BIOLOGY. Classification & Phylogeny. Slide 1 / 92. Slide 2 / 92. Slide 3 / 92. Vocabulary Click on each word below to go to the definition.

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1 Slide 1 / 92 Slide 2 / 92 BIOLOGY Classification & Phylogeny April Vocabulary Click on each word below to go to the definition. Slide 3 / 92 acoelomate angiosperm bilateral symmetry binomial nomenclature cladistic analysis cladogram class coelomate cotyledon dicot domain endothermic family genus gymnosperm heterotroph invertebrate kingdom monocot order phloem phototroph phylogenetic tree phylogeny phylum psuedocoelomate radial symmetry species epithet taxa vertebrate xylem

2 Classification & Phylogeny Topics Slide 4 / 92 Classification & Naming Phylogeny & Cladistics Domains & Kingdoms Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia Click on the topic to go to that section Classification & Naming Slide 5 / 92 Return to Table of Contents Classification Slide 6 / 92 Classification is a method of organizing species into groups called taxa. There are 8 taxa in the modern system of classification. This modern system began with the work of Carolus Linnaeus in Linnaeus based his classification of species solely on shared characteristics. Scientists have refined this system using molecular homologies and DNA evidence.

3 The Bigger Picture Think about classification in this way... the country is divided into states, states into counties, counties into towns, towns into streets, and streets into individual houses. Slide 7 / 92 People living in the same house have more in common than people on the same street. People on the same street have more in common than people in the same town. People in the same town have more in common than people in the same county. People in the same county have more in common than people in the same state. People in the same state have more in common that people in the same country. The Big Picture Slide 8 / 92 Continent state country Less in Common county town street house person More in Common The Classification System Slide 9 / 92 Domain Kingdom Continent Phylum Order Class state country Less in Common Genus Family street town county Species house person More in Common

4 In other words... Species to Domain Slide 10 / 92 Organisms of the same species have more in common than organisms of the same genus. Organisms of the same genus have more in common than organisms of the same family. Organisms of the same family have more in common than organisms of the same order. Organisms of the same order have more in common than organisms of the same class. Organisms of the same class have more in common than organisms of the phylum. Organisms of the same phylum have more in common than organisms of the same kingdom. Organisms of the same kingdom have more in common than organisms of the same domain. 1 Which of these groupings has the most in common? Slide 11 / 92 A B C D order class phylum kingdom 2 Which of these groupings has the least in common? Slide 12 / 92 A B C D order class phylum kingdom

5 3 Below is the biological classification of humans in order from least in common to most in common. Identify the highlighted taxa. A phylum, order B family, genus C phylum, speices D kingdom, family Eukarya Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Homo Homo sapiens Slide 13 / 92 4 Below is the biological classification of the Asian elephant in order from least in common to most in common. Identify the highlighted taxa. A phylum, order B family, genus C class, speices D phylum, genus Eukarya Animalia Chordata Mammalia Proboscidea Elephantidae Elephas Elephas maximus Slide 14 / 92 We are Homo sapiens Slide 15 / 92 Why are we given this special name?

6 Binomial Nomenclature Slide 16 / 92 Binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming a species. Each species' name includes the organism's genus and a species epithet to identify it. Common Name Genus species epithet dog Canis familiaris Wolf Canis lupis Sugar Maple Tree Acer sacchaum Human Rules for Naming Slide 17 / 92 Homo sapiens 1. The first letter of the genus is always capitalized. 2. The first letter of the species epithet is never capitalized. 3. The whole name is italicized. Both the genus and species epithet together are referred to as the name of the species. We are never just called sapiens. 5The genus for the American black bears is ursus and the epithet is americanus. Which of the following is the proper species name of American black bears? Slide 18 / 92 A B C D E Ursus Americanus Americanus ursus Ursus americanus Ursus americanus Americanus Ursus

7 6The species name for a tiger is Panthera tigris. What is a tiger's genus? Slide 19 / 92 A B Panthera tigris Phylogeny & Cladistics Slide 20 / 92 Return to Table of Contents Phylogeny Slide 21 / 92 Scientists can further classify a species based on its probable evolutionary history. A phylogeny is a graphic method of illustrating the evolutionary relationships between species. Example of a Mammalian Phylogeny

8 Phylogenetic Trees Slide 22 / 92 Phylogenetic trees are used to show relatedness among organisms. Branches separate organisms based on traits they have in common. Biologists use two methods to place organisms on the phylogenetic tree: - morphological similarities (similarities in body structure and embryonic development) - molecular similarities (similarities in DNA, RNA, and proteins) Phylogenetic trees are constantly changing to fit in the new information that scientists learn. 7Which of the following is NOT used to create a phylogenetic tree? Slide 23 / 92 A B C D DNA comparison Molecular homologies Acquired characteristics Comparative embryology Cladistics One of the tools used to create a phylogeny is cladistic analysis. A cladogram is a special type of phylogenetic tree that uses derived traits to determine which species are most closely related. Slide 24 / 92 retractable claws ability to purr domestic cat Common Ancestor hair carnivore leopard wolf horse Turtle

9 Another Way to Show It Slide 25 / 92 Turtle Horse Wolf Leopard Domestic Cat Ability to purr Retractable Claws Carnivour Hair Common Ancestor The closer together two organisms are on the cladogram, the more shared traits they have in common, therefore the more related they are. Clade Turtle Horse Wolf Leopard Domestic Cat Ability to purr Slide 26 / 92 Retractable Claws Carnivour Hair Common Ancestor Slide 27 / 92

10 Slide 28 / 92 Domains & Kingdoms Slide 29 / 92 Return to Table of Contents Domains Slide 30 / 92 In a phylogenetic tree of all life on Earth, the first branches represent the 3 domains of the modern classification system. These 3 domains are: Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Eukarya Domain Eukarya Bacteria Archaea Common Ancestor

11 Domain Bacteria Slide 31 / 92 Domain Bacteria consists of prokaryotes and includes the bacteria most people are familiar with including both the the beneficial bacteria used to make yogurt as well as disease causing organisms such as E.coli O157:H7 Domain Bacteria has only one kingdom, Eubacteria. Species in this kingdom are assigned to more discrete taxa based on their cell structures, methods of cellular metabolism, and other factors. Eubacteria Bacteria Eukarya Archaea Common Ancestor Domain Archaea Domain Archaea is also contains only prokaryotes. These prokaryotes share characteristics with both bacteria and eukaryotes. They differ from bacteria by a difference in their rrna base sequence and in the structure of their plasma membrane. Slide 32 / 92 Domain Archaea contains organisms which live in places on Earth considered too volatile for other organisms such as very hot or salty environments. Eukarya Archaebacteria Bacteria Archaea Common Ancestor Domain Eukarya Domain Eukarya is made up of eukaryotes. They can be unicellular or multicellular. The cells all have a membrane bound nucleus and various organelles. This domain is broken into 4 kingdoms: - Protista - Fungi - Plantae - Animalia Fungi Eukarya Animalia Plantae Protista Slide 33 / 92 Bacteria Archaea Common Ancestor

12 Major Differences Between Domains Slide 34 / 92 Characteristic Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Unicellular Yes Yes Some species Membrane lipids Phospholipids, unbranched Different types, branched Phospholipids, unbranched Cell Wall Yes with peptidoglycan Yes without peptidoglycan Some species Nuclear Envelope No No Yes Membrane-bound organelles No No Yes 10 Which domain do Homo sapiens belong to? Slide 35 / 92 A B C Bacteria Eukarya Archaea 11What Domain has the most in common with LUCA? Slide 36 / 92 A B C Bacteria Eukarya Archaea

13 12 Which domain has 4 kingdoms? Slide 37 / 92 A B C Bacteria Eukarya Archaea Kingdom Protista Slide 38 / 92 Like all eukaryotes, protists contain organelles and have a true nucleus. Most are unicellular, but some (like algae) are multicellular. plasmodium Often they create colonies. slime mold Some are heterotrophs (getting energy from organic compounds) and some are phototrophs (getting energy from the sun). amoeba Slide 39 / 92 Kingdom Fungi Fungi are eukaryotic and nearly all fungi are multicellular. They have cell walls that contain chitin. Fungi are heterotrophs; they cannot make their own food as they lack chloroplasts. Species in this kingdom are assigned to phyla based on their sexual reproductive structures.

14 Kingdom Plantae Slide 40 / 92 Plants are multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes. Members of the Plantae kingdom are further grouped based on how they carry water: vascular and nonvascular. There are 3 non-vascular phyla and 9 vascular phyla. Kingdom Animalia Slide 41 / 92 Animals are eukaryotic, multicellular heterotrophs. There are 36 recognized animal phyla, of which 9 contain the vast majority of described, existing species. Animals are grouped into phyla based on the presence or absence of certain structures. 13Which kingdom(s) do Homo sapiens belong to? Slide 42 / 92 A B C D E Protists Plantae Fungi Animalia all of the above

15 14Which Kingdom(s) have multicellular species? Slide 43 / 92 A B C D E Protists Plantae Fungi Animalia all of the above 15Which Kingdom(s) are exclusively autotrophic? Slide 44 / 92 A B C D E Protists Plantae Fungi Animalia all of the above Last Universal Common Ancestor We're again bought back to the idea of LUCA and that all living things have a common starting point. Let's take another look at the phylogeny that we have drawn so far. Animalia Plantae Fungi Protista Slide 45 / 92 Eukarya Eubacteria Bacteria Archaea Archaebacteria Common Ancestor

16 Kingdom Plantae Slide 46 / 92 Return to Table of Contents Plant Phyla Slide 47 / 92 The plant kingdom is broken down into 12 phyla, based on the presence or absence of a vascular system, the presence/absence of seeds, and the presence/absence of flowers. 3 Non-Vascular Phyla - liverworts - mosses - hornworts 4 Vascular/Non-Seeded Phyla - whisk ferns - club mosses - horsetails - ferns 4 Vascular/Seeded Phyla - conifers - cycads - Ginko biloba - Gnetophyta 1 Vascular/Seeded/Flowering Phyla - all flowering plants Vascular Plants Slide 48 / 92 Vascular plants Non-vascular plants Aquatic plants The vascular plants contain specialized tissues, the xylem and the phloem for moving water and nutrients throughout the plant, much like the human circulatory system.

17 Vascular Tissues Slide 49 / 92 The xylem is mainly responsible for transporting water up from the roots. The phloem transports sugars (sap) from the leaves to parts of the plant that do not undergo photosynthesis such as the branches and roots. xylem in a stem Angiosperm Gymnosperm Seeded Plants In some vascular plants, fertilization results in the development of a seed. Seeds protect the plant embryo until conditions are right for development. Slide 50 / 92 Seeded plants Non-seeded plants Vascular plants Seeded, non-flowering plants are called gymnosperms. Flowering plants are called angiosperms. Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms Slide 51 / 92 Conifers Deciduous Trees

18 Angiosperms Slide 52 / 92 Angiosperms have dominated the land for over 100 million years and there are about 250,000 known species. Most of our foods come from a few hundred domesticated species of flowering plants. Roughly 70% of angiosperms are polyploid. Monocot Dicot The angiosperms are broken down into 2 classes, the monocots and the dicots. Angiosperm Gymnosperm Seeded Plants Monocots and Dicots Slide 53 / 92 The term monocot and dicot refer to the first leaves that appear on the embryo of the plant, the cotyledon. Monocot Dicot Monocot has one cotyledon Dicot has two cotyledons Slide 54 / 92

19 Examples of Dicots Slide 55 / 92 Fruit Trees Grape Vines Magnolia Tree Pumpkin Patch Monocot Seed Dicot Seed Slide 56 / 92 seed coat seed coat endosperm one cotyledon embryo endosperm two cotyledons embryo Leaf Veins Slide 57 / 92 Monocots have parallel leaf veins while dicots have branched leaf veins

20 Stem Vascular Bundles Slide 58 / 92 The vascular tissue which transports water and nutrients up the stem of the plant has different arrangements in monocots and dicots. Monocots have bundles in complex arrangements Dicots have vascular bundles in a ring 16A dicot has one cotyledon. Slide 59 / 92 True False Slide 60 / 92

21 18This is the stem of a dicot. Slide 61 / 92 True False Flower Petal Arrangements The floral petals on each plant differ in total number. Monocots have petals in multiples of three, while dicots have petals in multiples of four or five. Slide 62 / 92 Monocot Multiple of 3 Dicot Multiple of 4 or 5 Roots Slide 63 / 92 Monocots have a fibrous root system, while dicots typically have one taproot.

22 19Is this flower a monocot? Slide 64 / 92 Yes No 20This flower is a monocot. Slide 65 / 92 True False Slide 66 / 92

23 Continuing Classification Plants are further classified into families, orders, genus, and species based on additional adaptations and derived characteristics such as modified leaves, modified stems, and modified roots. modified stem Slide 67 / 92 modified leaf modified root Phylogeny Examples: Plantae Slide 68 / 92 Kingdom Animalia Slide 69 / 92 Return to Table of Contents

24 The Original Ancestral Animal Slide 70 / 92 The animal kingdom probably evolved during the Cambrian period, 540 million years ago. The earliest animal fossils are from the late Precambrian period, 600 million years ago. The Cambrian Explosion Slide 71 / 92 At the beginning of the Paleozoic era, multicellular animals underwent an 'explosion' in diversity known as the 'Cambrian explosion'. This artist's rendering, based on fossil evidence, of some of the bizarre life forms, now extinct, that emerged during this time. The Cambrian Explosion Slide 72 / 92 All animal body plans that exist today can be traced back with geologic and fossil data to ancestors of this time period. Over time natural selection, for one reason or another, favored some traits over others and today we are left with a small percentage of the body plans that existed in the Cambrian period.

25 Phyla of the Animal Kingdom The animal kingdoms can be broken down into 36 phyla based on body symmetry and body cavities. Slide 73 / 92 Some of these phyla include: - Sponges - Jellyfish - Flatworms - Round Worms - Mollusks - Segmented Worms - Arthropods - Echinoderms - Chordates Jellyfish Sponges Segmented Worms Arthropods Chordates Mollusks Round Worms Flatworms Echinoderms Animalia Symmetry Slide 74 / 92 Animal bodies can either have radial symmetry or bilateral symmetry. Radial Symmetry is a common feature of simple animals. Radially symmetrical animals have all body parts radiating out from the center of the body. Bilateral Symmetry is more commonly found in complex animals. Bilateral animals show a right and left side 22Which of the following animals is radially symmetrical? Slide 75 / 92 A B C D alligator flatworm jellyfish lobster

26 23A human has which type of symmetry? Slide 76 / 92 A B radial symmetry bilateral symmetry Slide 77 / 92 Body Cavities A body cavity is a fluid-filled space that lies between the digestive tract and the body. There are 3 types of body cavities among animals. Acoelomates, such as the flatworm, have no body cavity. Pseudocoelomates, such as the roundworm, have a partiallylined body cavity. Coelomates, such as the earthworm, have a fully-lined body cavity. Acoelomates Slide 78 / 92 Planarian Acoelomates have only a digestive cavity with no lining.

27 Pseudocoelomates Slide 79 / 92 Pseudocoelomates have a partially lined body cavity with loosely holds the animals organs in place. Coelomates Slide 80 / 92 Coelomates have a fully lined body cavity called a coelom which holds the animals organs in place. 24 Humans have which type of body plan? A symmetrical acoelomate B symmetrical coelomate C bilateral psuedocoelomate D bilateral coelomate Slide 81 / 92

28 Phylum: Chordata Slide 82 / 92 Humans belong to the phylum chordata. All chordates have a dorsal nerve cord and a post-anal tail at some time in their development. In humans, this dorsal nerve cord has evolved into the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). Phylogeny Examples: Chordata Slide 83 / 92 Invertebrates vs. Vertebrates Slide 84 / 92 The phylum chordata contains the subphylum vertebrata, animals with a backbone. Most animals on Earth today are invertebrates (without a vertebral column). Of the 36 phyla there are in all the kingdoms 35 do not have a backbone.

29 Vertebrata Classes Slide 85 / 92 The subphylum vertebrata contains 5 classes of extant fishes and 4 classes of extant tetrapods (animals with 4 limbs) The 4 classes of tetrapods are: - Amphibians - Reptiles - Birds - Mammals Fishes Birds Amphibians Reptiles Mammals Chordates 25 How many fish have trait A? Slide 86 / How many fish have trait C? Slide 87 / 92

30 27 What traits do primates and ray-finned fish have in common? Slide 88 / 92 A bony skeleton, four limbs C vertebrae, bony skeleton B amniotic egg, vertebrae D hair, four limbs 28 Which of the following sets of animals give birth via amniotic egg? Slide 89 / 92 A rabbits, amphibians, birds C sharks, amphibians, fish B birds, crocodiles, primates D amphibians, primates, rabbits Mammals Slide 90 / 92 Mammals are defined as endothermic (warm-blooded) animals which produce amniotic eggs, in which the fetus is surrounded by an amniotic membrane. Mammals are further classified into orders, families, genus and species based on derived characteristics. Humans belong to the order Primates, the family Hominidae, the genus Homo, and the species Homo sapiens.

31 Phylogeny Example: Mammals Slide 91 / 92 Phylogeny Example: Hominids Slide 92 / 92

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