Biomes of the World. Plant and Animal Adaptations

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1 Biomes of the World Plant and Animal Adaptations

2 Biomes and Adaptations Biome- A large geographic area with similar climate and a distinctive community of organisms. Adaptation- an anatomical, physiological, or behavioral change that improves a population s ability to survive in its environment. Most important factor in determining where ecosystems occur are Temperature and Precipitation.

3 Desert Climate Very dry and very hot 2-26cm of rain per year High temperature range 20 o C-49 o C Low Temperature Range -18 o C-10 o C A lot of direct sunlight and strong winds

4 Desert Plants Flowers open at night Succulents store water in stems and leaves Most plants have no leaves or reduced leaves(spines) Long root stems

5 Desert Animals Migration Breed during cool spring then leave for the summer Many are only active at dawn & dusk or are completely nocturnal when it is cooler. Burrow into the soil/sand Hibernation during summer and winter

6 Grasslands Savanna (Africa), Temperate Grasslands Chapparal (Mediterranean and Australia), Prairie (N. America) Steppes (Eurasia) Pampas (S. America)

7 Grassland Climate Hot, dry summers and cold winters 50-89cm of rain per year Temperature Range 38 o C 40 o C Wildfires are common during the dry season Rich soil

8 Grassland Plants Deep & extensive root systems Roots survive wildfires and grazing Narrow leaves reduce water loss Wind pollinators (strong winds)

9 Grassland Animals Migration to find water Teeth and digestive systems adapt to a grass diet Burrowers and nocturnal to avoid predators Skin colors blend with plants (camouflage)

10 Tropical Rainforest Climate Temperature Range 24 o C-27 o C cm of rain per year Poor soil conditions Intense sunlight at canopy level Little or no sunlight below the canopy

11 Tropical Rainforest Plants Leaves have drip tips and waxy surfaces to discourage fungal and bacterial growth. Some plants grown on or climb others to reach the sunlight. Plants (even trees) have shallow roots to get the nutrients in the top layer of soil Kapok tree Bougainvillea Strangler fig Durian Coconut tree Bamboo

12 Tropical Rainforest Animals Bengal Tiger Most animals eat only one type of food that few other animals can eat Toucans have beaks designed to eat nuts INSECTS GALORE!!! Chimpanzee Dawn Bat Toco Toucan

13 Temperate Forest Climate Temperature Range -30 o C-30 o C Four distinct seasons 5-6 month growing season cm of rain per year

14 Temperate Forest Plants Deciduous trees which drop their leaves in the fall Pecan Prevents water loss and breakage in winter Deciduous trees have broad, thin leaves to capture as much sunlight as possible White Birch Thick bark protects against cold winter weather White Oak

15 Temperate Forest Animals Animals must deal with the cold and lack of food during winter Migrate Hibernate Cache Store Food

16 Taiga Climate Aka Boreal Forest Temperature Range -54 o C 21 o C cm of rain per year Acidic and mineral poor soil

17 Taiga Plants White Spruce Eastern Red Cedar Dark-colored needles absorb more sunlight Evergreens keep their leaves all year Plants can photosynthesize immediately when it warms up Needles prevent water loss White Fir Conifers and Evergreens

18 Taiga Animals Migration Hibernation Fur/feather coats

19 Tundra Climate Temperature Range -34 o C 12 o C Cold year round cm of rain per year Permafrost permanently frozen sub-layer of soil 24-hour days/nights

20 Tundra Plants Bearberry Small, usually less than 12 inches tall Keeps plants from freezing Dark colors help absorb solar heat Plants grow in clumps Shields the wind and cold Arctic Willow Arctic Moss Tufted Saxifrage

21 Tundra Animals Caribou Migration Hibernation Thick fur/feathers Grizzly Bear Polar Bear Ermine Arctic Fox Snowy Owl Musk Ox

22 Water (Aquatic) Biomes Freshwater Rivers and Streams Lakes and Ponds Wetlands Marine Estuaries Open Ocean Coastal Ocean Coral Reefs

23 Aquatic Plants Flexible stems and leaves Leaves absorb water and nutrients, not the roots Floating leaves Floating seeds

24 Aquatic Animals Migrate to find food and to breed Prevent water loss in salty or fresh water Breathing using gills Gas bladders to adjust depth

25 North American Biomes Coloring The map must be colored specific colors. The boreal forest is the same as the coniferous forest.

26 Copy and answer the question. Which category consists of only one species? A. Ecosystem B. Biome C. Community D. Population

27 Copy and answer the question. Which of these is a common adaptation that helps desert plants conserve water? a) Waxy coverings on leaves and stems b) Large broad leaves c) Flowering at night d) Very deep root systems

28 Copy and answer the question. Which effect does deforestation have on the carbon cycle? A. Decreased CO 2 in the atmosphere B. Increased CO 2 in the atmosphere C. Increased ozone in the atmosphere D. Decreased decomposition of carbon EQ How do humans impact the environment? (both good and bad)

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