BRAINSTORM ACTIVITY What do we depend on plants for?

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3 BRAINSTORM ACTIVITY What do we depend on plants for? STOP! THINK! PAIR! SHARE! With your partner, brainstorm 5 significant uses of plants. Write them down. Now share your ideas with the rest of the class.

4 Here s what we found 1) Plants sustain life (ie. Photosynthesis and the production of oxygen & glucose) 2) Plants supply cellulose (ie. Paper, textiles, wood for construction) 3) Plants supply agriculture/food (ie. Farming/crops such as corn, wheat, rice sugar cane) 4) Plants supply biochemicals( ie. Medicinal teas/pain relievers) 5) Plants supply fuel(ie. Wood as a heat source) 6) Plants provide recreation & tourism (ie. Ecotourism)

5 What is Nature Worth? This is a look at the value of ALL living things (plants and animals)...

6 Photosynthesis Light energy converts CO 2 and H 2 O into C 6 H 12 O 6 and O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O > C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 Sunlight energy C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose )is food for plants O 2 is used for human/animals to breathe ( Cellular respiration)

7 What is Cellulose? Cellulose is found in cell walls of plants It s a complex carbohydrate How do Humans use Cellulose? Cellulose from cotton plants is for fabric Cellulose from wood used for paper/cardboard When burned it provides heat

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9 Recall: Plant Cells Recall: Plant cells contain some structures that animal cells do not have. 1) cell wall -> to provide support 2) large central vacuole-> storage of materials / food/ enzymes 3) chloroplasts -> photosynthesis

10 Vascular Plant Body(Organ Systems) Shoot System: above ground stems provide structural support and bear reproductive structures leaves perform photosynthesis Root System below ground roots anchor the plant roots absorb the water and minerals required

11 Shape Function Examples Sketch Shape Function Examples Sketch Shape Function Examples Sketch Types of PLANT CELLS: Complete Blackline Masters 13.3 For Parenchyma Cells, Collenchyma Cells, Sclerenchyma Cells (pg 546)

12 Plant Tissue Meristematic: areas where new cells are produced by mitosis Dermal: outer layers of cells that form a protective covering Ground: multi-functional tissue inside a plant; includes all three types of cells (parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma) Vascular: internal system of tubes that transports water, minerals, and other substances; two types are xylem and phloem

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14 There are 3 Plant Organs: 1) Roots 2)Stems 3)Leaves Together they work to absorb water and minerals from the ground and take in carbon dioxide and light from above.

15 Types of Leaves

16 Types of Roots

17 Types of Stems (A) Tubers, like potatoes, are underground stems. (B) Bulbs, like onions, are compressed stems surrounded by leaves. (C) Stolons are stems that run horizontally above ground. (D) Rhizomes are stems that run underground. (E) Irises are plants that have rhizomes.

18 Recall: Diagram of a Leaf

19 Structure and Function of Leaf Leaf blade is attached directly to the stem or via a petiole. Epidermal cells produce a waxy cuticle to prevent evaporation. Veins are made up of vascular tissue. Palisade mesophyll cells are made up of parenchyma cells that perform photosynthesis. Spongy mesophyll cells are made up of parenchyma cells loosely packed to allow gases to flow between them.

20 Monocots vs. Dicots Flowing plants are divided into 2 major classes. Notice the differences.

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22 Overview of Transport in Plants 1) Sugars( glucose) made by photosynthesis are carried to all other living cells by the phloem. 2) Water and dissolved minerals are taken from the ground and brought to all cells by the xylem.

23 Recall: Ploem & Xylem Phloem Xylem

24 Types of Transportation Water and nutrients move through the following processes: 1) Diffusion 2) Osmosis 3) Active Transport

25 1) DIFFUSION Recall Diffusion: movement of particles from an area of high [con c]to low [con c]

26 2) OSMOSIS Water will move from an area of low solute [con c] (high water) to high solute [con c] (low water)

27 3) ACTIVE TRANSPORT When particles move against the [con c] gradient. From low [con c] to an area of high [con c]. Because it is against the natural tendency of particles, this process requires energy.

28 Active vs. Passive Transport With the [con c ]gradient Against the [con c ]gradient

29 Active Transport in the Xylem Active transport moves xylem fluid against gravity in two ways: positive root pressure (pushing) negative pressure (transpirational pulling) A.K.A The PUSH-PULL System

30 Root Pressure( The Push ): Xylem Transport -Water enters the roots by osmosis, and water pushes upward in the xylem. -Minerals continue to move across the membrane by active transport. -The push of water and minerals is aided by the adhesion (sticking) of water molecules to the xylem cell walls. -The water and minerals move into the stem and eventually enter the leaves, moving through the veins. -At the end of the veins, the water and minerals diffuse into the cells of the leaves. Much of the water that reaches the leaf (up to 90%) then returns to the atmosphere, evaporating through the stomata (this is called transpiration).

31 Transpiration (The Pull ): Xylem Transport The cohesion-tension model The loss of water through transpiration in the leaves creates the pull that moves water and minerals up to replace the lost water. As the water is being pulled up by transpiration, cohesion (attraction between water molecules), and adhesion (attraction between water molecules and xylem walls), more water enters the roots.

32 Translocation: Phloem Transport Translocation= The transport of sucrose (made from glucose) through the phloem. Sucrose moves down to the roots for winter storage and back up to the trunk and branches in the spring. ( source to sink)

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