Tissues are made of cells that work together, organs are made of tissues that work together, and organ systems are made of organs that work together

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1 Study Guide Cells Unit Test Matching. Write the letter of the correct response on the line. You may use the responses more than once. A. proteins B. simple carbohydrates C. complex carbohydrates D. lipids B 1. Source of quick energy for cells. A 2. Steak, Chicken, turkey C 3. Starch A 4. DNA holds the instructions for making these D,C_ 5. Source of slow burning energy D 6. May be stored as fat; repels water B 7. Apples, pears, and grapefruit A 8. Made of amino acids A 9. Used by body to repair or build new parts such as hair, nails or muscles. C 10. Carbohydrates such as bread, pasta, or baked potatoes. 11. How are cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems related? (List how each is related to the next, i.e. tissues are made of cells that work together, organs are ) Tissues are made of cells that work together, organs are made of tissues that work together, and organ systems are made of organs that work together 12. Define homeostasis. Describe an example of how your body maintains homeostasis. Keeping your internal environment the same. Example: Sweating when it is hot outside to keep your body temperature at 98.6 F

2 13. List 5 characteristics shared by all living things. Respond to stimuli Mnemonic Device: Use energy Reproduce Richie Rich Enjoys Calling Girls Grow and Develop Made of one or more cells 14. Compare a plant cell to an animal cell. Name 3 differences between plant and animal cells. a. _Plant cells are rectangular. Animal cells are more circular. b. _Plant cells have chloroplasts and cell walls. Animal cells do not. c. _Plant cells have a large vacuole. Animal cells have a small vacuole. Name 3 similarities between plant and animal cells. a. _Both are eukaryotic have a nucleus b. _Both have a cell membrane, mitochondria, cytoplasm c. _Both do cellular respiration Match the cell to the description. Some choices will be used more than once. A. Animal Cell B. Plant Cell C. Bacterial Cell _A, B A overworked? _B respiration? _C A, B 15. Which will do cellular respiration? 16. Which produces lactic acid if it is 17. Which will do photosynthesis and cellular 18. Prokaryotic 19. Eukaryotic

3 20. Write the function for each organelle: Cell wall provides structure and strength for plant cells Cell membrane lets materials in and out of the cell Mitochondria makes ATP, gives the cell energy Ribosomes builds proteins Endoplasmic reticulum tunnels that transport materials in the cell Golgi Complex packages and transports materials OUT of the cell Cytoplasm watery substance the organelles float in Nucleus the control center of the cell Nucleolus where the materials to make ribosomes are stored Chloroplast the place where photosynthesis happens (holds the chlorophyll) Vacuoles holds liquids and wastes DNA instructions on how to make proteins Match the name of the organelle involved in the following processes. _E, D 21. diffusion _C 22. respiration _A,E _23. photosynthesis _D, E 24. osmosis C_ 25. ATP production A. chloroplasts B. nucleus C. mitochondria D. cell membrane E. vacuole

4 Identify the process described in the following examples. Choose from these words: Osmosis, diffusion, active transport, fermentation, photosynthesis, respiration. 26. White Blood Cell wrapping around bacterial cells to eat them _Active Transport 27. smelling vanilla through a balloon _Diffusion 28. raisins becoming plump in water Osmosis 29. chloroplasts using sunlight to make glucose Photosynthesis 30. mitochondria using glucose and oxygen Cellular Respiration 31. lactic acid building in your muscles Fermentation 32. Write the equation for cellular respiration. Glucose + Oxygen ATP + Carbon Dioxide + Water 33. Write the equation for photosynthesis. Sunlight + Water + Carbon Dioxide Glucose + Oxygen

5 34. How are photosynthesis and respiration related? Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are in a cycle. The materials needed for photosynthesis (Water and carbon dioxide) are the materials given off by respiration; the materials needed for respiration (glucose and oxygen) are the materials given off by photosynthesis. 35. Besides osmosis and diffusion, what are 2 other ways that cells can move materials in and out of the cell? Cells could use energy during active transport to move particles against the norm (moving from low to high) or to move molecule that are a little too big. The cell can use endocytosis and exocytosis to move particles in and out of the cell. 36. Look at the following diagrams. Draw arrows to indicate where molecules are moving. Which molecules are moving? Iodine Iodine & Water Starch & Water Which molecule can not move? Starch This is an example of Diffusion.

6 Which molecules are moving? _Iodine Draw arrows to indicate where molecules are moving. Iodine This is an example of Equilibrium Iodine Which molecules are moving? _Water Draw arrows to indicate where molecules are moving. Sugar & Water This is an example of Osmosis. Water

7 Read the following scenario and answer the questions that follow. Nick s mother packed him sliced apples in his lunch everyday. Nick was disappointed when he would open his lunch and find brown, mushy apples. Nick decided that he would try to find a way to keep his sliced apples crisp and white. He packed apple slices 3 different ways and recorded his observations in the chart below. Appearance Texture Apple Slices brown Soft and mushy Apple slice & ¼ cup white crisp sugar water Apple slice & ¼ cup sugar white soft and mushy 37. What was the control in the experiment? The plain apple slices are the control. 38. What was the independent variable? ( I changed) The independent variable is the sugar and water that was added to the apple slices. 39. What was the dependent variable? (how are you going to know a change happened?) The dependent variable is the observed appearance and texture of the apples.

8 40. Using your knowledge of diffusion, explain why the apple slice was crisp when stored in sugar water but soft when stored in sugar. The water in the apple is in equilibrium with the sugar water. There is not much movement of water in or out so the apple stays crisp. The apple placed in sugar will lose water because the apple has a higher concentration of water than the plain sugar. Water leaving the apple will cause it to become soft.

9 48. Label the diagram. Cytoplasm Cell Membrane Cell Wall DNA Nucleolus ER Chloroplast Nucleus Ribosomes Vacuole Mitochondria Golgi Complex What type of cell is pictured above? Plant Cell

10 43. Scientist Hooke Schleiden Schwann Virchow Discovery Discovered cells. All plants are made of cells All animals are made of cells All cells come from other cells. 43. Identify 2 examples of stimulus/response: a. stimulus: Bright light b. response: Pupils get smaller a. stimulus: Hot temperature b. response: You begin to sweat 44. What is metabolism? The total of all chemical reactions in an organism that keep it alive (cellular respiration, etc.)

11 Underline the major points. Briefly note your thinking. Circle keywords or phrases that are confusing or unknown to you. Use a question mark (?) for questions that you have during the reading. Be sure to write your question. Use an exclamation mark (!) for things that surprise you, and briefly note what it was that caught your attention. Draw an arrow ( ) when you make a connection to something inside the text, or to an idea or experience outside the text. Briefly note your connections. Health: The Scrape of the Future What did you do the last time you scraped your knee? You probably put a bandage on it, and before you realized it your knee was as good as new. Bandages serve as barriers that help prevent infection and further injury. But what if there were such a thing as a living bandage that actually helped your body heal? It sounds like science fiction, but it s not! The Main Factor An injury to the skin, such as a scraped knee, triggers skin cells to produce and release a steady stream of proteins that heal the injury. These naturally occurring proteins are called human growth factors, or just growth factors. Growth factors specialize in rebuilding the body. Some reconstruct connective tissue that provide structure for the new skin, some help rebuild blood vessels in a wounded area, and still others stimulate the body s immune system. Thanks to growth factors, scraped skin usually heal in just a few days. Help from a Living Bandage Unfortunately, healing isn t always an easy, natural process. Someone with a weakened immune system may be unable to produce enough growth factors to heal a wound properly. For example, someone with severe burns may have lost the ability in a burned area to produce the proteins necessary to rebuild healthy tissues. In these cases, using manufactured human growth factors can greatly assist the healing process.

12 Recent advances in bioengineering can help people whose immune system prevents them from healing naturally. The Genetically Engineered Biological Bandage (GEBB) is a special bandage that is actually a bag of living skin cells taken from donors. The cells DNA is manipulated to produce human growth factors. The GEBB is about 1 cm thick and consists of three layers: a thin gauze layer; a thin permeable membrane; and a dome-shaped silicone bag containing the growth factors. The bandage is applied to the wound just as a normal bandage is, with the gauze layer closest to the injury. The growth factors leave the silicone bag through the membrane and pass through the gauze into the wound. There they act on the wound just as the body s own growth factors would. Time-Release Formula The GEBB also helps heal wounds more quickly. It maximizes the effectiveness of growth hormones by releasing them at a constant rate over 3 to 5 days. Because GEBB initiates the body s own healing processes, other versions of the living bandage will likely be used in the future to treat a variety of wounds and skin conditions, such as severe acne. 45. What is the theme (main idea) of the section entitled Help from a Living Bandage? A living bandage has been created to promote growth of new cells and healing of cuts and wounds for people unable to create enough growth hormone to heal naturally. 46. Identify 2 benefits of the GEBB. It allows people who have compromised immune systems to heal properly, allows wounds to heal more quickly

13 47. Read the following excerpt from the selection: The GEBB is about 1 cm thick and consists of three layers: a thin gauze layer; a thin permeable membrane; and a domeshaped silicone bag containing the growth factors. The bandage is applied to the wound just as a normal bandage is, with the gauze layer closest to the injury. The growth factors leave the silicone bag through the membrane and pass through the gauze into the wound. There they act on the wound just as the body s own growth factors would. A. What does the word permeable mean in the paragraph above? permeable means it lets things pass through it. B. What part of the cell is described as being semipermeable? Why? the cell membrane, because it lets some things through and not others.

14 48. Fill in the following chart for the systems of the body: System of the Body Examples of 3 Organs Major Function of the System Muscular Skeletal Circulatory Biceps, Heart, tendons, Cartilage, Ligament, Femur Heart, Arteries, Veins Movement Protect organs, movement, produce Red Blood Cells Carry oxygen and nutrients to tissues Respiratory Lungs, Heart, trachea Oxygen exchange Nervous Brain, Spinal Cord, Eyes Communicate between brain and organs, 49. Why would a muscle or yeast cell need to do fermentation? There is no oxygen present, but the cell needs energy.

15 50. Discuss the following: a. Active Transport: Moving molecules using energy. Could move molecules against the concentration gradient, from Low to High or could be moving molecules that are too large to easily pass through the cell membrane. b. Endocytosis: Cell taking in molecules that are too large to pass through the cell membrane. Cell membrane wraps around molecule creating a vesicle. Example: White Blood Cells c. Exocytosis: Cell getting rid of things that are too large or dangerous to pass through the cell membrane. Example: Stomach cells releasing digestive enzymes.

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