Unit 4 Cellular Respiration 1

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1 Photosynthesis: An Overview A. Investigating Photosynthesis 1. Van Helmont s Experiment 2. Priestley s Experiment 3. Jan Ingenhousz 69 Van Helmont s Experiment In the 1600s, the Belgian physician Jan van Helmont devised an experiment to find out if plants grew by taking material out of the soil. determined the mass of a pot of dry soil and a small seedling He watered it regularly. At the end of five years, the seedling, which by then had grown into a small tree, had gained about 75 kg The mass of the soil, however, was almost unchanged. Conclusion? That most of the gain in mass had come from, because that was the only thing that he had added. (the carbon for carbohydrates comes from the CO 2 in the atmosphere) 70 Priestley s Experiment Priestley took a candle, placed a glass jar over it, and watched as the flame gradually died out. Something in the air, Priestley reasoned, was necessary to keep a candle flame burning. When that substance was used up, the candle went out. That substance was oxygen. Priestley then found that if he placed a live sprig of mint under the jar and allowed a few days to pass, the candle could be re-lighted and would remain lighted for a while. The mint plant had produced the substance required for burning. In other words, the mint released. 71 Unit 4 Cellular Respiration 1

2 Jan Ingenhousz s Experiment Dutch scientist Ingenhousz showed that the effect observed by Priestley occurred only when the plant was exposed to light. The results of both Priestley's and Ingenhousz's experiments showed that is necessary for plants to produce oxygen. 72 Photosynthesis: An Overview A. Investigating Photosynthesis 1. Van Helmont s Experiment 2. Priestley s Experiment 3. Jan Ingenhousz B. The Photosynthesis Equation C. Light and Pigments 73 What is the basic equation for photosynthesis? 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Water plus carbon dioxide plus light yield sugar and oxygen 74 Unit 4 Cellular Respiration 2

3 Photosynthesis: and Light Energy Chloroplast CO 2 + H 2 O Sugars + O 2 75 Figure 8-5 Chlorophyll Light Absorption Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll a V B G YO R 76 Section 8-3 A Look Into the Future It is 100 years in the future and you are a research scientist. An enormous volcanic eruption has recently sent huge quantities of dust and ash into the atmosphere. In your notes, make a list of how this event will affect each of the following: 1. photosynthesis 2. plant life 3. animal life Interest Grabber 4. human societies 78 Unit 4 Cellular Respiration 3

4 The Reactions of Photosynthesis A. Inside a Chloroplast 79 Structure of Chloroplast Inner membrane outer membrane Stroma Thylakoid Grana Unit 4 Cellular Respiration 4

5 82 Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview Chloroplast Light NADP + ADP + P CO 2 Chloroplast Light- Dependent Reactions ATP NADPH Calvin Cycle O 2 Sugars 83 Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 1 Click the image to play the video segment. Unit 4 Cellular Respiration 5

6 Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2 Click the image to play the video segment. The Reactions of Photosynthesis A. Inside a Chloroplast B. Electron Carriers NADP + +2e - + H + NADPH 86 NADPH carries high energy (ATP is a more stable molecule used for cellular processes) 87 Unit 4 Cellular Respiration 6

7 Concept Map of the rxns of photosynthesis Section 8-3 Photosynthesis includes use Lightdependent reactions take place in takes place in Calvin cycle uses to produce of to produce 88 The Reactions of Photosynthesis A. Inside a Chloroplast B. Electron Carriers C. Light-Dependent Reactions 89 Figure 8-10 Light-Dependent Reactions Photosystem II Hydrogen Ion Movement ATP synthase Chloroplast Inner Thylakoid Space Thylakoid Membrane Stroma Electron Transport Chain Photosystem I ATP Formation 90 Unit 4 Cellular Respiration 7

8 The Reactions of Photosynthesis A. Inside a Chloroplast B. Electron Carriers C. Light-Dependent Reactions D. The Cycle 91 CO 2 Enters the Cycle Cycle Energy Input ChloropIast 5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated Sugars and other compounds 6-Carbon Sugar Produced 92 ATP Formation Click the image to play the video segment. Unit 4 Cellular Respiration 8

9 Calvin Cycle Click the image to play the video segment. The Reactions of Photosynthesis A. Inside a Chloroplast B. Electron Carriers C. Light-Dependent Reactions D. The Calvin Cycle E. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis 95 Factors Affecting Photosynthesis: 96 Unit 4 Cellular Respiration 9

10 What are the effects of CO 2, light intensity and temperature on the rate of photosynthesis? Rate of Photosynthesis 10/21/2015 Factors Affecting Photosynthesis: 97 Graph 3 CO 2 concentration CO 2 concentration (ppm) Biology Unit 4 Cellular Respiration 10

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