Bacillus anthracis. Causes Anthrax Especially deadly when inhaled

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1 Eubacteria Bacteria are the most abundant organisms on earth. An estimated 5 X 1030individuals. One bacterium can give rise to 10 million in 24 hours. Both aerobic (with oxygen) and anaerobic (without oxygen) respiration. They are prokaryotic cells. Some eubacteria carry out photosynthesis. Some use carbon dioxide in photosynthesis as plants do, but other eubacteria use other organic compounds as a source of carbon for photosynthesis. Other eubacteria fix nitrogen (convert it from Nitrogen gas (N2) to forms plants can use) as a by product of their respiration. These eubacteria need an oxygen free (anaerobic) environment to survive. Plants provide nodules on their roots for these bacteria that are oxygen free. The plants gain nitrogen and the eubacteria somewhere to live. This is an example of symbiosis: a close mutually dependent relationship between two organisms. All bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes with cell walls. They can be autotrophs or heterotrophs.

2 Bacillus anthracis Causes Anthrax Especially deadly when inhaled

3 Chlamydia trachomatis causes the eye-disease trachoma and the sexually transmitted infection chlamydia;

4 Nitrosomonas europea oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and lives in several places such as soil, sewage, freshwater, the walls of buildings.

5 Archeabacteria Archae means ancient bacteria which is not a good name because they are not any older than eubacteria. They are prokaryotes like the eubacteria. Archaea are less widespread than Bacteria. Differ from Eubacteria in (1) details of cell wall structure. Different chemicals are used to make the cell walls in the two groups. In addition, the (2) plasma membranes possess unusual lipids that differ from those found in the plasma membranes of bacteria. Bacteria and Archaea (3) also differ substantially in DNA structure. Many Archaebacteria are methanogens. This means that to produce energy they use H 2 gas to reduce CO 2 to CH 4 (methane), which releases energy. Many Archaebacteria are adapted to extreme environments. Thermophiles: heat lovers. Inhabit hot springs. Tolerate temps from >110 C. Halophiles: salt lovers. Require water that is 15-20% salt (seawater only 3% salt). Archaebacteria more closely related to the Eukarya than are the Eubacteria. They are unicellular, prokaryotes will cell walls. They can be heterotrophs or autotrophs.

6 Halobacteria Solar evaporation ponds at the abandoned chemical plant of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company at Bartlett colored vivid red by halophile (salt-loving) archaebacteria.

7 Nanoarchaeum equitans Lives in Hydrothermal vents Since it grows in temperatures approaching boiling, it is considered to be a thermophile.

8 Protists Protista are the oldest of the Eukarya. (eukaryotes) Protistans are a catch-all group. Unlike the other 5 kingdoms cladists would not recognize them as a true group because they do not form a group that can be defined by shared derived characteristics. Most Protistans are unicellular. However, seaweeds algae are multicellular, but do not have specialized cells. Most have cell walls Kingdom Protista. Examples: Amoeba Paramecium Chlorophyta: Kelp and other algae. They can be autotrophs or heterotrophs

9 Fuligo septica Dog Vomit Slime Mold Used to be classified as a Fungi

10 Red Algae

11 Plants Plants were the first organisms to colonize the land. Cells are surrounded by a rigid cell wall that is composed of cellulose. The cellulose provides support for the plant. Key ability of plants is photosynthesis: ability to make sugars from water and carbon dioxide using the energy available in sunlight. Plants are complex, multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that possess chloroplasts, carry out photosynthesis and their cells have a cell wall. Most are autotrophs. An exception is the venus fly trap There are more than 250,000 plant species in the world. The pants fall into four major groups: Mosses Ferns Gymnosperms Angiosperms

12 Venus Fly Trap

13 Old Man Cactus

14 Fungi Fungi are multicellular and filamentous. Their cells contain cell walls. Have external digestion: they secrete digestive enzymes outside themselves and absorb whatever the enzymes break down.. Fungi do not photosynthesize. They are eukaryotic heterotrophs. Fungi are specialized to be decomposers. The fungal cell wall is made of chitin (same substance insect exoskeletons are made of. Fungi digest food externally by secreting digestive enzymes then absorbing the nutrients. Fungi spread by spores. There are parasitic fungi that grow their hyphae through tissues of living organisms. E.g. athlete s foot fungus. Dutch Elm disease is a fungus too. We in the Animalia are more closely related to the Fungi than we are to the Plantae.

15 Molds Mold growing on Petri dishes

16 Agaricus bisporus (common mushroom)

17 Animalia Includes: birds, mammals, reptiles, crabs, worms, fish, jellyfish, starfish, etc. The Animalia are complex, diverse and have excellent mobility. Animal cells lack a cell wall and are eukaryotic. They do not photosynthesize and are heterotrophs. There are several levels of complexity in the Animalia. Complexity increases from: Specialized cells to tissues to organs to organ systems. The simplest animals are the sponges. These have specialized cells that carry out a single task, but have not evolved tissues. The first group to evolve tissues are the Cnidaria or Jellyfish. Sponges have no tissues but many cell types. A tissue is a group of specialized cells that carry out a particular task. Examples include muscle tissue and nervous tissue

18 Cnidaria Jelly Fish and Coral

19 Annelids worms, leeches, etc.

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