General comments about aphid biological control

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "General comments about aphid biological control"

Transcription

1 General comments about aphid biological control Aphid advantages: Rapid colonization (winged forms) followed by rapid reproduction (wingless forms) The aphid s best defense is its reproductive rate Results in a threshold effect : Replacement rate > predation rate = biocontrol failure Effective biological control requires the timely recruitment of multiple natural enemy species New aphid invasions normally have 3 phases: Epidemic phase, Attenuation phase, Endemic phase Eventually (5 30 years?), natural biological control evolves and the aphid becomes a sporadic problem associated with BC disruption

2 1 How (partially) resistant varieties reduce losses to aphids No. aphids Susceptible plant Economic Injury Threshold Resistant plant 0 Time Resistant varieties require the support of biological control

3 Natural Enemies Groups Important in Aphid Biocontrol Primary groups Coccinellidae (lady beetles) Syrphidae (hover flies) Chrysopidae (green lacewings) Braconidae (aphidiine wasps) Secondary groups Chamaemyiidae (aphid flies) Aphelinus spp. (aphelinid wasps) Hemiptera: (predatory bugs) Anthocoridae (flower bugs) Nabidae (damsel bugs) Hemerobidae (brown lacewings) Entomopathogens (humid conditions only)

4 Coccinellidae: Hippodamia convergens High aphid consumption / reproductive rate Drought tolerant Capable of extended summer diapause (survives aphid scarcity) Uses a wide range of plant resources as supplementary food Good overwintering survival in severe winter conditions Lab research shows M. sacchari is as suitable as greenbug for both development and reproduction of H. convergens

5 Numerical response of H. convergens to M. sacchari

6 Coccinellidae: Coccinella septempunctata (C7) A true aphid specialist (larvae develop ONLY on aphid food) A large and voracious species Not a native species introduced from Europe Widely distributed in NA Second most abundant species on the High Plains (after Hcon)

7 Coccinellidae: Harmonia axyridis (Asian multicolored LB) Another exotic invader from Asia A large, voracious species with a broad diet range Pest status (fruit crops and house invasions) Also a strong competitor and intraguild predator Normally arboreal - prefers trees to herbaceous plants Has played an integral role in controlling soybean aphid Relatively rare on the High Plains compared to other invaded habitats

8 Coccinellidae: Cycloneda sanguinea (Blood-red LB) A subtropical species, largely arboreal Not capable of hibernation or surviving hard freezes Valuable in citrus for controlling aphids and psyllids Related species, Cycloneda munda, has more northern distribution However, C. munda has become increasing rare Neither species of Cycloneda will contribute much to SCA control

9 Coccinellidae: Olla v-nigrum (Ash gray ladybeetle) Chilocorus stigma Another arboreal, largely subtropical species Widely distributed in the lower 48 states and into Canada Valuable in citrus for controlling aphids and psyllids Not likely to contribute much to SCA control Melanic form

10 C. septempunctata Olla v-nigrum

11 Coccinellidae: Coleomegilla maculata (12 spot ladybeetle) A common species with a very wide range of prey Very omnivorous - an complete development on pollen only Widely distributed across all North America Has a very high water demand in both adult and larval stages Not very abundant in arid regions of the High Plains Lab studies show SCA is highly suitable prey Could contribute to SCA control in wetter regions

12 Coccinellidae: Scymnus sp. (no common name) Several small species, all with waxy larvae Not very voracious, but able to forage on ant-tended aphids Widely distributed across all North America Not very abundant in arid regions of the High Plains Will not contribute much to SCA control

13 Chrysopidae: Chrysoperla carnea (green lacewing) An important aphid predator in cereal crops throughout North America Preys on many soft bodied insects Strong intraguild predator Lab studies show SCA is suitable prey, Although not as good as greenbug Will be a key player in SCA biocontrol throughout the High Plains

14 No. of natural enemy arthropod-days, by life stage Cohort 1 Cohort 2 Natural enemies Life stage GB SCA GB SCA Aphelinus sp. adults mummies Chamaemyiidae larvae Chrysoperla carnea adults eggs larvae Coccinellidae adults egg masses larvae Erythraeus sp. (mite) nymphs Hemerobiidae adults eggs C. carnea was the only dominant species equally present in both cohorts

15 Chrysopidae: Ceraeochrysa sp. (trash bug) Most trash-carrying lacewings are arboreal and subtropical or tropical Important in controlling aphids and psyllids in citrus Not likely to contribute much to SCA biocontrol

16 Hemerobiidae: Hemerobius sp. (brown lacewing) Most brown lacewings are primarily arboreal Larvae have very cryptic behavior Eggs are NOT laid on stalks Not likely to contribute much to SCA biocontrol although recruitment has been observed near trees

17 Syrphidae Highly specialized aphid predators Hover flies use both olfactory and visual cues to find aphids Often the first predators to oviposit on aphid colonies (while they are small) Adults require flowers sources of POLLEN and NECTAR Impact is limited in large-scale monocultures with aggressive weed control Pseudodorus clavatus A common subtropical species Larvae are bristled, almost transparent, variable in color

18 Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua Widely distributed in North America Contributes to control of citrus psyllids Larvae are smooth, lime green, with two longitudinal white stripes

19 Allograpta obliqua and M. sacchari

20 No. of natural enemy arthropod-days, by life stage Cohort 1 Cohort 2 Life stage GB SCA GB SCA Lysiphlebus sp. adults mummies Orius insidiosus adults nymphs Syrphidae adults eggs larvae pupae Conclusion: There were greater differences between cohorts than between aphid species

21 Syrphidae: Other spp. Helophilus fasciatus (female) Syrphus opinator (male) Larva of Syrphus sp. Various large, voracious species, widely distributed in North America

22 Aphelinidae: Aphelinus spp. Aphid specialists Small, slow-moving wasps kill aphids by host-feeding and parasitism Only small instar aphids are attacked Synovigenic, low fecundity, but long-lived (able to resorb eggs) Can be important against certain aphid species (e.g. wooly apple aphid) Not likely to contribute much to SCA control BUT unaffected by aphid secondary symbionts that protect against Braconids

23 Braconidae: Lysiphlebus testaceipes Tribe Aphidiinae: all aphid specialists, but L. testaceipes has broad host range Most significant parasitoid of cereal aphids on the High Plains Can attack 1 st -4th instar aphids, 2 nd instars preferred Moderately proovigenic, high fecundity, but short-lived Does not overwinter north of OK / KS border on the High Plains Could be significant factor in SCA control in overwintering areas BUT some SCA clones are infected with secondary symbionts Hamiltonella defensa, that protect them against parasitism

24 DNA tests revealed our clone of M. sacchari was infected with Hamiltonella defensa, a secondary endosymbiont of aphids Hamiltonella defensa is known to protect various aphid species from parasitism by braconid (Aphidiinae) parasitoids Laboratory trials suggested ca. 100% protection from L. testacipes How widespread are H. defensa infections in SCA populations? Infections could affect levels of biocontrol obtained in overwintering sites in the south Are there physiological costs of infection? What is the heritability of the symbiont? What is the frequency of transmission?

25 Chamaemyiidae: Leucopis sp. (aphid flies) Feed on aphids and scale insects Prefer edge habitats Not strong fliers

26 Anthocoridae: Orius insidiosus (insidious flower bug) Generalist, omnivorus predators of small soft-bodied insects Eggs laid into plant stems, nymphs consume plant tissues + prey Feed readily on aphids, but prefer thrips Lab studies reveal SCA is suitable prey for O. insidiosus, if not optimal O. insidiosus seems to be abundant in Sorghum fields Could contribute significant SCA has been significant against soybean aphid

27 No. of natural enemy arthropod-days, by life stage Cohort 1 Cohort 2 Life stage GB SCA GB SCA Lysiphlebus sp. adults mummies Orius insidiosus adults nymphs Syrphidae adults eggs larvae pupae Conclusion: There were greater differences between cohorts than between aphid species

28 Verticillium (Lecanicillium) (entomopathogens) Whiteflies killed by V. lecanii Aphids killed by V. lecanii Requires high humidity and prolonged periods of leaf wetness to produce epizootics Require high aphid populations to spread Can result in rapid collapse of aphid colonies under suitable conditions Most of the High plains is far too dry for aphid entomopathogens

Beneficial Insects. PJ Liesch UW-Madison: Insect Diagnostic Lab

Beneficial Insects. PJ Liesch UW-Madison: Insect Diagnostic Lab 1 Beneficial Insects PJ Liesch UW-Madison: pliesch@wisc.edu Twitter: @WiBugGuy What are Beneficial Insects? 2! Insects that provide ecosystem services to humans! Benefits provided to humans by nature!

More information

Maximizing the Value of Beneficial Insects on the Farm: Predators and Parasitoids. Predaceous Beetles

Maximizing the Value of Beneficial Insects on the Farm: Predators and Parasitoids. Predaceous Beetles Maximizing the Value of Beneficial Insects on the Farm: Predators and Parasitoids By: John Gavloski, Entomologist, Manitoba Agriculture. Revised: April 2017 If we look hard, we can find many different

More information

Managing stink bugs through cultural practices

Managing stink bugs through cultural practices Managing stink bugs through cultural practices Rachael Long, Farm Advisor, UC Cooperative Extension Yolo, Solano, Sacramento Counties, http://ceyolo.ucanr.edu Common stink bugs: Southern green (Africa

More information

Topics To Cover. A Review of Common Biocontrol Agents For Greenhouse Pests & How to Keep Them Happy. Thrips Predators. Spider Mite Predators

Topics To Cover. A Review of Common Biocontrol Agents For Greenhouse Pests & How to Keep Them Happy. Thrips Predators. Spider Mite Predators Topics To Cover A Review of Common Biocontrol Agents For Greenhouse Pests & How to Keep Them Happy. Thrips Predators Spider Mite Predators Whitefly Parasitoids Aphid Parasitoids & Predators Bio Brain-iac

More information

Role of Beneficial Insects and Mites in Suppression of Psyllids and Other Citrus Pests Jawwad A. Qureshi and Philip A. Stansly Southwest Florida

Role of Beneficial Insects and Mites in Suppression of Psyllids and Other Citrus Pests Jawwad A. Qureshi and Philip A. Stansly Southwest Florida Role of Beneficial Insects and Mites in Suppression of Psyllids and Other Citrus Pests Jawwad A. Qureshi and Philip A. Stansly Southwest Florida Research and Education Center Major Pest Threats To Florida

More information

Biology Principles of Ecology Oct. 20 and 27, 2011 Natural Selection on Gall Flies of Goldenrod. Introduction

Biology Principles of Ecology Oct. 20 and 27, 2011 Natural Selection on Gall Flies of Goldenrod. Introduction 1 Biology 317 - Principles of Ecology Oct. 20 and 27, 2011 Natural Selection on Gall Flies of Goldenrod Introduction The determination of how natural selection acts in contemporary populations constitutes

More information

Centre de Recherche en Horticulture, Laval University, Quebec, Canada 2

Centre de Recherche en Horticulture, Laval University, Quebec, Canada 2 Augmentative releases of predatory mites on papaya in Hawaii 67 AUGMENTATIVE RELEASES OF PREDATORY MITES ON PAPAYA IN HAWAII: FAILURE AND SUCCESS V. Fournier,,2 J.A. Rosenheim, 2 M.W. Johnson, 3 and J.

More information

Aphids are sap-feeding insects that emerge early in

Aphids are sap-feeding insects that emerge early in Published by Utah State University Extension and Utah Plant Pest Diagnostic Laboratory ENT-180-16 March 2016 Aphid Natural Enemies and Biological Control Ron Patterson, Carbon Co. Extension, and Ricardo

More information

PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT

PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT Arthropod Pests The examples of arthropod pests shown here are aphids, spider mites, whiteflies, mealybugs, corn earworm, and tomato hornworm. Aphids Aphids are small, soft-bodied

More information

1. Introduction to scales 1. The Hemiptera (True bugs) 2. How bugs got their name 3. Difference between Heteroptera and Homoptera 4.

1. Introduction to scales 1. The Hemiptera (True bugs) 2. How bugs got their name 3. Difference between Heteroptera and Homoptera 4. 1. Introduction to scales 1. The Hemiptera (True bugs) 2. How bugs got their name 3. Difference between Heteroptera and Homoptera 4. Major scale families 5. Parts of a scale 6. Scale life cycles 2. Biology

More information

What is insect forecasting, and why do it

What is insect forecasting, and why do it Insect Forecasting Programs: Objectives, and How to Properly Interpret the Data John Gavloski, Extension Entomologist, Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives Carman, MB R0G 0J0 Email: jgavloski@gov.mb.ca

More information

EC Ecological Control of Purple Loosestrife : Monitoring Galerucella Establishment and Impact

EC Ecological Control of Purple Loosestrife : Monitoring Galerucella Establishment and Impact University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Historical Materials from University of Nebraska- Lincoln Extension Extension 2002 EC02-175 Ecological Control of Purple

More information

AP Environmental Science I. Unit 1-2: Biodiversity & Evolution

AP Environmental Science I. Unit 1-2: Biodiversity & Evolution NOTE/STUDY GUIDE: Unit 1-2, Biodiversity & Evolution AP Environmental Science I, Mr. Doc Miller, M.Ed. North Central High School Name: ID#: NORTH CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL NOTE & STUDY GUIDE AP Environmental

More information

Aphids belong in the order Hemiptera and family

Aphids belong in the order Hemiptera and family Published by Utah State University Extension and Utah Plant Pest Diagnostic Laboratory ENT-108-07 July 2007 Aphids in alfalfa Erin W. Hodgson Extension Entomology Specialist What You Should Know Aphids

More information

FIELD TEST OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LADYBIRDS IN CONTROLLING APHIDS

FIELD TEST OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LADYBIRDS IN CONTROLLING APHIDS FIELD TEST OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LADYBIRDS IN CONTROLLING APHIDS Pavel KINDLMANN 1, Hironori YASUDA 2, Yukie KAJITA 2, and Anthony F.G. DIXON 3 1 Inst. Landscape Ecol. AS CR University of South Bohemia

More information

28 3 Insects Slide 1 of 44

28 3 Insects Slide 1 of 44 1 of 44 Class Insecta contains more species than any other group of animals. 2 of 44 What Is an Insect? What Is an Insect? Insects have a body divided into three parts head, thorax, and abdomen. Three

More information

Biology and Ecology of Forest Health. Climate Change and Tree Health

Biology and Ecology of Forest Health. Climate Change and Tree Health Biology and Ecology of Forest Health Climate Change and Tree Health Assume classic UKCIP scenario: ca 3 o C warming in 50-80 yrs; warmer winters/summers; increased winter rain and summer drought; perturbations

More information

FOLIAGE PESTS Grape Phylloxera

FOLIAGE PESTS Grape Phylloxera www.extension.umn.edu Gra p e In s e c t Pe s t s of th e Ho m e Ga r d e n Jeff Hahn and Suzanne Wold-Burkness, Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota M1236 2008 Growing grapes is becoming

More information

CamilaFediuk de Castro-Guedes 1,2 and LuciaMassutti de Almeida 1. Abstract

CamilaFediuk de Castro-Guedes 1,2 and LuciaMassutti de Almeida 1. Abstract Journal of Insect Science (2016) 16(1): 55; 1 9 doi: 10.1093/jisesa/iew044 Research article Laboratory Investigations Reveal that Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Is a Poor Host for Dinocampus

More information

Glossary of Terms Abdomen Adaptation Antenna Aquatic Arthropods Bore Borer Buffer Cambium Camouflage Canopy Chamber Characteristic

Glossary of Terms Abdomen Adaptation Antenna Aquatic Arthropods Bore Borer Buffer Cambium Camouflage Canopy Chamber Characteristic Glossary of Terms Abdomen - The part of an animal s body that contains the digestive system and the organs of reproduction. In insects and spiders, the abdomen makes up the rear of the body. Adaptation

More information

*Add to Science Notebook Name 1

*Add to Science Notebook Name 1 *Add to Science Notebook Name 1 Arthropods, Ch. 13, pg. 374-382 Characteristics of Arthropods *Arthropods are the largest group of animals. *Arthropods have jointed and include,,, and. *Arthropod appendages

More information

Oak Leaf Phylloxera. By R.W. Duncan. Phylloxera glabra adult and eggs on Garry oak leaf.

Oak Leaf Phylloxera. By R.W. Duncan. Phylloxera glabra adult and eggs on Garry oak leaf. ISBN 0-662-25885-1 Cat. No. Fo 29-6/81-1997E Pest FOREST LEAFLET Pacific Forestry Centre Oak Leaf Phylloxera By R.W. Duncan 81 Introduction The oak leaf phylloxera, Phylloxera glabra (Heyden), is a small

More information

RNAi-mediated control of spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii): efficacy challenges and biosafetyconsiderations

RNAi-mediated control of spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii): efficacy challenges and biosafetyconsiderations RNAi-mediated control of spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii): efficacy challenges and biosafetyconsiderations Wolfgang Jarausch, Miriam Runne Michael Wassenegger, Gabi Krzcal RLP AgroScience,

More information

BIOS 6150: Ecology Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences

BIOS 6150: Ecology Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences BIOS 6150: Ecology Dr. Stephen Malcolm, Department of Biological Sciences Week 7: Dynamics of Predation. Lecture summary: Categories of predation. Linked prey-predator cycles. Lotka-Volterra model. Density-dependence.

More information

Overwintering of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleóptera: Coccinellidae) at different altitudes in the Karkonosze Mts, SW Poland

Overwintering of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleóptera: Coccinellidae) at different altitudes in the Karkonosze Mts, SW Poland Eur. J.Entomol. 97: 323-328, 2000 ISSN 1210-5759 Overwintering of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleóptera: Coccinellidae) at different altitudes in the Karkonosze Mts, SW Poland Piotr CERYNGIER Institute

More information

Japanese Beetle. Popillia japonica

Japanese Beetle. Popillia japonica Japanese Beetle Popillia japonica Japanese beetle adults chew on leaves and flowers of many plants Flowers are often a favored plant part targeted by adult Japanese beetles Japanese beetle larvae (grubs)

More information

Plant Insect Interactions

Plant Insect Interactions Plant Insect Interactions Herbivory Plant reproduction Domatia Evolution of Insect Herbivory Early hexapods contact plant parts in soil Vascular plants diversfied 300 MYA Fossil traces of insect eating

More information

EXTERNAL ANATOMY OF INSECTS

EXTERNAL ANATOMY OF INSECTS External Anatomy of Insects 1 The insect s exoskeleton is made up of a series of plates EXTERNAL ANATOMY OF INSECTS These plates make up the insect s exoskeleton. These plates are connected by joints or

More information

The reproductive success of an organism depends in part on the ability of the organism to survive.

The reproductive success of an organism depends in part on the ability of the organism to survive. The reproductive success of an organism depends in part on the ability of the organism to survive. How does the physical appearance of these organisms help them survive? A. Their physical appearance helps

More information

Investigating Use of Biocontrol Agents to Control Spotted Knapweed

Investigating Use of Biocontrol Agents to Control Spotted Knapweed Investigating Use of Biocontrol Agents to Control Spotted Knapweed Target Grade Level: 5 th Created and Adapted by: Rachel Loehman UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA GK-12 PROGRAM 1 Investigating Use of Biocontrol

More information

Insect Success. Insects are one of the most successful groups of living organisms on earth

Insect Success. Insects are one of the most successful groups of living organisms on earth Insect Success Insects are one of the most successful groups of living organisms on earth Why Insects are so successful Insects comprise about 95% of all known animal species. Actually it is insects instead

More information

Mutualism. Page # Balanus - covered by water most of the time. Chthamalus - exposed most of the time

Mutualism. Page # Balanus - covered by water most of the time. Chthamalus - exposed most of the time Mutualism First - interspecific competition studies from Wednesday - Interspecific competition in barnacles vs. Barnacles (crustaceans, Arthropoda) start life as free-swimming larval forms. They then settle

More information

Current status of Saissetia oleae biological control in Sardinia (Italy)

Current status of Saissetia oleae biological control in Sardinia (Italy) Integrated Protection of Olive Crops IOBC/wprs Bulletin Vol. 59, 21 pp. 171-176 Current status of Saissetia oleae biological control in Sardinia (Italy) Gavino Delrio, Cipriano Foxi Dipartimento di Protezione

More information

How Does Pollination Work?

How Does Pollination Work? How Does Pollination Work? What is pollination? What is pollination? Pollination the transfer of pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower Fertilization occurs when the male

More information

Flower Flies (Syrphidae) and Other Biological Control Agents for Aphids in Vegetable Crops

Flower Flies (Syrphidae) and Other Biological Control Agents for Aphids in Vegetable Crops University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu Publication 8285 / May 2008 Flower Flies (Syrphidae) and Other Biological Control Agents for Aphids

More information

Basics of Entomology. Brandi Ashley

Basics of Entomology. Brandi Ashley Basics of Entomology Brandi Ashley Entomology Entomology is the study of insects There are more than 100,000 different of species of insects in North America. In the typical yard there can be a 1,000+

More information

Objectives. ROGH Docent Program Week 2: Plant Anatomy

Objectives. ROGH Docent Program Week 2: Plant Anatomy Objectives To introduce general botany for subjects on display To provide knowledge of general plant anatomy To provide general understanding of orchid anatomy & biology To introduce concepts of plant-pollinator

More information

Mutualism: Inter-specific relationship from which both species benefit

Mutualism: Inter-specific relationship from which both species benefit Mutualism Mutualism: Inter-specific relationship from which both species benefit Mutualism Symbiosis: Intimate (generally obligate) inter-specific relationships from which both partners benefit 1 Mutualism

More information

Chapter 6 Reading Questions

Chapter 6 Reading Questions Chapter 6 Reading Questions 1. Fill in 5 key events in the re-establishment of the New England forest in the Opening Story: 1. Farmers begin leaving 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Broadleaf forest reestablished 2.

More information

Classification of Plants

Classification of Plants Classification of Plants Plants Aquatic Plants Ex. green algae Similarities between green algae and land plants: A) have chlorophylls a and b B) cellulose cell walls C) store food energy in the form of

More information

Crop Protection 40 (2012) 132e144. Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect. Crop Protection

Crop Protection 40 (2012) 132e144. Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect. Crop Protection Crop Protection 40 (2012) 132e144 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Crop Protection journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/cropro Effect of trap color and height on captures of blunt-nosed

More information

Insect/Bacterial Symbioses Aphid/Buchnera association

Insect/Bacterial Symbioses Aphid/Buchnera association Insect/Bacterial Symbioses Aphid/Buchnera association I. Introduction A. Intracellular symbioses are common in the order Homoptera, which includes aphids, mealy bugs, whiteflies, and cicadas, Blattaria,

More information

Protecting Pollinators in Home Lawns and Landscapes

Protecting Pollinators in Home Lawns and Landscapes POL-1 PROTECTING POLLINATORS Bumble bee on a thistle flower. Protecting Pollinators in Home Lawns and Landscapes Doug Richmond and Cliff Sadof Purdue Entomology Extension Specialists Why Are Pollinators

More information

Comparison of the wing polyphenic response of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) to crowding and predator cues

Comparison of the wing polyphenic response of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) to crowding and predator cues University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Brigitte Tenhumberg Papers Papers in the Biological Sciences 2014 Comparison of the wing polyphenic response of pea aphids

More information

Population Ecology Density dependence, regulation and the Allee effect

Population Ecology Density dependence, regulation and the Allee effect 2/22/15 Population Ecology Density dependence, regulation and the Allee effect ESRM 450 Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Wildlife Populations Groups of animals, all of the same species, that live together

More information

Evolution Common Assessment 1

Evolution Common Assessment 1 Evolution Common Assessment 1 1. The field of biology that includes the study of the origin of new species through time is known as 5. A. biochemistry B. evolution C. ecology D. embryology 2. Evidence

More information

Biological Control of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: Prospects and Procedures

Biological Control of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: Prospects and Procedures Biological Control of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: Prospects and Procedures Brian Cutting Christine Dieckhoff Kim Hoelmer USDA-ARS Beneficial Insects Introduction Research, Newark, DE The Brown Marmorated

More information

Introduction to Insects

Introduction to Insects Introduction to Insects PJ Liesch UW-Madison Dept. Entomology! What%are%Insects?%! Spiders%and%other%critters%! Insect%Biology%! Anatomy%! Damage%they%cause%! Growth%and%Development%! Diversity%and%Classification%!

More information

What Shapes an Ecosystem Section 4-2

What Shapes an Ecosystem Section 4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem Section 4-2 Biotic and Abiotic Factors Ecosystems are influenced by a combination of biological and physical factors. Biotic factors are the biological influences on an organism.

More information

Biocontrol of Rangeland Weeds TRA Pest Management Workshop, Feb 20, 11:15 am. Outline. Pest Management Workshop 2013 Bean, Rangeland Pest Control

Biocontrol of Rangeland Weeds TRA Pest Management Workshop, Feb 20, 11:15 am. Outline. Pest Management Workshop 2013 Bean, Rangeland Pest Control Biocontrol of Rangeland Weeds TRA Pest Management Workshop, Feb 20, 11:15 am Dan Bean Colorado Department of Agriculture Palisade Insectary dan.bean@state.co.us Who are we? Palisade Insectary Began in

More information

NECTAR AVAILABILITY AND PARASITOID SUGAR FEEDING J.C.

NECTAR AVAILABILITY AND PARASITOID SUGAR FEEDING J.C. 22 Lee and Heimpel NECTAR AVAILABILITY AND PARASITOID SUGAR FEEDING J.C. Lee and G.E. Heimpel Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION Habitat diversification

More information

The Plant Kingdom If you were to walk around a forest, what would you see? Most things that you would probably name are plants.

The Plant Kingdom If you were to walk around a forest, what would you see? Most things that you would probably name are plants. INTRODUCTION TO PLANTS The Plant Kingdom If you were to walk around a forest, what would you see? Most things that you would probably name are plants. Plants are abundant in almost every environment that

More information

POPULATION BIOLOGY OF THE GREAT PURPLE HAIRSTREAK, ATLIDES HALES US, IN TEXAS (L YCAENIDAE)

POPULATION BIOLOGY OF THE GREAT PURPLE HAIRSTREAK, ATLIDES HALES US, IN TEXAS (L YCAENIDAE) Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 38(3). 1984. 179-185 POPULATION BIOLOGY OF TH GRAT PURPL HAIRSTRAK, ATLIDS HALS US, IN TXAS (L YCANIDA) PAUL L. WHITTAKR Department of Zoology, University of Texas,

More information

Arthropoda ARTHRO JOINTED PODA FEET

Arthropoda ARTHRO JOINTED PODA FEET Arthropoda ARTHRO JOINTED PODA FEET The arthropods are a group of animals which has attained the greatest biological success largest number of species and individuals and occupy the greatest number of

More information

Michigan Farm Bureau Agriscience Lessons -- Connections to Michigan Content Standards

Michigan Farm Bureau Agriscience Lessons -- Connections to Michigan Content Standards Michigan Farm Bureau Agriscience Lessons -- Connections to Michigan Content Standards 2nd GRADE LESSON - "Understanding Insects as Friends or Foes" Michigan Farm Bureau Promotion and Education This lesson

More information

Holly Meehan 1 INTRODUCTION

Holly Meehan 1 INTRODUCTION Monitoring the dynamics of Galerucella spp. and purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in the Goodyear Swamp Sanctuary and along the Otsego Lake shoreline, summer 25 Holly Meehan 1 INTRODUCTION Monitoring

More information

Good Bugs & Bad Bugs Student Booklet

Good Bugs & Bad Bugs Student Booklet Good Bugs & Bad Bugs Student Booklet Molly Keck Program Specialist Urban IPM 3355 Cherry Ridge, Suite 212 San Antonio, Texas 78230 Phone: 210-467-6575 Email: mekeck@ag.tamu.edu Lesson 1 - Entomology Reading

More information

of the South West Slopes of NSW and North East Victoria Pollinator Insects An identification and conservation guide

of the South West Slopes of NSW and North East Victoria Pollinator Insects An identification and conservation guide Pollinator Insects of the South West Slopes of NSW and North East Victoria This guide has been prepared to aid identification of a selection of common pollinator insects. This guide provides a good starting

More information

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF NON-NATIVE BIOCONTROL AGENTS: THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF LABORATORY DATA

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF NON-NATIVE BIOCONTROL AGENTS: THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF LABORATORY DATA Effects of Temperature on the Establishment of Non-Native Biocontrol Agents EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF NON-NATIVE BIOCONTROL AGENTS: THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF LABORATORY DATA Jeffrey

More information

Environmental Science: Biomes Test

Environmental Science: Biomes Test Name: Date: Pd. VERSION 1 Environmental Science: Biomes Test 1. Eland are large herbivores with loose skin under the throat and neck. This patch of skin aids in lowering the body temperature when temperatures

More information

Date: Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George. Score:

Date: Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George. Score: Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Theory of Evolution - (BIO.B.3.1.1 ) Natural Selection, (BIO.B.3.1.2 ) New Species, (BIO.B.3.1.3 ) Mutagenic Variations Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George Date: Score:

More information

Alligator mississippiensis.

Alligator mississippiensis. Alligator mississippiensis http://www.birdsasart.com/bn201.htm Core Case Study: Why Should We Care about the American Alligator? Largest reptile in North America 1930s: Hunters and poachers Importance

More information

National Pollinator week, June 20-26, 2016

National Pollinator week, June 20-26, 2016 FOR THE POLLINATORS National Pollinator week, June 20-26, 2016 Why the focus on pollinators? 75% of all plants on earth require pollination by animals. For humans: fruits, vegetables, seeds/nuts, fibers,

More information

What Shapes an Ecosystem? Section 4-2 pgs 90-97

What Shapes an Ecosystem? Section 4-2 pgs 90-97 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Section 4-2 pgs 90-97 What Shapes an Ecosystem? If you ask an ecologist where a particular organism lives, that person might say the organism lives on a Caribbean coral reef,

More information

all are forms of symbiosis

all are forms of symbiosis associations between insects and microbes (microbe/host) Commensalism (+/0) Parasitism (+/-) Mutualism (+/+) all are forms of symbiosis Microbial Associates of Insects Wolbachia a diversity of effects

More information

Chapter 4 Ecosystems and Living Organisms

Chapter 4 Ecosystems and Living Organisms Chapter 4 Ecosystems and Living Organisms I. Evolution A. The cumulative genetic changes that occur in a population of organisms over time 1. Current theories proposed by Charles Darwin, a 19 th century

More information

7. Where do most crustaceans live? A. in the air B. in water C. on the land D. underground. 10. Which of the following is true about all mammals?

7. Where do most crustaceans live? A. in the air B. in water C. on the land D. underground. 10. Which of the following is true about all mammals? 1 A flounder is a type of fish The flounder can change its color to match the surroundings If a shark approaches, the flounder lays still, blending into the sandy ocean bottom This is known as 2 Which

More information

Plant Glandular Trichomes

Plant Glandular Trichomes Plant Trichomes Chemical Factories with Many Potential- Uses A John Peter and Thomas G Shanower Most plants have hairs, called trichomes, on their surface that serve a number of functions ranging from

More information

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SPECIES IN WALNUT ORCHARD ECOSYSTEM OF KASHMIR VALLEY, INDIA

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SPECIES IN WALNUT ORCHARD ECOSYSTEM OF KASHMIR VALLEY, INDIA International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology ISSN (Print) : 2320-9577 Volume 2, Issue 2, pp: 200-204, 2014 ISSN (Online): 2320-9585 Copyright 2014 Rishan Publications http://www.ijpaz.com Research

More information

Identity of parasitoids and their potential for biocontrol of oilseed rape pests in Europe

Identity of parasitoids and their potential for biocontrol of oilseed rape pests in Europe EPPO Workshop on integrated management of insect pests in oilseed rape, Berlin 2017-09-20/22 Identity of parasitoids and their potential for biocontrol of oilseed rape pests in Europe B. Ulber, University

More information

Biomes Section 2. Chapter 6: Biomes Section 2: Forest Biomes DAY ONE

Biomes Section 2. Chapter 6: Biomes Section 2: Forest Biomes DAY ONE Chapter 6: Biomes Section 2: Forest Biomes DAY ONE Of all the biomes in the world, forest biomes are the most widespread and the most diverse. The large trees of forests need a lot of water, so forests

More information

Effect of Prey Limitation on Competitive Interactions Between a Native Lady Beetle, Coccinella novemnotata

Effect of Prey Limitation on Competitive Interactions Between a Native Lady Beetle, Coccinella novemnotata Effect of Prey Limitation on Competitive Interactions Between a Native Lady Beetle, Coccinella novemnotata, and an Invasive Lady Beetle, Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Author(s):

More information

Who Eats What? Mouthparts and Meals

Who Eats What? Mouthparts and Meals Who Eats What? Mouthparts and Meals Essential Question: What do insects eat? Background Information The ecological roles that animals play in their ecosystems or habitats are, for the most part, determined

More information

Activity: Honey Bee Adaptation Grade Level: Major Emphasis: Major Curriculum Area: Related Curriculum Areas: Program Indicator: Student Outcomes:

Activity: Honey Bee Adaptation Grade Level: Major Emphasis: Major Curriculum Area: Related Curriculum Areas: Program Indicator: Student Outcomes: Activity: Honey Bee Adaptation Grade Level: Grade 5 Major Emphasis: Invertebrates and Their Environments Major Curriculum Area: Science Related Curriculum Areas: Refer to Outdoor Education Curriculum Matrix

More information

GEOLOGY 12 CHAPTER 8 PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION. fossils (many forms now extinct)

GEOLOGY 12 CHAPTER 8 PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION. fossils (many forms now extinct) GEOLOGY 12 CHAPTER 8 PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION NOTES EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION INDIRECT fossils (many forms now extinct) changes in a single species of snail DIRECT common ancestry (adaptive radiation) similar

More information

North American Bramble Growers Research Foundation 2016 Report. Fire Blight: An Emerging Problem for Blackberry Growers in the Mid-South

North American Bramble Growers Research Foundation 2016 Report. Fire Blight: An Emerging Problem for Blackberry Growers in the Mid-South North American Bramble Growers Research Foundation 2016 Report Fire Blight: An Emerging Problem for Blackberry Growers in the Mid-South Principal Investigator: Burt Bluhm University of Arkansas Department

More information

Assessment of Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) predation of the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

Assessment of Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) predation of the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Retrospective Theses and Dissertations 1996 Assessment of Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) predation of the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Joseph Munyaneza Iowa State

More information

Science 9 - Unit A Review Sheet

Science 9 - Unit A Review Sheet Science 9 - Unit A Review Sheet Learning Outcomes Can you? describe the relative abundance of species on Earth and in different environments describe examples of variation among species and within species

More information

Introduction. Description. Bumble bee:

Introduction. Description. Bumble bee: Introduction Bumble bee: There are roughly 800 bee species in Canada. Bees are considered the most important group of pollinators. The bumble bee (genus Bombus) is native to North America. Description

More information

Seed Plants. Gymnosperms & Angiosperms

Seed Plants. Gymnosperms & Angiosperms Seed Plants Gymnosperms & Angiosperms 1 Quick Defs Vascular = xylem and phloem Xylem = Brings water/nutrients from roots to the plant. Phloem = Brings sugars down from the leaves 2 Evolution Of Land Plants

More information

Integrated Weed Control Project - Biological Control -

Integrated Weed Control Project - Biological Control - Integrated Weed Control Project - Biological Control - Jennifer Andreas Integrated Weed Control Project Director jennifer.andreas@kingcounty.gov (206) 205-3135 Garlic Mustard Garlic mustard - Alliaria

More information

INTRODUCTION. Joumal oj Aphidology. 19: The Aphidologtcal Society. India ISSN

INTRODUCTION. Joumal oj Aphidology. 19: The Aphidologtcal Society. India ISSN Joumal oj Aphidology. 19: 93-100. 2005 The Aphidologtcal Society. India ISSN 0970-3810 FEEDING POTENTIAL AND ITS EFFECT ON DEVELOPMENT OF AN APHID PREDATOR, EPISYRPHUS BALTEATUS (DE GEER) (DIPTERA: SYRPHIDAE)

More information

Field Abundance and Performance of Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) on Soybean Aphid

Field Abundance and Performance of Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) on Soybean Aphid University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln West Central Research and Extension Center, North Platte Agricultural Research Division of IANR 12-2015 Field Abundance

More information

Red Admiral (Early Stages)

Red Admiral (Early Stages) 01 February 2014 Vince Massimo Citation: Massimo, V. (2014). Red Admiral (Early Stages) [Online]. Available from http://www.dispar.org/reference.php?id=25 [Accessed February 1, 2014]. Red Admiral (Early

More information

Sclerotinia Stem and Crown Rot of Alfalfa: Symptoms & Disease Cycle

Sclerotinia Stem and Crown Rot of Alfalfa: Symptoms & Disease Cycle Sclerotinia Stem and Crown Rot of Alfalfa: Symptoms & Disease Cycle C.A. Frate, Farm Advisor University of California Cooperative Extension Tulare County, CA November 2012 Sclerotinia stem and crown rot

More information

Insects as predators and parasitoids D. L. A. Underwood Biology General Entomology

Insects as predators and parasitoids D. L. A. Underwood Biology General Entomology Insects as predators and parasitoids D. L. A. Underwood Biology 316 - General Entomology A. Introduction 1. Definitions a. Predators kill and consume more than one prey organism to reach maturity. b. Parasitoids

More information

Adaptation. Biotic and Abiotic Environments. Eric R. Pianka

Adaptation. Biotic and Abiotic Environments. Eric R. Pianka Adaptation Eric R. Pianka To survive and reproduce, all living organisms must adjust to conditions imposed on them by their environments. An organism's environment includes everything impinging upon it,

More information

9 Interactions symbioses. Classical Population Biology

9 Interactions symbioses. Classical Population Biology 1 Ecology Classical Population Biology Mark Mayo Cypress College 2 Terms of Ecological Endearment *habitat place where you live; the physical location has distinguishing physical and chemical features

More information

Parasitoid shows potential for biocontrol of eugenia psyllid

Parasitoid shows potential for biocontrol of eugenia psyllid Parasitoid shows potential for biocontrol of eugenia psyllid Donald L. Dahlsten R Donald M. Kent o David L. Rowney William A. Copper o Terri E. Young o Richard L. Tassan The eugenia psyllid has become

More information

Assessment Schedule 2016 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of the responses of plants and animals to their external environment (91603)

Assessment Schedule 2016 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of the responses of plants and animals to their external environment (91603) NCEA Level 3 Biology (91603) 2016 page 1 of 6 Assessment Schedule 2016 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of the responses of plants and animals to their external environment (91603) Evidence Statement

More information

Research Article Competition for Aphid Prey between Different Lady Beetle Species in a Laboratory Arena

Research Article Competition for Aphid Prey between Different Lady Beetle Species in a Laboratory Arena Psyche Volume 2012, Article ID 890327, 9 pages doi:10.1155/2012/890327 Research Article Competition for Aphid Prey between Different Lady Beetle Species in a Laboratory Arena Christy Leppanen, 1, 2 Andrei

More information

Levels of Organization in Ecosystems. Ecologists organize ecosystems into three major levels. These levels are: population, community, and ecosystem.

Levels of Organization in Ecosystems. Ecologists organize ecosystems into three major levels. These levels are: population, community, and ecosystem. Levels of Organization in Ecosystems Ecologists organize ecosystems into three major levels. These levels are: population, community, and ecosystem. Population A population is a group of individuals of

More information

Honey Bees QUB Green Champions 9 th April

Honey Bees QUB Green Champions 9 th April Honey Bees QUB Green Champions 9 th April 2014 http://www.qub.ac.uk/staff/area/bees/ http://belfastbees.wordpress.com/ Contents The Beekeeping Year Inside the hive Outside the hive Swarming Discussion

More information

Ch. 4- Plants. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION And Taxonomy

Ch. 4- Plants. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION And Taxonomy Ch. 4- Plants STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION And Taxonomy Plants belong to the kingdom: Plantae PLANTS AND PLANT REPRODUCTION STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION And Classification Two types of seed plants are gymnosperms

More information

PROJECT REPORT. Determining habitat requirements for natural enemies of crop pests

PROJECT REPORT. Determining habitat requirements for natural enemies of crop pests PROJECT REPORT Final project report submitted to the Organic Farming Research Foundation: Project Title: Determining habitat requirements for natural enemies of crop pests Investigator: Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer

More information

The Organization of Life Section 3. Chapter 4 The Organization of Life Section 3: The Diversity of Living Things DAY 1

The Organization of Life Section 3. Chapter 4 The Organization of Life Section 3: The Diversity of Living Things DAY 1 Chapter 4 The Organization of Life Section 3: The Diversity of Living Things DAY 1 The Diversity of Living Things Most scientists classify organisms into six kingdoms based on different characteristics.

More information

Oak Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus quercivorus

Oak Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus quercivorus Oak Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama), Phenology (Degree-Day) Model Analysis by Len Coop, Integrated Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University, July 22, 2016 Summary of model version

More information

Rapid Global Invasion by Quadrastichus erythrinae (Eulophidae), the Erythrina Gall Wasp and the Hawaii Biological Control Success

Rapid Global Invasion by Quadrastichus erythrinae (Eulophidae), the Erythrina Gall Wasp and the Hawaii Biological Control Success Rapid Global Invasion by Quadrastichus erythrinae (Eulophidae), the Erythrina Gall Wasp and the Hawaii Biological Control Success Leyla Kaufman, Mark Wright, Russell Messing, Dan Rubinoff, Juliana Yalemar

More information

Bio Ch Plants.notebook. April 09, 2015

Bio Ch Plants.notebook. April 09, 2015 1 Plants are vitally important to all life on Earth, especially humans Form the base of the food chain Medicines Clothing Building Materials 2 Plants for Food Cereals - The grass family - Rich in carbohydrates

More information