Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Outline. Random?? fertilization. Chapter 13

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1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Chapter 13 Outline Reduction Division Unique Features of Meiosis Prophase I Metaphase I Completing Meiosis Second Meiotic Division Sexual Reproduction Origin and Maintenance Evolutionary Consequences Random?? fertilization 1

2 Maternal homologue gametes fuse (fertilization) to produce a zygote meiosis - reduces the number of chromosomes to half that of somatic cells Adult body cells are diploid. Gamete cells are haploid. Stem cells? Presidential stem cells?? 2

3 Meiosis I Like mitosis, meiosis begins after replication of DNA. humans, 46 chromosomes would be present in duplicated state (92 sister chromatids) Like mitosis, four stages prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. BUT prophase I very different from prophase of mitosis. chromosomes condense -each homologous set paired together (tetrad) Meiosis Synapsis Homologues pair along their length. Homologous recombination Genetic exchange (crossing over) occurs between homologous chromosomes. Reduction division Meiosis involves two successive divisions, with no replication of genetic material between them. Meiosis *DNA replication *2 cell divisions *4 daughter cells 3

4 Unique Features of Meiosis Fig Prophase I: Homologous Chromosome Pairing Close proximity favors crossing over (recombination). Presence of a chiasma indicates crossing over has occurred. tetrad -each homologous set paired together 4

5 centromere is on chromosome kinetochore is on centromere chiasmata holds homologous pair together Spindle microtubules attach to kinetochore proteins on centromere. Joined pairs line up on metaphase plate orientation of each pair is random Meiosis I: Separation of Homologues Metaphase I Tetrads line up one pair bears no relationship to any other pair. Anaphase I Homologous pairs separate and move to opposite poles Telophase I and cytokinesis creates two new cells haploid. MEIOSIS I 5

6 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Meiosis I Metaphase I Chiasmata Chiasmata hold homologues together. The kinetochores of sister chromatids fuse and function as one. Microtubules can attach to only one side of each centromere. Anaphase I Microtubules pull the homologous chromosomes apart, but sister chromatids are held together. Meiosis II: Separation of Sister Chromatids Prophase II 23 identifiable separate chromosomes (each still with two sister chromatids). Metaphase II Chromosomes line up at metaphase plate, this time with one sister chromatid on either side. Anaphase II Sister chromatids separate Telophase II and cytokinesis create two new cells Total of four haploid cells 6

7 Second Meiotic Division Meiosis II resembles normal mitotic division. prophase II - nuclear envelope breaks down and second meiotic division begins metaphase II - spindle fibers bind to both sides of centromere anaphase II - spindle fibers contract and sister chromatids move to opposite poles telophase II - nuclear envelope re-forms Final result - four haploid cells MITOSIS MEIOSIS MITOSIS MEIOSIS Diploid 1 Diploid Paternal homologue gamete Parent cell somatic precursor cell Homologous 2n Parent cell 2n (2n) chromosomes duplication (2n) Maternal homologue2 MEIOSIS I Chromosome replication 2n Chromosome 2n replication Sister chromatids Prophase Replicated homologue Homologous chromosomes do not pair. 2n 3 Prophase I 2n Homologous chromosomes pair; synapsis and crossing over occur. Metaphase Anaphase Telophase diploid Two daughter cells (each 2n) 4 Individual 2n 2n homologues align on division Metaphase I metaphase haploid plate. 5 2n 2n 1n 1n Sister chromatids separate, cytokinesis 6 occurs, and two cells result, division each Anaphase I containing the Telophase I original number 7 of homologues. 1n 1n 1n 1n Paired homologous chromosomes align on metaphase plate. Homologous chromosomes separate; sister chromatids remain together. Mitosis Compared to Meiosis Meiosis reduces chromosome number by duplication of chromosomes followed by 2 divisions instead of 1. Mitosis = identical DNA is duplicated identical sets (sister chromatids) are divided into two cells. Result One diploid cell (2n) becomes two diploid cells (2n) Meiosis = reductional DNA is duplicated Each homologue must be separated to reduce the total number of chromosomes from 2n to n. sister chromatids are separated Two separate divisions meiosis I and II. Result One diploid cell (2n) becomes four haploid cells (n). 7

8 Meiosis and Diversity combine desirable traits increase genetic diversity ALSO Recombination -shuffles genes Independent assortment ( no two gametes are ever identical). Prophase I: crossing over (recombination). tetrad Chiasmata (x region crossed over chromatids) Independent Assortment For n chromosomes (haploid), possible combinations = 2 n. humans 2 23 = 8.4 million 8

9 Meiosis and Sex Outcome Humans 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes; females (), males (Y) Haploid cell after meiosis - either or Y in males Sex of offspring determined by the sperm MOTHER FATHER Y meiosis l Y meiosis ll Y Y Y fertilization syngamy Y DAUGHTER SON Why Sex? Asexual reproduction - individual inherits all its chromosomes from a single parent parthenogenesis - development of an adult from an unfertilized egg Sexual reproduction - produces genetic variability. Segregation of chromosomes tends to disrupt advantageous combinations. Only some progeny maintain advantages. 9

10 The Y Chromosome recombination occurs infrequently with. Y chromosome from father is unchanged hereditary marker (Thomas Jefferson s descendants through Sally Hemings). also migration across continents Gamete Formation in Humans Four haploid spermatids mature into sperm with flagella tails, concentrated mitochondria, and a haploid nucleus (250 million sperm/day). Oocyte division is unequal one large cell (200,000 times bigger than the sperm) w/enough materials to drive and feed dividing embryonic cells (one secondary oocyte) oocytes stay in meiosis 1 for years! 10

11 Factors that increase genetic variation independent assortment of chromosomes crossing over random fertilization Independent Assortment Evolutionary Consequences of Sex process is revolutionary and conservative. pace of evolutionary change is accelerated by genetic recombination evolutionary change not always favored by selection may act to preserve existing gene combinations 11

12 Independent Assortment Terms to Know haploid (n) vs diploid (2n) karyotype homologous chromosomes autosomes syngamy (union of gametes) gametes tetrads (4 chromatids, 2 homologous pairs) chiasmata (x region crossed over chromatids) Fig aa 12

13 Fig ba Fig ca Fig da 13

14 Fig ea Fig fa Fig ga 14

15 Fig ga 15

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