Rapid Global Invasion by Quadrastichus erythrinae (Eulophidae), the Erythrina Gall Wasp and the Hawaii Biological Control Success

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1 Rapid Global Invasion by Quadrastichus erythrinae (Eulophidae), the Erythrina Gall Wasp and the Hawaii Biological Control Success Leyla Kaufman, Mark Wright, Russell Messing, Dan Rubinoff, Juliana Yalemar (HDOA) and Walter Nagamine (HDOA) Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, University of Hawaii

2

3 Erythrina sandwicensis Deciduous tree Keystone species of Hawaiian low land dry forest Important species in Hawaiian culture Many threats during the last decades: ungulates, invasive weeds, fire, pests

4 Erythrina Gall Wasp (EGW), Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim First documented in 2003 in the Mascarene Islands and Taiwan. Described in 2004 from specimens from Singapore, Mauritius, and Reunion. India, American Samoa, China, Thailand, Guam, Philippines, Japan, Hawaii, Florida and Mariana Islands.

5 Incursion of EGW into Hawaii Initially found on Oahu in April 2005 M. Tremblay

6 Erythrina Gall Wasp 1.0 mm 1.5 mm

7

8

9 Control Methods Mechanical control Chemical control (Xu et al. 2006) Biological control

10 Origin of the invasive EGW Where did it come from? Is the invasive EGW a single species or have multiple GW with similar ecology caused this invasion? What are its natural enemies? Locate source population to focus biocontrol exploration efforts.

11 Origin of the invasive EGW Survey across much of the range of Erythrina in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sequence DNA of wasps across native and introduced range. A single species, Q. erythrinae, involved in dramatic host range expansion. Complete lack of polymorphism in all invasive populations sampled. Exact origin still undetermined. Almost certainly East Africa. Rubinoff et al. 2009

12 ICIPE UH exploration HDoA First Q. erythrinae Invasion? UH exploration

13 Natural enemies of EGW collected from Africa Eurytoma erythrinae Aprostocetus nitens

14 Eurytoma erythrinae (Eurytomidae) Incubation period of egg: 3 d Larval stage: 11 d Pupal stage: 4 d Mean adult longevity: 40.4 ± 2.2 d Egg Eurytomid larva Pupa Feeds on multiple EGW larvae

15 Risk Assessment Evaluation Trioza sp. Psyllidae Insect Hosts Selected Josephiella microcarpae Agaonidae Ophelimus sp. Eulophidae Procecidochares alani Tephritidae Procecidochares utilis Tephritidae Eutreta xanthochaeta Tephritidae Tectococcus ovatus Eriococcidae

16 Monitoring sites KAUAI OAHU MAUI HAWAII

17 Pre and Post Release Monitoring Infestation rate on young shoots Captive emergence from galled material Tracking young shoots and inflorescences Dissecting galled material

18 Infestation rate on young shoots Infestation level on 20 side shoots / tree Infestation level based on a four point scale Pre-release : 6 months Post-release: 18 months

19 A B C D A. Infestation level 0: no galls, B. Infestation level 1: 1-33% of tissue galled C. Infestation level 2: 34-66% of tissue galled, D. > 66% of tissue galled

20 Kauai Oahu Pre - release Post - release % Shoots Maui Hawaii Infestation Level

21 Captive emergence from galled material Galled material sorted by infestation rate Material held in ventilated containers Dry weight of galled material EGW and E. erythrinae counted

22 Leaves Infestation rate 2 50 # individuals / g dry galled material Release EGW Eurytoma erythrinae 0 Jun/08 Sep/08 Dec/08 Mar/09 Jun/09 Sep/09 Dec/09 Mar/10 Jun/10 Sep/10

23 Tracking young shoots and inflorescences Young shoots and inflorescences tagged at infestation level zero or one Infestation level rated till dormancy or seed production Photo of shoots and inflorescences

24 % young shoots tagged pre-release 2008 post-release 2009 post-release Infestation level

25 10/10/ /16/2008

26 2/26/2010 4/28/2010 6/16/2010 8/18/2010

27 % Inflorescences tagged Pre-release 2008 Post-release 2009 Post-release Infestation level

28 10/10/ /16/2008

29 6/18/2010

30 Dissection of galled material 100 galls dissected Records of healthy EGW larvae, EGW with probing marks, EGW with larvae of E. erythrinae EGW larval mortality: EGW larvae with probing marks + EGW with E. erythrinae larvae

31 EGW larval mortality % Larval mortality Dec/08 Mar/09 Jun/09 Sep/09 Dec/09 Mar/10 Jun/10 Sep/10

32 Unknown Eupelmid in the Field Egg 85 % of Eupelmids found in dissections feeding on EGW Adult Larva

33 Conclusions Eurytoma established immediately, emergence from galls detected within 2-6 months after release Infestation rates in leaves, petioles and stems decreased significantly post release Infestation rate in inflorescences still relatively high at some sites Unknown wasp generalist hyperparasitoid may be impacting Eurytoma?

34 Further considerations Need for augmentative releases during flowering at some sites? Need for a second biocontrol agent? Impact of other pests on recovery of E. sandwicensis

35 Acknowledgments USDA T-STAR; HISC; Ti-Isle R&D for funding Rob Hauff, Cynthia King DLNR-DOFAW Naomi Hoffman - Honolulu Botanical Gardens David Orr -Waimea Arboretum Dr. David Burney - NTBG The Outdoor Circle Roshan Manandhar, Amber Tateno, Robert Morgan

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