Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 1 Chapter in class follow along lecture notes

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1 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 1 Chapter in class follow along lecture notes Chp 26 Origin of life: 1) When did earth form? 2) What is the order of evolution of life forms on earth? 3) What were their modes of nutrition and why? 4) What was the role of oxygen in shaping life on earth? 5) What is spontaneous generation is this possible? When? 6) Explain the theory for origin of life all parts.

2 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 2 7) Why is RNA considered to be a better candidate for the first genetic material? 8) What are the 5 kingdom and 3 domain classification. 9) Why was the 5 kingdom classification replaced by the 3 domain classification? Chp 27 Prokaryotes 1) What are the two kinds of prokaryotes? 2) What are the differences between archaea and bacteria?

3 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 3 3) What are gram positive and gram negative bacteria why do we care? 4) Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes (fvorite ques. On test) Structure/process Prokaryote Eukaryote 1) Structure 2) Processes

4 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 4 5) What are the modes of nutrition in prokaryotes? How did they evolve? 6) What are nitrogen fixing bacteria? Explain their significance.

5 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 5 Chapter 28 Protista Origin of Eukaryotes 1) Why did Kingdom Protista get broken down an reclassified? 2) How is protist structure different from prokaryotes? 3) Where are protists found have they colonized land why or why not? 4) How are eukaryotes unique? 5) What is the endosymbiosis theory state the events that occurred in order. Draw pictures to show this.

6 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 6 7) What is the evidence for the endosymbiosis theory? 8) What is by far the best way to ascertain relationships between organisms based on this, the closest relatives of eukaryotes are 9) What is the typical life cycle of protists? 10) What are the three types of protists based on nutrition give examples of each. 11) The important classes of protists are (will be discussed in calss):

7 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 7 12) What are these pictures showing complete it. 13) Label these protist and their internal parts using your text:

8 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 8 Chapter 28 Plant Diversity 1 1) Where is life moving to in this chapter? 2) What are the four main groups of land plants? What are the main differences between the four land plant groups 3) Describe the four great evolutionary episodes in the history of land plants (use figure 29.1). (Do activity: highlights of plant phylogeny on textbook CD/website) 4) The closest relative of all land plants is believed to be: 5) Describe eight characteristics that distinguish land plants from charophycean algae, their closest relative that lived in water. Explain how these features facilitated the evolution of life on land. (Do Activity Terrestrial adaptation of land plants). Are there any additional reasons that plants exploited to move onto land and colonize it? Label this picture. 6) Describe a likely hypothesis for the origin of alternation of generations in plants. What is it? How is the alternation of generation in plants different from the sexual cycles in humans?

9 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 9 Bryophytes mosses (Do activity moss life cycle) 9) What is the common name for Bryophyta? 10) Describe the structure of the sporophyte and gametophyte stages of bryophytes. Draw and label them. 11) What is the dominant stage in the life cycle of Bryophytes what dos this mean in terms of the evolution of land plants? Label this picture using your text. 12) What are archegonia where are they found in moss? 13) What are antheridia where are they found in the moss? 14) What is the sporangium where does it grow from and what does it produce?

10 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 10 15) The products of meiosis in mosses are called:. They further undergo mitosis to produce. 16) Identify all the diploid and haploid stages in the life cycle of the moss. 17) Explain why most bryophytes grow close to the ground and need to be near water. 18) The visible green moss structure seen by you represents which stage in the life cycle? Describe the stemlike and leaflike structures that occur in mosses. The Origin of Vascular Plant 20) What are vascular bundles why are they important for plant evolution? List and distinguish between the groups of modern vascular plants. Explain how they are different from bryophytes and why they are higher on the evolution scale? 21) Describe the adaptations of vascular plants, including modifications of the life cycle and modifications of the sporophyte, that have contributed to their success on land. Pteridophytes: Seedless Vascular Plants (Do Case study: Life cycle of a fern plant) 23) Explain why seedless vascular plants are most commonly found in damp habitats 24) The fern plant you see commonly represents which stage in the life cycle of pteridophytes? 25) What does the sporophyte stage in the fern plant produce and through which process? 26) What happens when the spores fall to the ground?

11 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 11 28) What structures do the gametophyte contain? 29) How dos the male gamete reach the female gamete? 30) Distinguish between homosporous and heterosporous conditions. 31) Label this picture: What are the stages of alternation of generation in fern describe it. 32) Describe the major life cycle differences between mosses and ferns. 22) Explain how coal is formed and note during which geologic period the most extensive coal beds were produced

12 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 12 Chapter 30 Plant Diversity 2 - Evolution of the seed plant Gymnosperms (Do activity Pine Life cycle) 1) Describe the three most important reproductive adaptations of seed plants for life on land. 2) Describe the overall changes to alternation of generation in gymnosperms, the size and location of the gametophyte/sporophyte, development of naked seed using these pictures:

13 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 13 3) Relate the climate changes of the Mesozoic era to the success of gymnosperms during that time. 4) Where are the male gametophytes on a pine tree? What do they produce and through which process? 5) What is the term given for transfer of pollen to the ovulate/female cone? How does the pollen reach the ovulate cone? 6) What does the pollen grain do when it reaches the ovulate cone? How long can it take for the pollen tube to grow? 7) What is going on in the ovulate cone as the pollen tube is growing? 8) How are meiosis and mitosis involved in the female cone? 9) What happens when the pollen tube growth is completed? 10) The zygote formed by the union of sperm and egg leads to the production of the seed and the eventually: (stage in life cycle) 11) How is the fern life cycle different from the pine life cycle?

14 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 14 Angiosperms (Flowering Plants) (Do activity Angiosperm life cycle) 12) What is a carpel and what is its function? 13) What is the stamen and what is it function? 14) Identify the following floral structures and describe a function for each: a. sepals b. stigma c. petals d. filament e. style f. anther g. ovary 16) Define "fruit" in botanical terms and explain how fruits are modified in ways that help disperse seeds. 17) How is the egg formed in the female gametophyte? What is the embryo sac? Are the cells in the embryo sac haploid or diploid before fertilization? 18) How is pollen formed in the male gametophyte? 19) How does the pollen reach the stigma? What are the agents that deliver it? 20) How does the sperm reach the egg?

15 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 15 22) Explain the process and function of double fertilization. (Do Activity chapter 38 Seed and fruit development). This is a very important concept. 23) What is the endosperm what does it develop into? 24) What is the ovary and what does it develop into? 25) How is the angiosperm sporophyte and gametophyte ideally suited for life on land? (Revisit Chapter 29 Activity Terrestrial adaptation of land plants 26) Explain how animals may have influenced the evolution of terrestrial plants and vice versa. What is this type of evolution called? 27) What is golden rice do the activity chp 30- Making decisions about DNA technology. 28) Distinguish between monocots and dicots. Give examples. Do they have vascular bundles? Get

16 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 16 28) Compare and contrast the bryophyte, pteridophyte, gymnosperm, and angiosperm life cycles.

17 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity What is the table below showing?

18 Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 18

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