Chapter 15 Open Note Quiz Concepts 2 nd Period

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1 Chapter 15 Open Note Quiz Concepts 2 nd Period 1.) Please describe the difference between a homologous structure and an analogous structure. Homologous Structure = Same bone structure, different function in species who are related due to having a common ancestor Analogous Structure = Different bone structure, same function in species who are NOT related 2.) Please describe the difference between convergent evolution and divergent evolution. Convergent Evolution = Species that came from different ancestors but have evolved structures that serve the same function due to experiencing the same types of environmental pressure Divergent Evolution = Species that came from one common ancestor but have since branched off to become several different species acclimated to different types of environments 3.) If an organism is said to have good fitness, what do this imply about the organism? The organism is able to SURVIVE and REPRODUCE in order to leave behind a lot of offspring with favorable genes (adaptations) 4.) What is one example of a vestigial structure? Human tailbone; whale hind leg bones 5.) What is the term used to describe the occurrence of two or more species influencing each other s evolution? 6.) How does artificial selection differ from natural selection? Artificial selection is human-based evolution, in which humans select the types of traits that are favorable. In natural selection, it is the environment that selects the traits that are favorable. 7.) The wings of a bat and the wings of a bird would be considered homologous/analogous (choose one) structures? Analogous Structures

2 4 th Period 1.) The corresponding changes of two or more species that are closely associated with each other, such as a plant and an animal that pollinates it, are called 2.) In an evolutionary sense, an individual organism has good fitness if It is able to SURVIVE and REPRODUCE in order to pass favorable traits down through its offspring 3.) According to Darwin s theory of natural selection, organisms that have more favorable traits tend to leave more Offspring 4.) What are four big categories that provide evidence for evolution? Fossil Record, Anatomical Record, Comparative Embryology, Molecular Record 5.) are favorable genetic variations that increase an organism s chance for survival. Adaptations 6.) A bat s wing and a human s forearm are examples of homologous/analogous (choose one) structures. Homologous 7.) According to Darwin, the mechanism for evolution is.

3 6 th Period 1.) The process by which organisms with traits well suited to an environment survive and reproduce more successfully than organisms less suited for that environment is called. 2.) structures are similar because they originated in a common ancestor. Homologous 3.) While the shark and dolphin are similar in appearance, dolphins evolved from ancestors that were very different from sharks. The current similarity between sharks and dolphins is an example of convergent/divergent (choose one) evolution. Convergent 4.) A biologist analyzes the DNA sequences in three different primates. The biologist finds that primates A and B have nearly identical DNA sequences. The DNA sequences in primate C are significantly different from those of primate A. From this information, what might the biologist conclude about the relationships of these groups? Primates A and B are more closely related so probably share a more recent common ancestor, while Primate A and Primate C are not closely related so they likely do not have a shared common ancestor. 5.) structures are those in an organism that appear to no longer serve a function. Vestigial 6.) Evolution is the in over time. Change; species 7.) is known as human evolution, because humans select for desirable traits when breeding organisms. Artificial Selection

4 1 st Period 1.) Provide the definition of a vestigial structure AND one example of a vestigial structure. A vestigial structure is one that used to have a function in an organism, but no longer serves a function. Examples include the human tailbone or a whale s hind leg bones. 2.) The corresponding changes of two or more species that are closely associated with each other, such as bacteria s increasing resistance to human antibiotics, is known as. 3.) structures are those that look similar but have different functions, as organisms with these structures do NOT have a common ancestor. Analogous 4.) Please describe the difference between convergent evolution and divergent evolution. Convergent Evolution = Species that came from different ancestors but have evolved structures that serve the same function due to experiencing the same types of environmental pressure Divergent Evolution = Species that came from one common ancestor but have since branched off to become several different species acclimated to different types of environments 5.) A bat s wing and a butterfly s wings would be examples of convergent/divergent (choose one) evolution. Convergent 6.) A cat s forearm and a human s forearm would be examples of convergent/divergent (choose one) evolution. Divergent 7.) Evolution is the in over time. Change; species

5 3 rd Period 1.) Evolution is the change in over. Change; species 2.) If an organism is said to have good fitness, what do this imply about the organism? The organism is able to SURVIVE and REPRODUCE in order to leave behind a lot of offspring with favorable genes (adaptations) 3.) Please describe the difference between a homologous structure and an analogous structure. Homologous Structure = Same bone structure, different function in species who are related due to having a common ancestor Analogous Structure = Different bone structure, same function in species who are NOT related 4.) What are the four big categories that provide evidence for evolution? Fossil Record; Anatomical Record; Comparative Embryology; Molecular Record 5.) The process by which organisms with traits well suited to an environment survive and reproduce more successfully than organisms less suited for that environment is called. 6.) While the shark and dolphin are similar in appearance, dolphins evolved from ancestors that were very different from sharks. The current similarity between sharks and dolphins is an example of convergent/divergent (choose one) evolution. Convergent 7.) Provide the definition of a vestigial structure AND one example of a vestigial structure. A vestigial structure is one that used to have a function in an organism, but no longer serves a function. Examples include the human tailbone or a whale s hind leg bones.

6 7 th Period 1.) The corresponding changes of two or more species that are closely associated with each other, such as a plant and an animal that pollinates it, are called. 2.) The process by which organisms with traits well suited to an environment survive and reproduce more successfully than organisms less suited for that environment is called 3.) A biologist analyzes the DNA sequences in three different primates. The biologist finds that primates A and B have nearly identical DNA sequences. The DNA sequences in primate C are significantly different from those of primate A. From this information, what might the biologist conclude about the relationships of these groups? Primates A and B are more closely related so probably share a more recent common ancestor, while Primate A and Primate C are not closely related so they likely do not have a shared common ancestor. 4.) structures are those that look similar but have different functions, as organisms with these structures do NOT have a common ancestor. Analogous 5.) are favorable genetic variations that increase an organism s chance for survival. Adaptations 6.) Please list any two of the four big categories of evidence for evolution. Fossil Record; Anatomical Record; Comparative Embryology; Molecular Record 7.) If an organism is said to have good fitness, what do this imply about the organism? The organism is able to SURVIVE and REPRODUCE in order to leave behind a lot of offspring with favorable genes (adaptations)

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