Classification Study Guide Answers. March 30th, 2017

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1 Classification Study Guide Answers March 30th, 2017

2 1. Why do scientists classify organisms? What is the basis for modern day classification? Scientists classify organisms to be able to understand characteristics of organisms, how they are related. To classify organisms, scientists use shared characteristics.

3 2. How do scientists sort organisms into groups? Based on characteristics like External Structures, Internal Structures, & Body Processes 3. What are the three domains scientists use to classify organisms. How do you tell each domain apart? Archaea: prokaryotes that live in extreme environments. Bacteria: prokaryotes that live in soil, water & in the human body. Eukarya: eukaryotes that include protists, plants, fungi & animals

4 4. What are the 6 kingdoms scientists use? Archaea A domain of organisms that can live in extreme environments where other organisms could not survive. methanogens Bacteria A domain of single-celled organisms with no nucleus Yogurt Protist A kingdom of mostly unicellular organisms that come in a wide variety of forms that are not classified as animal, plant or fungi Paramecium and slime molds

5 4. What are the 6 kingdoms scientists use? Plant Fungi Animal a kingdom of multicellular organisms that obtain energy through photosynthesis. Ex. mosses, ferns, flowering and seed plants a kingdom of organisms that break down other organic materials to obtain food. Examples include mushrooms, molds, and yeasts a kingdom made up of complex multicellular organisms that do not have cell walls and must eat food in order to survive Giant Sequoias Mushrooms Elephant

6 5. Compare & contrast prokaryotes & eukaryotes: Prokaryotes have no nucleus, but Eukaryotes have a nucleus. 6. How is the protist kingdom organized? Give an example of each. Protists are organized by how they get energy. Animal-like: Amoeba Fungi-like: Slime mold Plant-like: Algae

7 7. What are the three main kinds of fungi? How do they get their energy? Mushrooms, molds & yeasts. Fungi get their energy by breaking down dead/decaying organisms.

8 8. What are the three main parts of the plant? What are their functions? Stems Transports water & sugars as well as holds the plant up to the sun. Roots Leaves Anchors the plant into the ground & collects water and minerals. Make food for the plant in the form of photosynthesis. They also collect carbon dioxide and sunlight.

9 9. Identify & Describe the four processes that plants go through? Photosynthesis: uses sunlight and carbon dioxide to produce sugar for the plant. Respiration: releases energy in sugar molecules for the plant to use Gas Exchange: lets in carbon dioxide and releases oxygen Transpiration: releases water throughout the leaves stomata

10 10. Explain the difference between vascular and nonvascular plants? Give an example of each. Vascular plants have a system to transport water and nutrients throughout the plant. Vascular plants are able to grow tall and be away from their water source because of two types of tissue: xylem & phloem. An example is a maple tree. Non-vascular plants have no system for transporting water or nutrients throughout the plant. As a result, non-vascular plants are low-growing. An example is moss.

11 11. What are the three types of symmetry used when describing animals? Asymmetrical: no lines of symmetry Radial: many lines of symmetry. Focus around a central point similar to the spokes of a wheel. Bilateral: one line of symmetry that divides the organisms into two a right and left side. Each side is a mirror image of the other.

12 12. What are vertebrates and invertebrates? Give an example of each. Vertebrate are animals with a backbone. Examples are lions, humans, & giraffes Invertebrate are animals without a backbone. Examples include jellyfish, worms, & grasshoppers

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