1 Plants Week 6 Booklet Living vs. Non-Living Foss Investigation #5 The Vascular System Part 1: What Happened to the Water? Part 2: Looking at Plant Structures Not in Foss- Nonvascular Systems Types of Roots Protists, Fungi & Plants Unit 1
2 Word Vascular/Nonvascular Vocabulary Definition 2 1. Vascular Largest group in the plant kingdom that has a well-developed system for transporting water and food (xylem/phloem in tube-like support and circulatory system); therefore they have true roots, stems and leaves. 2. Vascular Examples Woody stems: trees, shrubs/soft stems: dandelions, grasses, tomato plants. 3. Xylem Xylem UP 4. PHloem PHloem DOWN Transports water and minerals from the roots UP to the rest of the plant. Transports food (sugar/glucose) made in PHotosynthesis DOWN from the leaves to the rest of the plant. 5. Nonvascular Do not have a well-developed system for transporting water and food; therefore, do not have true roots, stems, or leaves. They must transport food and water from cell to cell. 6. Nonvascular Examples Mosses, liverworts and hornworts. 7. Roots Anchor the plant, absorb water and nutrients from soil, store extra food for the plants, increase surface area to absorb more water and nutrients. 8. Root hairs Help to increase surface area of roots. 9. Fibrous roots Consist of several main roots that branch off to form a mass of roots. Examples- grass, corn, and some trees. 10. Taproots Consists of one large, main root with smaller roots branching off. Examples-carrots, dandelions, or cacti.
3 LAB: Part 1: What Happened to the Water? 3
4 LAB: Part 1: What Happened to the Water? 4
5 LAB: Part 1: What Happened to the Water? 5
6 LAB: Part 2: Looking at Plant Structures 6
7 LAB: Part 2: Looking at Plant Structures 7
8 LAB: CELERY INVESTIGATION CLASS RESULTS 8
9 Video Classifying Plant Groups 9 Vascular Group Write or draw a fact as you watch the video Nonvascular Seed producing Spore producing Flowering Cone bearing Monocot Dicot
10 Classifying Plant Groups 10 GROUPS OF PLANTS All plants are included in this kingdom, which is then broken down into smaller divisions based on several characteristics, for example: How they absorb and circulate fluids vascular or nonvascular; How they reproduce spores or seeds; Method of seed production cones or flowers; Type of seed leaf monocot or dicot.
11 Classifying Plant Groups 11 Vascular It is the largest group. It has a well-developed system for transporting water and food; they have true roots, stems, and leaves. It helps circulate water and food throughout the plant. Xylem transport water and minerals from the roots up to the rest of the plant. Phloem transport food from the leaves down to the rest of the plant. Examples: woody stems- trees & bushes herbaceous stems- grasses Nonvascular Plants do not have a well-developed system for transporting water and food; do not have true roots, stems, or leaves. They must obtain nutrients directly from the environment and distribute it from cell to cell throughout the plant. This usually results in these plants being very small in size. Examples: mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
12 Vascular Plants: Xylem & Phloem 12
14 Note Guide Fill in the blanks with teacher! 14
15 Find a Fact: What is the most obvious difference between the size of a vascular plant versus a nonvascular plant? Why do you think this is? True roots, leaves & stems No true roots, stems & leaves Usually very small Has tube-like structures that circulate food and water Make their own food Has xylem (UP) Has phloem (DOWN) Can grow very large Grow close to ground Transport H20 cell to cell Vascular Needs water Usually green Needs nutrients Largest group Smallest group Nonvascular Ex. Mosses, liverworts, hornworts Ex. Woody stems: trees, shrubs, soft stems: grasses, tomato plants, dandelions Cells include chloroplasts, cell walls, vacuoles 15
16 Take a look at the plants below. You can see that they have different types of leaves. They are different colors, sizes, and shapes. Some plants grow flowers. Other plants grow nuts, fruit, or vegetables. You cannot see the roots of plants because they grow under the soil. Do you think the roots are different too? 16 Plant roots take in water and minerals from the soil. They hold the plant in place. The roots also help keep soil from blowing away in the wind or being washed away by water. Some plants have roots that spread out under the surface of the soil to collect water. These are called fibrous roots. Other plants have longer roots that are thick and grow deep in the soil. These are called tap roots.
17 Here are some pictures that show plants with their roots What are the three jobs of plant roots? 2. What is a fibrous root? Provide an example. 3. What is a tap root? Provide an example. You will notice that one of the root examples above is a carrot. There are actually several roots that make their way into the average diet. Carrots, beets, turnip, yams, parsnips, radish, and potatoes are all roots.
18 18 A. B. Which type of roots do you see in the diagrams above? A. B. Similarity Difference Example Tap Root Put a T next to a tap root and a F next to a fibrous root. Fibrous Root dandelion rice hibiscus wheat grass corn bean pea carrot oak palm mango
19 Example: Facts L group Examples: S are in the cones! Non- Example: (draw inside picture) Conebearing Plants 19 Vascular Plants Plant Groups Parts True-, S X, carries Non- Vascular Plants (NOT!!), & p, carries Parts NO True-, S, & Examples Examples: Plants with Spores Plants with Seeds
20 Scientific Argument: Claim, Evidence, Reasoning 6.E.2A.2 Using the graph, use your scientific argument skills to chose the best claim below about the concept of vascular versus nonvascular. A. Vascular plants are larger than nonvascular plants due to their color. B. Vascular plants are more able to transport water and nutrients up and down the plant due to the presence of xylem and phloem. C. Vascular plants are unable to transport water and nutrients up and down the plant due to the lack of xylem and phloem, which is present in nonvascular plants. Find a fact: According to this Transpiration Data Chart the observations and drawings prove what is carrying the red dye up? Circle the correct answer: xylem or phloem D. Vascular plants and nonvascular plants both feed cell to cell and show many colors within the cells. 20
21 How to Solve One-Step Dimensional Analysis Problems The distance from Columbia to Los Alamos is 29 miles. What is the distance in cm? Conversion 1 mi= 160,934.4 cm 21
22 Review 22 A. Consists of one large, main root with smaller roots branching off. Examples-carrots, dandelions, or cacti. B. Transports food (sugar/glucose) made in PHotosynthesis DOWN from the leaves to the rest of the plant. C. Anchor the plant, absorb water and nutrients from soil, store extra food for the plants, increase surface area to absorb. D. Largest group in the plant kingdom that has a welldeveloped system for transporting water and food (xylem/phloem in tube-like support and circulatory system); therefore they have true roots, stems and leaves. E. Help to increase surface area of roots. F. Woody stems: trees, shrubs/soft stems: dandelions, grasses, tomato plants. G. Transports water and minerals from the roots UP to the rest of the plant. H. Do not have a well-developed system for transporting water and food; therefore, do not have true roots, stems, or leaves. They must transport food and water from cell to cell. I. Mosses, liverworts and hornworts. J. Consists of several main roots that branch off to form a mass of roots. Examples- grass, corn, and some trees. 1. vascular 2. nonvascular 3. xylem 4. phloem 5. roots 6. root hairs 7. fibrous roots 8. tap roots 9. vascular examples 10. nonvascular examples
23 Standards 6.L.5B.1 Construct explanations of how the internal structures of vascular and nonvascular plants transport food and water. 23 HOW VASCULAR & NONVASCULAR TR ANSPORT FOOD & WATER Essential Knowledge It is essential that students be familiar with internal structures of nonvascular and vascular plants and how those structures transport food and water within the plant. Plants are classified into two major groups based on their internal structures. These two groups are vascular and nonvascular. Vascular Plants Largest group in the Plant Kingdom. Have a well-developed system for transporting water and food; therefore, they have true roots, stems, and leaves. Have tube-like structures that provide support and help circulate water and food throughout the plant. Xylem transport water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant. Phloem transport food from the leaves to the rest of the plant. Examples include trees and many shrubs with woody stems that grow very tall and grasses, dandelions, and tomato plants with soft stems. Nonvascular Plants Do not have a well-developed system for transporting water and food; therefore, do not have true roots, stems, or leaves. Must obtain nutrients directly from the environment and distribute it from cell to cell throughout the plant. As a result, these plants are small in size and grow close to the ground Examples include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
24 Standards 6.L.5B.1 Construct explanations of how the internal structures of vascular and nonvascular plants transport food and water. HOW VASCULAR & NONVASCULAR TR ANSPORT FOOD & WATER Extended Knowledge Students can develop and use models to describe how essential processes (movement of water and food) can be different in vascular and non-vascular plants. Non-vascular Water movement by osmosis Solutes move by diffusion Plants not very large, all parts must be near their water source Vascular Plants can be 300 tall and parts can be distant from water source Basic structure of the xylem and phloem Adhesion/cohesion of water in the xylem tissue Transpiration from leaves as the driving force for water going up Diffusion of water from environment to roots Vascular tissue provides stiffness and allows some plants such as sequoias to grow to great heights. Assessment Guidance The objective of this indicator is to construct explanations related to how the internal structures of vascular and nonvascular plants transport food and water. Therefore, the primary focus of assessment should be for students to construct explanations regarding how the internal structures of nonvascular and vascular plants enable plants to transport food and water. This could include but is not limited to students developing models to describe how xylem and phloem move water, nutrients, sugars, and other key compounds throughout the body of the vascular plant and compare these structures to the way nonvascular plants pass food and water from cell to cell. In addition to construct explanations, students should ask questions; plan and carry out investigations; engage in argument from evidence; obtain, evaluate and communicate information; develop and use models; and construct devices or design solutions. 24
25 6.L.5B.3 Develop and use models to compare structural adaptations and processes that flowering plants use for defense, survival and reproduction. STRUCTURAL ADAPTATIONS/PROCESSES FLOWERING PLANTS USE FOR DEFENSE, SURVIVAL & REPRODUCTION Parts of the flowering plant that function in reproduction include: 25 Flowers Flowers produce seeds. Many flowers contain both male and female organs needed to produce new flowers. Flower petals are often colorful or have a scent to attract insects and other animals. Stamen The male organ of a flower that has an anther on a stalk (filament). The anther produces the pollen that contains the sperm cells. Pistil The female organ of the flower that contains The ovary, which contains the ovules where the egg cells are produced, The stigma, which is the sticky top where pollen grains land, and The style, which is a stalk down which the pollen tube grows after pollination has taken place. Seed The ovule that contains the fertilized egg (embryo) from which new plants are formed. A fruit that is formed from the ovary often protects them.
26 6.L.5B.3 Develop and use models to compare structural adaptations and processes that 26 flowering plants use for defense, survival and reproduction. STRUCTURAL ADAPTATIONS/PROCESSES FLOWERING PLANTS USE FOR DEFENSE, SURVIVAL & REPRODUCTION Extended Knowledge Plants use a variety of parts to produce new plants such as: Tubers, bulbs These are all types of underground stems. The eyes or buds of tubers, for example potatoes, grow into roots and shoots to produce a new plant. Bulbs, for example onions, are big buds made of a stem and special types of leaves. Runners These are all types of stems that run along the ground. New strawberries or some ivy grow from the tips of runners. Many lawn grasses grow from runners. Stem Cuttings When a piece of cut stem is planted, roots may form from the cutting, and then a full plant develops. Sugar cane and pineapple are examples of plants grown from stem cuttings. Roots Some fruit trees and bushes send up suckers or new shoots from the roots. Some plants have roots that can produce new plants from root pieces, such as a sweet potato. Plant cells have larger vacuoles compared to animal cells to store more food and water. This helps plants to store up the water they need in order to perform the process of photosynthesis. Assessment Guidance The objective of this indicator is to develop and use models to compare structural adaptations and processes that flowering plants use for defense, survival and reproduction. Therefore, the primary focus of assessment should be for students to construct models that represent (or use simulations to investigate), compare, and contrast structural adaptations and processes flowering plants use for survival. This could include but is not limited to students creating models to describe how various structures of flowering plants help them to grow, develop, reproduce, and survive. In addition to develop and use models, students should ask questions; plan and carry out investigations; analyze and interpret data; use mathematics and computational thinking; engage in argument from evidence; construct explanations; obtain, evaluate, and communicate information; and construct devices or define solutions.
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