppm cntaminating 85% tmat fruits. Brinjal the cntaminatin f 71.4% brinjal samples was detected. with 0.2 ppm DDT, 1.1 ppm heptachlr and traces f endrin residues, 40% brinjal samples in markets were fund t pssess 100% cntaminated brinjal fruits with DDT ( ppm) and BHC ( ppm). Persistence f DDT, BHC, endrin and endsulfan residues in 38.5% samples were fund.bhc residues in the range f ppm were fund in 100% samples f brinjal. Chilli wide spread cntaminatin f 0.6 ppm endsulfan in 100% chilli samples was recrded. Hwever, nly 23% samples in markets were fund cntaining 2.48 ppm carbaryl and 5.04 ppm rganphsphate residues. Cabbage Cabbage samples frm Hyderabad (Lakshminarayana and Menn, 1969) were cent per cent cntaminated with DDT (tr-0.20 ppm) and endrin (tr-0.10 ppm) residues. Samples frm Delhi market (Agnihtri et al., 1974) shwed wide variatin in residue build-up f tr ppm DDT and tr ppm BHC. It was recrded cntaminatin in 50% samples with 0.04 ppm DDT and ppm BHC. Delhi markets pssessed cntaminatin f lw magnitude with ppm DDT, ppm HCH, ppm heptachlr and ppm aldrin residues. Similarly, samples frm Kanpur, Lucknw and Allahabad cntained nly Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

469 0.025 ppm DDT and ppm BHC thugh cntaminatin was in 100% samples. Organphsphate insecticide residues were detected nly in 6% samples frm t the extent f 3.60 ppm. Cauliflwer A wide variatin in the magnitude f cntaminatin f 100% cauliflwer samples frm Delhi markets was recrded. Residues f a number f insecticides 0.06 ppm BHC, 0.89 ppm lindane, 0.52 ppm aldrin, 1.75 ppm dieldrin and 0.45 ppm heptachlr were detected. Ludhiana markets recrded as high as 100% cntaminatin with ppm DDT and ppm BHC, while, it was detected ppm DDT, ppm BHC and ppm heptachlr residues in cauliflwer samples. Knl-khl samples f Hissar markets were fund cntaminated with ppm residues. Bhendi DDT and endrin residues t the extent f 0.60 and 0.20 ppm, respectively were detected n 50% bhindi fruit samples. Insecticides like DDT, BHC, endrin, endsulfan and lindane were detected in 42.6% samples f Hyderabad-Secunderabad. BHC residues in the range f ppm and ppm DDT were detected frm Hissar markets in mst f the bhindi fruit samples. 100% cntaminatin in samples frm Ludhiana with ppm DDT and ppm BHC. Cntaminatin level f 64.5% was reprted.. Abut 50% samples were fund cntaminated with 5.52 ppm malathin, 0.70 ppm carbaryl and 5.10 ppm residues f different rganphsphate insecticides. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

470 Rt vegetables Cntaminatin level f ver 87.5% in carrt samples was detected by with 0.35 ppm DDT, 1.05 ppm lindane, 0.50 ppm aldrin and traces f dieldrin. Dahia and The persistence f 0.90 ppm BHC residues frm Hissar. Ludhiana markets were fund t cntain ppm /DDT, ppm HCH and ppm aldrin residues in 100% carrt samples. Radish sample frm Ludhiana markets were fund t pssess 0.05 ppm DDT residues in 80% samples while sample frm Delhi cntained ppm DDT, ppm HCH, ppm heptachlr and ppm aldrin residues Onin Residue persistence f ppm DDT, ppm HCH, ppm heptachlr and ppm aldrin n 100% nin samples f Delhi market was detected. Beans and greenpea Wide spread cntaminatin f bean samples was detected with 0.40 ppm DDT. Residues f malathin ( ppm) and ther rganphsphate insecticides ( ppm) were fund in 50% bean samples Gurds Bittergurd samples recrded abut 70% samples cntaminated with 0.65 ppm enddulfan and 1.25 ppm BHC residues. Delhi market samples cntained 0.01 ppm DDT, ppm BHC, ppm heptachlr and ppm aldrin residues. Bttlegurd samples frm Hissar markets were fund t cntain 4.35 ppm endsulfan residues. Smth gurd samples f Delhi markets were fund t cntain ppm Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

471 DDT, ppm HCH, ppm heptachlr and ppm aldrin residues. Leafy vegetables DDT residues in 41.2% leafy vegetables f Hyderabad were fund t cntain 0.15 ppm residues. Mustard leaf samples were 100% cntaminated with tr ppm DDT and ppm BHC residues Radish tps were als fund equally cntaminated with ppm DDT and ppm BHC in the samples frm Delhi markets. Criander leaves were reprted t be cntaminated with ppm DDT, ppm HCH, ppm heptachlr and ppm aldrin residues. Cccinia samples f Hyderabad-Secunderabad markets were fund t pssess traces f DDT and BHC residues. Clcasia samples f Delhi were fund pssess ppm DDT, ppm HCH, ppm heptachlr and pm aldrin residues. The pesticide residue cntaminatin in vegetable prduce after harvest and ready t cnsume, ranged between 33.3 t 100% in market samples acrss the cuntry. On an average, ptat samples registered cntaminatin t the extent f 45.6%; tmat 49.5%; brinjal 47.3%; chilli 61.6%; cabbage 42.0%; cauliflwer 61.8%; Knl-Khl; 100% Bhindi 58.0%; rt vegetables 97%; nin 33.3%; beans and green peas 71.9%; gurds 91.8% and leafy vegetables 86.6% with residues f varius pesticides, mainly being frm chlrinated hydrcarbn insecticides like DDT, BHC, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlr and endsulfan. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

472 Amng ther grups f insecticides nly carbaryl, malathin and ther rganphsphates were detected. The prevalence f the residues f varius hard t degrade insecticides like DDT and HCH in samples mnitred in recent years reflect the surce f residues frm pst-harvest use by dipping the vegetables in pesticide slutins presumably t keep vegetable fresh lking and during transprt. These practices are unauthrised and injudicius use f txic pesticides. Pesticide residue studies in fruits and vegetables fr safety cnstants Extensive studies have been carried ut under different agrclimatic cnditins f India ver a perid f time n the persistence and dissipatin f pesticide residues mainly frm insecticide grup n varius fruit and vegetable crps fllwing the supervised field trials based n recmmended plant prtectin schedules invlving the applicatins f emulsifiable cncentrates, water dispersible pwders, dust and granular frmulatins f varius pesticides. While fliar applicatins effected surface residues, the sil granular applicatins resulted in plant uptake by fruit and vegetable crps. The peridic analysis f residues brught abut the rate f residue decay (half life) as an index f persistence pattern, that is gverned by varius factrs and hence required t study acrss the climatic znes f the cuntry. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

473 This data in turn helped in wrking ut safe waiting perids (Tl), the perid in days required fr residues t reduce t safe levels, based n prescribed maximum residue limits. The waiting perid requirements varied frm pesticide t pesticide and crp t crp, being dependent n persistence f pesticide residues as the degradatin f residues is gverned by chemical nature f pesticide, type f frmulatin, type f crp,, applicatin rates and frequency, crpping seasn and climatic cnditins. The studies revealed the variable pattern f residues f varius insecticides and accrdingly required waiting perids f days n citrus fruits, as against 7-10 days n mang, grape, guava, papaya, ber and banana frm fliar applicatins f insecticides. While waiting perids f 2-3 days fr endsulfan, malathin, carbaryl, 3-7 days fr dichlrvs, phsalne, dimethate, fenthin, methyl parathin, mncrtphs, phsphamidn and 7-10 days fr fenitrthin, quinalphs, chlrpyriphs and synthetic pyrethrids insecticides have been recmmended n variety f vegetables belnging t malvaceae, slanaceae, cucurbitaceae, cruciferae, leguminaceae, rt, bulb and leafy grups. The sil granular applicatins f insecticides, like phrate, aldicarb and carbfuran, etc., required days time fr degradatin f their residues translcated int plant system t safe limits. Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

474 Ggle in Search Bharsar Students

475 Ggle in serch Bharsar student

Chapter 6: Biomes. A. Biomes Are large regions characterized by a specific climate and specific plant and animal communities

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