Intro to Invertebrate STUDENT NOTES Date: 1. Taxonomy : the science of classifying/grouping organisms

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1 Intro to Invertebrate STUDENT NOTES Date: 1 Warm up What does it mean to be an invertebrate? Taxonomy : the science of classifying/grouping organisms Who is the father of our modern day classification system? Carolus Linnaeus Divided organisms into seven taxa Classification The most specific classification is species. Broad kingdom (we have recently added domains as the most broad taxa) What is our modern day classification system based on? Analysis of DNA, comparing embryos, fossil record, and comparative anatomy Classifications change based on new information or theories. The taxa in our modern classification system are (from broad to most specific) Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species Scientists use _binomial nomenclature based on Latin and is written in italics. What is included in the scientific name? Genus and species Prokaryotes : very simple, small cells with no nucleus, DNA is in a circular ring, no membrane bound organelles. Biology Review What is an example of a single celled organism? bacteria Eukaryotes : Complex, large cells with nuclei with DNA, membrane bound organelles that make up single and multicellular organisms. What are examples of eukaryotes? protists, fungi, plants, and animals Two types of eukaryotic cells are Animal and Plant Three domains 6 Kingdoms and 3 Domains Archae : extreme prokaryotes/bacteria (found around hydrothermal vents in the ocean) Bacteria : all other prokaryotes (bacteria) Eukarya : eukaryotic organisms Six Kingdoms Eubacteria Protista Animalia Archaebacteria Fungi Plantae

2 Multi -cellular Eukaryotic cells. What do they lack (not have)? cell wall Can they produce their own food? _NO_ All animals can actively move. What is the one exception? sponges What are animals? To study the millions of animals on land and water, biologists classify organisms into groups and subgroups. What is this classification based on? Similar anatomy (body parts) and physiology (the working of those parts) Using the classification system, we can study the characteristics of one kind of organism or compare the common characteristics of several groups. Animals are often divided into two groups: Vertebrate : all animals with backbone - Actually a subphylum of Chordata Invertebrate : usually soft-bodies without _internal skeleton_ most have hard, protective covering - Does this group create a formal scientific group? NO - Largest of the two groups: contains 90% of all animals - Include animals from microscopic worms to the giant squid. - How many phyla is included in this group? 33+ Invertebrates Animal Symmetry Major phyla in order of increasing complexity 1. Porifera : sponges 2. Cnidaria : jellyfish, corals, anemones 3. Platyhelminthes: _flat worms 4. Nemertea : ribbon worms 5. Nematoda : round worms 6. Mollusca : octopus, squid, clams 7. Annelida: segmented worms 8. Arthropods: crabs, horseshoe crabs 9. Echinodermata : sea stars, urchins Animals are often grouped and classified according to the geometric symmetry of their bodies. Asymmetry: what is it? _no symmetry at ALL! Bilateral Symmetry: what is it? body can be divided in half by a single plane (mirror image) Radial Symmetry: what is it? body parts are arranged around a central axis. (slit like a pizza into identical parts)

3 Porifera: Sponges STUDENT NOTES Date: 2 Warm up How do sponges get their food? How do they compare to sponges used for home use? Phylum: Porifera Hole Bearing What organisms are in this classification? Sponges The most primitive animals (no tissue/organs) Eukaryotic, multicellular Do sponges have symmetry? _NO Size can range from 1 cm and 2 meters in diameter Sessile and benthic What is essential for sponges to feed and reproduce? water currents Sponges can change size/shape depending on habitat What are the life spans of sponges? up to 200 years or longer 10,000 species known. Come in a variety of colors and an amazing array of shapes What determines shape? sediment What are the common colors for sponges? red, yellow, green, orange and purple Sponges are widely distributed. Almost all are marine. Exception is the family Spongillidae in which they live in freshwater. Found at all latitudes beneath the world s oceans, and from the intertidal to the deep-sea Sponges do not have symmetry. They have 3 basic shapes: Morphology Branching : Ex Finger Sponge Vase-like : Ex Basket Sponge Encrusted : (similar to carpet or spilled paint) Ex Pecten or Boring Sponge Generalized Anatomy What is the body of a sponge built around? system of water canals Why is water important for sponges? source of nutrients and oxygen, carries away wastes Water is like the blood of the human body, circulating food and nutrients throughout the sponge

4 Three layers: Ectoderm, Mesohyl, Endoderm Water Movement Structures Ostia : water comes in trough many tiny pores bringing food and oxygen Generalized Anatomy of a Sponge Oscula : water and waste exits out large openings. This is through diffusion. Feeding Structures Choanocytes : collar cells that make up feeding chambers and use flagella to create currents Amoebocytes: transport food - Also transport sperm and eggs for sexual reproduction and creates spicules Defense Structures Spicules : skeleton hard splinter-like - What are they made of? Calcium carbonate or silica - Prevent internal chambers and canals from collapsing - What else are they used for? defense Spongin: flexible protein - Sold sponges have been treated to remove spicules to make them softer Sponge Reproducti Sexually: egg and sperm are released into the water and they combine. Sponges are hermaphrodites. What does this mean? produce both sperm and egg cells Asexually: budding, regeneration on Depends on type of sponge al Role of Sponges Lots of animals live in sponges. What are a few? shrimp, brittle stars, worms, etc. Seastars, sea urchins, and sea turtles are able to eat sponges despite spicules being like needles. Symbiotic Relationships Sponges house bacteria that provide food for the sponge while it gains nutrients and a house. Cyanobacteria is a photosynthesizer, which shares food produced with the sponge. Sponges and crabs: the sponge grows on the crab becoming motile. What is the advantage for the crab? camouflage Home use: bathing, cleaning, home improvements, other Medical research: produces toxins and antimitotic compound (cancer) Are regenerative. What does this mean? if pulled apart, pieces in contact with each other will grow back together. If not, will form new sponges

5 Cnidarians STUDENT NOTES Date: 3 Wa rm up Are all jellyfish dangerous? What should you do if one stings you? Phylum: Cnidaria Body Structure Eukaryotic, multicellular, tissue but like sponges lacks organs Do Cnidarians have symmetry? _YES Radially symmetrical : extend from a central axis What does a radial structure allow them to do? sting and capture organisms in any direction Nettle What organisms are in this classification? corals, sea anemones, jellyfish, hydra Size range: microscopic to 20 m (60 feet!) Mixture of benthic and pelagic. Some are sessile, others are free-swimming Contain 9,000 species Found all over the world and all depths. Where are they mainly found? shallow tropical water Oral: end with the mouth Aboral: opposite end not containing the mouth Polyp : top has tentacles, with a hollow cylinder that open and closes at the top where mouth is located. Sessile: so can only eat whatever comes in contact with mouth Usually reproduce asexually Examples: corals, hydra, and sea anemones Medusa : body shaped like an umbrella, with tentacles hanging and mouth on the bottom. What are they specialized for? swimming 95% water Examples: jellyfish, siphonophores, box jellies - Classified as plankton since cannot control movement against currents 2 Forms

6 Carnivorous. What do they eat? crustaceans, fish, worms, and diatoms Food Capture and Defense Catch their food- they are not filter feeders Unique long stinging cells in tentacles called: cnidocytes Long harpoon like tubes called: _nematocyst - Microscopic needles in cells - What are they used for? feeding and defense How does a nematocyst work? Each cnidocyte cell contains a nematocyst with a coiled thread under pressure and wrapped around a stinging barb. The outward facing side of the cnidocyte has a _hair-like trigger called a cnidocil. When the trigger is activated (usually on contact with a skin protein), the flap covering the nematocyst flies open and the thread uncoils emerging the barb. The barb is designed to stick into the prey and inject poisonous liquid. When the tentacles move the prey to its mouth, the nematocysts barbs recoil into the cnidocyte. Potency of venom varies Which two jellyfish are extremely dangerous? Portuguese Man of War and Sea Wasp Instead of urine, what should you do if someone is stung? vinegar will inactivate undischarged nematocysts Reproduction Ecological Role How do Cnidarians reproduce? Sexual Reproduction : with production of eggs and sperm released into water and fertilization occurs. Asexual Reproduction : without egg and sperm What are the two examples? budding and regeneration Some have alternation of generations (passes through two different forms during their life cycle) Some organisms may exhibit both forms at different parts of their life cycle and others stay in one for What do they produce? neurotoxins Coral is used for jewelry, decorations Coral reefs provide us with hotspots of biodiversity, habitats for many animals and can protect the shoreline Harbor many symbiotic relationships Zooxanthellae in coral and upside down jellyfish, anemone and clownfish

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