8 Insect Respiratory System spiracles Cana lily skipper (a butterfly) larvae have an almost completely transparent exoskeleton, thereby allowing a good view of the tracheal system.
9 antenna Lubber Grasshopper Appendages wings 6 legs (3 on each side shown here) exoskeleton Image from: Shetlar, 2011
10 3 body segments Antennae 3 pairs of legs Eyes An Insect Defined often compound, sometimes simple, or both Exoskeleton Joints jointed legs, antenna (arthro-pod = joint foot) Wings Often in some life stage but not always
11 WHY define an insect Understanding the basis of what an I found this on my bed so it must be a bedbug! INSECT is, and is NOT will help you when beginning to ID. What book to look in?
12 Is this an insect?
13 TAPED SAMPLES TAPE can be your enemy Distorts and destroys a sample. Suggest they put samples in a ziplock, jar, tupperware, old RX bottle Rubbing alcohol as preservative if squishy
14 Is this an insect? OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
15 Antenna Leg? Closer look- Yes it is
16 Is this an insect? OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
17 Thorax with legs abdomen antenna Is this an insect?
18 Photo by: Colin & Sarah Northway, FLICKR creative commons with attribution Is this an insect?
19 AND Keep in mind that insects look differently throughout their lives because of their DEVELOPMENT
22 So WHY do we learn what an insect IS? To a homeowner A bug is just something you SQUISH.
23 So WHY do we learn what an To a Master Gardener insect IS? An INSECT must be well-defined We must ID them properly to distinguish: Insect Spider Centipede or Millipede Dust Bunny? ALL DIFFERENT! With different management Sometimes we need to tell homeowners that it is NOT a bug.
24 Where do Insects fall out in the scheme of things? Insect Classification
25 Taxonomy Kingdom Phylum Kind People Come Over For Great Sandwiches King Phillip Came Over For Great Spaghetti Class Order Family Genus Species Specific Epithet or SPECIES NAME italicized (Homo sapien) (Apis mellifera)
26 Taxonomy Kingdom - ANIMALIA Phylum - ARTHROPODA Class INSECTA (just one of many types of arthropods) Order OVER 30 ORDERS of Insects (distinguishes the beetles from the bees) Family different groups of BEES Genus Species Specific Epithet or SPECIES NAME italicized (Homo sapien) (Apis mellifera)
27 Characteristics of Phylum Arthropoda Segmented Bodies Regions: Insect: Head, Thorax, Abdomen Centipede / Millipedes: Head & Trunk Spider: Cephalothorax, Abdomen Paired appendages Chitinous exoskeleton Must be Molted Bilateral symmetry
28 But there are OTHER Classes Kingdom - Animalia Phylum ARTHROPODA ( jointed foot ) Spiders, Lobsters, Shrimp, Crabs, Centipedes, Millipedes, Insects = ALL arthropods CLASS Class Xiphosura horseshoe crabs Class Arachnida arachnids Class Crustacea crustaceans Class Diplopoda millipedes Class Chilopoda centipedes Class Symphyla garden centipedes Class Insecta insects
29 But there are OTHER Classes Kingdom - Animalia Phylum ARTHROPODA ( jointed foot ) Spiders, Lobsters, Shrimp, Crabs, Centipedes, Millipedes, Insects = ALL arthropods CLASS Class Xiphosura horseshoe crabs Class Arachnida arachnids Class Crustacea crustaceans Class Diplopoda millipedes Class Chilopoda centipedes Class Symphyla garden centipedes Class Insecta insects
30 Let s Dive In Class Xiphosura horseshoe crabs Class Arachnida arachnids Class Crustacea crustaceans Class Diplopoda millipedes Class Chilopoda centipedes Class Symphyla garden centipedes Class Insecta insects
31 Orders of Arachnids Scorpiones - scorpions Pseudoscorpiones - false scorpions Opiliones - daddy-long-legs or harvestmen Acari - mites & ticks Araneae - spiders Kind People Come Over For Great Sandwiches
32 Scorpion Pseudoscorpion Tick (a mite) Daddy-long-legs Wolf Spider Not to scale
33 CLASS: Arachnida ORDER: Scorpiones Immature common striped scorpion Centruroides vittatus Whitney Cranshaw, bugwood.org Scorpions range in size and color Clemson University USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series, bugwood.org PROBABLY won t deal too much with these guys Unless a pet escapes!
34 CLASS: Arachnida ORDER: PSEUDOSCORPIONES Phoretic travel- hitch a ride on a host to get around Over 200 species in N. America Over 3,300 worldwide May be confused with a tick High humidity leaf litter, soil, cracks No stinger Strangely, you MAY get questions on these! By: Anita Gould, Bugguide.net (CC BY-ND-NC By: Kyron Basu, Bugguide.net (CC BY-ND-NC 1.0)
35 Mite and Tick Body Regions CLASS: Arachnida ORDER: Acari OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION pedipalps & chelicerae cephalothorax abdomen
36 Trio of Important Ticks Adult Activity: Late March through July Transmits (Rocky Mt. spotted fever) Adult Habitat: Grassy areas along paths and roads Ornamentation American Dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis Ornamentation Activity: All life stages bite Active 12 months Blacklegged deer tick Ixodes scapularis No Ornamentation Habitat: Forest & shrubs Ornamentation Lone star tick Amblyomma americanum Activity: All life stages bite April August Transmits (Lyme disease) Photos courtesy the Tick Research Laboratory, Texas A&M University Slide G.R. Needham, The Ohio State University Transmits (Ehrlichiosis)
37 American Dog Tick American Dog Tick, female Questing for a host Male American Dog Tick Jim Occi, BugPics, Bugwood.org Photo: David Shetlar, 2011 ppt
38 American dog tick female laying egg mass ( eggs!). Slide from Shetlar, 2011
39 Lone Star Tick Adult female Fed Adult Female after 10 days of feeding Adult male Fed nymph Unfed nymph G.R. Needham, The Ohio State University Photo used with permission from Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases in Iowa, Iowa State University Extension
40 Fed nymph Un Adult male Deer Tick AKA Black-Legged tick Adult female Unfed nymph Note- no ornamentation or pattern on back Unfed Larva Partly fed female G.R. Needham, The Ohio State University Photo used with permission from Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases in Iowa, Iowa State University Extension Fully fed female
41 Clover mites CSIRO, wikimedia commons David Cappaert, bugwood.org Predatory mite J. Holopainen, Wikimedia commons
43 Class: Arachnida Only one body region ORDER: Opiliones No fangs, no venom glands cephalothorax Abdomen shows the segmentation Only 2 eyes, unlike true spiders Do not produce silk
45 Black widow with egg case Brown recluse (fiddleback)
46 Classes of Myriapods (many legged arthropods) (all have one pair of antennae, a head region, and trunk with many pairs of legs, use trachea) Diplopoda - millipedes Chilopoda - centipedes Symphyla - garden centipedes
47 Myriapods [one pair of antennae, head & trunk regions, trunk with many pairs of legs] Millipede (Diplopoda) Two pair of legs per visible segment, attached under body. Centipede (Chilopoda) Pair of fangs under head, one pair legs per visible segment - attached to side of body. Symphylan (Symphyla) [garden centipede] No fangs, no eyes, legs attached to side of body.
49 Sowbugs (CLASS: Crustacea, Order Isopoda), terrestrial crustaceans
50 Back again to Class INSECTA Three body regions head, thorax, abdomen Thorax with three pairs of legs; normally two pairs of wings in adult stage Head with one pair of antennae Respiration by trachea Terrestrial & fresh water inhabitants
51 Order Collembola (glue wedge) springtails Wingless (primitively) Chewing mouthparts Feed on plants, bacteria, & fungi Important as decomposers Alarming to homeowners on windowsills, sidewalks
52 collophore ***furcula
53 Order Thysanura (bristle tail) silverfish & firebrats Look like they have 3 tails 2 cerci 1 median filament Wingless (primitively) Most are covered with scales Chewing mouthparts Feed on organic matter, starchy materials
54 Kansas Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
55 This is NOT a silverfish. What is this? Joseph Berger, Bugwood.org
56 Order Dermaptera (skin wing) earwigs Cerci like forceps, pinchers Defense, prey capture, mating Elongate, flattened Two pairs of wings Forewings usually short, hard Hindwings membranous, folded Few species are wingless
57 Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org
58 Digging Deeper Let s take a closer look at the INSECT ORDERS ACTIVITY
59 ROTATE through each station FOR EACH I will ask: What kind of mouthparts? (Why? These create specific plant damage and are helpful in identifying insect pests on plants!) Piercing / Sucking? Chewing? Sponging? Complete or Incomplete Metamorphosis? Wings? How many? Something interesting about this group to help you remember.
60 Order Hemiptera (half wing) true bugs & bug-like insects Piercing Sucking Mouthparts Plant Feeders or Predators / Parasites Leathery and Membranous Wings cross in an X shape OR Membranous Wings held above abdomen in a TENT (inverted V shape)
75 Order Coleoptera (sheath wing) beetles Largest order in animal kingdom Chewing mouthparts Complete metamorphosis Forewings (elytra) are hardened, opaque, meet in the midline of back Hindwings membranous, folded under elytra Feed on plants, organic matter, stored products; or predatory
77 David Cappaert, bugwood.org OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
82 Whitney Cranshaw Colorado State University, bugwood.org
87 Order Hymenoptera (marriage wing or membrane wing) bees, wasps, sawflies, ants Wings: 4 membranous wings Hind pair smaller than front pair Pairs attached by row of small hooks Bees, wasps, & ants have second abdominal segment constricted & narrow; i.e. effect of wasp-waist Sawflies have broadly joined thorax & abdomen
99 Order Isoptera (equal wing) termites Social Reproductives (queens & kings) Four wings of equal size Wings twice the length of the body Wings lack cross-veins Workers & soldiers Lack wings Body white Distinguish from ants: Lack of elbowed antennae No constriction between abdomen & thorax
100 Swarming reproductive termites
101 Workers and a soldier
102 Order Neuroptera (nerve wing) lacewings & dobsonflies, antlions, owlflies Wings Membranous, 2 pairs Approximately equal size Many veins & cross-veins Chewing mouthparts, sometimes modified Complex metamorphosis Members of interest are predators
104 Flickr, Joka2000, Flickr, Zen Sutherland,
106 Order Lepidoptera (scale wing) moths & butterflies Shingle-like scales on wings 4 wings, often colorful Complete /Complex metamorphosis Mouthparts Chewing in larva Sucking (siphoning) or none in adults Proboscis in butterflies: coiled siphon Larvae (caterpillars) 2-5 prolegs on abdomen
109 Common Buckeye OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
112 Order Diptera (two wing) true flies Mouthparts: Sucking: modified piercing/ sucking, sponging, lapping, slashing in adult Modified chewing in larva One pair wings, on mesothorax Metathorax has 1 pair of small, knobbed appendages (halteres) Occasionally wingless
113 Janco Tanis, jancology.com, Bugwood.org OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
118 Order Orthoptera (straight wing) grasshoppers & crickets Two pairs wings Forewings leathery & narrow; protect Hindwings membranous, fan-folded Some are wingless (cave crickets) Most have hind legs enlarged for jumping Females have prominent ovipositor Produce songs by rubbing wing bases together or rubbing the wings on their legs
120 Other Insects You Will Run Into
121 Quiz- what s this! OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
122 Order Mantodea (soothsayer) mantids / praying mantid Large ( mm) Forelegs modified for grasping prey Predatory Chewing mouthparts Gradual metamorphosis
123 Quiz- What s this?
124 Order Blattodea cockroaches Flattened body Long slender antennae Wings thickened, leathery Wings reduced in some species Legs modified for running Chewing mouthparts Gradual metamorphosis Feed on organic matter, stored products, plants
125 Order Thysanoptera (fringe wing) thrips Small (most <4 mm), elongate Chewing mouthparts Small conical beak Rasping mouthparts Most with 4 wings Strap-like Fringed with long bristles Some species are wingless
127 Thrips Damage on gladiola Photo: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org
128 Art Cushman, USDA Systematics Entomology Laboratory, Bugwood OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
129 Western Flower Thrips Damage Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org
130 Order Siphonaptera (sucking wingless) fleas Body: small, hard, laterally compressed Wingless Mouthparts: Piercing/sucking for blood in adult Chewing in larva Larvae feed on organic matter
World of Insects Characteristics, Orders, and Collecting What You Should Know About Insects Taxonomy Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Class - Insecta Insects Are Arthropods Insects are the largest group
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