Cells and Genetics. Life Science. Cell parts. Cell parts cont. Cell processes. Cell Division 5/4/2015

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1 Cells and Genetics Life Science SOL Review Hooke was 1 st person to observe cells Cells Basic Unit of structure and function of life Prokaryote: bacteria/no nucleus Eukaryote: membrane structures; everything but bacteria Unicellular: only one cell (has structures to carry out functions) Multicellular: many celled (work together) Cell parts Cell membrane: outer layer/holds cell together; allows materials to pass into and out of cell Cytoplasm: Jelly like material where life processes take place/ parts float in it Mitochondria: cells powerstations/ energy is produced here Endoplasmic Reticulum: transport system of cell/some protein is made here Cell parts cont. Cell Wall: Protects and supports the PLANT cell Chloroplasts: site of photosynthesis/ only in PLANT cell. Nucleus: brain / controls the activities of the cell Vacuole: where cells store water, food, and other materials Respiration: Photosynthesis: Cell processes Cell Division Mitosis: genetic material in the nucleus copies itself; nuclear material splits in half so that each daughter cell gets material that is the same as that of a parent; exact copies. Meiosis: combining cells from 2 different parents; half the genetic material comes from each parent; sexual reporduction. 1

2 Meiosis Cell Theory All living things are made of cells; cells are the smallest structure of living things that can perform the processes necessary for life; living cells come only from other living things. Organization of living things: Cell Tissue Organ System organism Species: organism reproduces only its own kind; fertile offspring DNA: genetic material found in cells nucleus; blueprint for the cell (double helix) Genetics Genes: segments of DNA; control traits; you inherited your genes and the traits from your parents Chromosomes: genes are located on chromosomes in the nuclei; they contain many thousands of genes; 23 pairs Female: XX chromosomes Male: XY chromosomes Heredity: passing of traits from parents to offspring Allele: Each gene in a pair; you inherit 2 alleles for each trait Dominant allele: masks the effect of the other allele Recessive allele: the allele that is masked/covered 2

3 Punnett Square Purebred: Tow of the same alleles whether dominant or recessive (TT or tt) Hybrid: both a dominant and a recessive allele for a trait (Tt) Genotype: set of alleles an organism has for a trait (Tt) Phenotype: the appearance the trait takes on Mutation: random change in genes Adaptation: characteristics that help organism survive Used to predict traits; male on top; dominant is shown with a capital letter and recessive with a lower case letter; each square is ¼ or 25% of the predicted Other definitions: Three ways material is moved in and out of a cell Osmosis-diffusion of water across a membrane Diffusion-movement of molecules from higher concentration to lower concentration Active transport-movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy. Other definitions Eutrophication: build up of nutrients in freshwater; leads to algae growth Pheromone: chemical released by one animal that affects behavior of antoher of same species Tropism: growth response of plant toward or away from stimulus Phototropism: growth response toward light Tropical Rain forest Deciduous Forest Coniferous -Forests Grasslands Temperate Grasslands Tropical Grassland 3

4 Deserts Tundra Hot Cold Kingdoms Water Freshwater Marine Some say 5 some say 6 Animal Plant Fungus Protist Bacteria Eubacteria Seven Levels of Classification Ecosystem vocabulary Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species King Philip can only find green snakes" can be used to memorize the hierarchy for the classification of organisms which is kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Phototropism Hibernation Eutrophication Parasite Host Biotic Abiotic Omnivore Carnivore Herbivore Nitrogen cycle Carbon-oxygen cycle Ecosystem Biome Food web Food chain 4

5 Chordate Phylum Arthropod Phylum Mollusk Phylum Annelid Phylum Nematode Phylum Cnidarian Phylum Echinoderm Phylum Animal Kingdom Mosses, liverworts, hornworts Ferns, club mosses, horsetails Gymnosperms Angiosperms Plant kingdom Bilateral symmetry Radial symmetry Extra vocabulary Circulatory Digestive Endocrine Excretory Immune Muscular Nervous Reproductive Respiratory Skeletal Skin Body Systems 5

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